Osha3558 vietnamese

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  • C Quan Bo V Sc Khe v An Ton Lao ng

    B Lao ng Hoa K

    Sng khe mnh v an ton khi lm ngh Nail

    Hng dn cho nhn vin tim Nail

    OSHA 3558-08 2012 VIETNAMESE

  • Ti liu ny c chuyn th t ti liu ting Anh Stay Healthy and Safe While Giving Manicures and Pedicures: A Guide for Nail Salon Workers, c son tho bi Chng trnh Y t Lao ng Ngh nghip (LOHP) ca trng i hc California Berkeley, v t chc California Healthy Nail Salon Collaborative, in n bi chng trnh Susan Harwood Grant, da vo ngun ti tr s SH20864SH0 ca C Quan Bo V Sc Khe v An Ton Lao ng, thuc B Lao ng Hoa K.

    nh chp v nh trch t video c cung cp bi the Asian Law Caucus v D n Street Level Health, y ban Y t Cng cng Boston, v Chng trnh X l Cht thi Nguy him ca Qun King. Hnh v minh ha c cung cp bi Mary Ann Zapalac.

  • Sng khe mnh v an ton khi lm ngh Nail Hng dn cho nhn vin tim Nail

    B Lao ng Hoa KC Quan Bo V Sc Khe v An Ton Lao ng

    OSHA 3558-08 2012

    Qua ti liu hng dn ny, bn s bit c nhng nguy him c th c trong cc tim Nail v nhng cch lm vic tt nn p dng trong cc tim Nail t bo v mnh trc cc mi nguy ha hc, au nhc bp tht, v cc bnh tt. Tp sch nh ny cng gii thch nhng quyn li ca bn khi lm ngh Nail. Mun bit thm thng tin, xin vo trang mng Health Hazards in Nail Salons ca OSHA ti www.osha.gov.

    B Lao ng Hoa KHilda L. Solis, B Trng

  • Cc Nguy C V Ha Cht .................................... 3Ha cht c hi trong cc sn phm dng trong tim Nail ........ 3Tm thng tin u v cc ha cht trong cc sn phm dng trong tim Nail ........................................................................ 4 Nhn sn phm ............................................................................. 5 T thng tin v s an ton ca cht liu (thng c gi l MSDS) ...................................................... 5Nhng bc cc bn c th thc hin bo v sc khe ........... 6 Chn cc sn phm an ton hn ................................................... 6 Thng gi trong tim v cho khng kh trong lnh vo tim ........ 6 p dng nhng cch lm vic an ton trnh b phi nhim thng xuyn v bt ng .......................................... 7 Khng cho sn phm chm vo da v mt .................................... 8 Bo v c quan h hp ................................................................. 8

    Phng chng au nhc ......................................... 10Nhng bc cc bn c th thc hin gim ri ro ny .......... 10Cc ng tc tp th dc cng dui c th cc bn c th lm gim au nhc ............................................................. 11

    Nguy c sinh hc ................................................. 12Nhng bc cc bn c th thc hin trnh b phi nhim v bo v sc khe .............................................................. 12

    Quyn li ca bn khi lm Nail ............................ 13u l s khc bit gia mt nhn vin v mt ngi lm vic theo hp ng, da trn b lut Bo V An Ton v Sc Khe Ngh Nghip? ....................................................................... 13Ti sao s khc bit ny quan trng? .......................................... 14Quyn li ca ti l g vi t cch l mt nhn vin? .................. 14Lin lc vi OSHA ......................................................................... 15

    Mun bit thm thng tin ..................................... 16Ngun thng tin v phi nhim ha cht trong cc tim Nail ... 16Ngun thng tin v phng chng au nhc bp tht (Nguy c ergonomic) ...................................................................... 18Ngun thng tin v cch phng chng vic tip xc vi nguy c sinh hc .............................................................................. 18Ngun gip nhn vin ca OSHA ........................................... 18Chng trnh nh gi Nguy C Sc khe ca Vin NIOSH ... 19

    Ni dung

  • 3

    Cc Nguy C V Ha Cht Sn phm c dng trong cc tim Nail c th c cc ha cht gy tn hi cho sc khe ca bn.

    Ha cht c th i vo c th ca bn nu bn:

    Ht vo phi hi nc, bi, hay hi sng ca sn phm; sn phm dnh vo da hoc mt, hoc; Nut sn phm khi n dnh vo thc n v nc ung khng c che y, hoc thuc l.

    Ha cht nh hng tng c th khc nhau. Ha cht nh hng n bn nh th no cn ty thuc vo vic bn tip xc vi n nhiu hay t. Bn c th b bnh ngay lp tc, hoc b bnh sau mt thi gian. Phi nhim c th dn, c bit l khi s dng nhiu sn phm cng mt lc, khi cc sn phm ny c s dng ngy ny qua ngy khc, hoc khi tim khng c thng gi y . Nu bn s dng ha cht sut ngy, hng ngy, bn c nhiu ri ro b bnh hn nhng ngi ch thnh thong mi s dng cng cc loi ha cht . Hy thc hnh cc bc trong tp ti liu hng dn ny gip bn bo v sc khe ca chnh mnh.

    Ha cht c hi trong cc sn phm dng trong tim Nail Cc sn phm dng cho ngh Nail, chng hn nh cc cht nh bng, cht lm chc mng, cht ty ra mng, v cht lng lm mng nhn to, c th cha nhiu ha cht. Mt s cc ha cht ny c hi nhiu hn nhng ha cht khc. Tri qua thi gian s dng hoc tip xc vi nng cao v lp i lp li, ha cht c th gy tn hi cho c th hoc gy ra phn ng d ng. Mi ngi c nhng phn ng khc nhau, khng phi tt c nhng ngi ht phi cc ha cht ny hoc b chng dnh vo da u b nhng tc ng ny ngay lp tc hoc trong tng lai.

    Sau y l mt s ha cht c hi, chng c th nm trong cc loi sn phm no, v chng c th nh hng n c th ca bn nh th no:

    Acetone (thuc ty sn mng tay): gy au u, chng mt; v gy kh chu cho mt, da, v c hng.

    Acetonitrile (cht ty keo dn mng tay): gy kh chu cho mi v hng; kh th; bun nn; i ma; suy yu v kit sc.

    Butyl acetate (sn mng tay, ty sn mng tay): gy au u v kh chu cho mt, da, mi, ming, v c hng.

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) (sn mng tay): gy bun nn v kh chu cho mt, da, mi, ming, v c hng. Tip xc lu ngy vi nng cao c th gy ra nhiu tc ng nghim trng khc.

    Li khuyn:Hy ni r cho bc s hoc chuyn vin chm sc sc khe cho cc bn bit loi cng vic cc bn ang lm v cc ha cht m cc bn s dng. Hy cho h bit nu cc bn ang mang thai hoc d nh c thai.

  • 4

    Ethyl acetate (sn mng tay, ty sn mng tay, keo dn mng tay): gy kh chu cho mt, d dy, da, mi, ming v c hng; nng cao c th gy ra ngt xu.

    Ethyl methacrylate (EMA) (cht lng lm mng tay nhn to): gy bnh hen suyn; gy kh chu cho mt, da, mi, v ming; u c kh tp trung. Tip xc trong khi mang thai c th nh hng n a tr.

    Formaldehyde (sn mng tay, lm cng mng tay): gy kh th, k c ho, ln cn ging nh b hen suyn, v th kh kh; phn ng d ng; gy kh chu cho mt, da, v c hng. Formaldehyde c th gy ung th.

    Isopropyl acetate (sn mng tay, ty sn mng tay): gy bun ng, v gy kh chu mt, mi v c hng.

    Methacrylic acid (sn lt mng tay): gy bng da v kh chu mt, da, mi, ming, v c hng. nng cao, ha cht ny c th gy kh th.

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) (sn phm lm mng tay nhn to, mc d b cm s dng trong nhiu tiu bang): gy bnh hen suyn, gy kh chu mt, da, mi, v ming; u c kh tp trung; mi khng phn bit c mi.

    Hp cht amoni (cht kh trng): gy kh chu da v mi v c th gy ra bnh hen suyn.

    Toluene (sn mng tay, keo dn mng tay): lm da kh hoc nt, nhc u, chng mt v t t; gy kh chu mt, mi, hng, v phi; lm h gan v thn; v gy nguy hi cho thai nhi trong thi k thai nghn.

    Bo cho ch nhn v bc s ca bn bit v bt k vn sc khe no m bn ngh l do cc sn phm bn s dng ti ni lm vic gy ra. Ch nhn phi c hnh ng k tip khi c cng nhn bo co cc vn lien quan n sc khe.

    Tm thng tin u v cc ha cht trong cc sn phm c dng trong tim NailBn c th nhn c thng tin v sn phm trn bao b, hoc trong cc ti liu in n i km vi cc sn phm, v d nh t thng tin v s an ton ca cht liu.

    Nhn sn phm t nht th nhng sn phm no c s dng hnh ngh trong

    cc tim Nail c cha cc ha cht nguy him cng phi cung cp cc thng tin sau y:

    Tn v a ch ca nh sn xut hoc nh phn phi sn phm; Thng tin gii thch v loi v cch s dng sn phm, v d tn

    sn phm, m t sn phm, hoc minh ha;

  • 5

    Thng tin v sn phm, v d hng dn cch s dng an ton nu sn phm c th khng an ton nu s dng khng ng cch; v

    Tt c cc li cnh bo v yu cu thn trng cn thit. T thng tin v s an ton ca cht liu (thng c gi l MSDS)OSHA yu cu cc nh sn xut sn phm cung cp cho cc ch tim Nail nhng t thng tin v s an ton ca cht liu (MSDS)1 cho cc sn phm h mua c cha ha cht c hi. Ngi ch phi c sn nhng t MSDS cho bn xem. Ngi ch cng phi gii thch cc bn hiu c mi nguy tim n ca cc ha cht v lm th no s dng sn phm mt cch an ton. Ni chung, mt t MSDS phi c cc thng tin sau y: Cc thnh phn nguy hi trong sn phm; Bn c th tip xc vi cc thnh phn ny nh th no; Nhng ri ro i vi sc khe v s an ton m bn phi i mt

    khi s dng sn phm; Cc bc s dng v lu tr sn phm mt cch an ton, bao

    gm nhng vic phi lm trong trng hp khn cp.

    Gn y OSHA cp nht cc quy nh v yu cu trn t d liu an ton. T thng tin v s an ton ca cht liu (MSDS) by gi c gi l T d liu an ton (SDS). Ni chung, t SDS s lit k cc thng tin tng t nh t MSDS, nhng mi thng tin s c trnh by theo mt dng chung cho tt c cc sn phm. iu ny c th gip bn so snh s khc bit v s nguy him gia cc sn phm.

    Xin nh rng cc t MSDS khng th cha tt c nhng thng tin cn thit gip bo v bn. V d, nh sn xut c th ni bn nn eo gng tay chng thm thu nhng khng xc nh no.

    Nhng bc cc bn c th thc hin bo v sc khe

    Chn cc sn phm an ton hn Bt c khi no c th c, hy s dng cc sn phm c t ha

    cht c hi nht.o 3-khng: Ngy nay mt s sn phm t cho l c sn xut

    m khng c b ba c hi (toluene, formaldehyde v dibutyl phthalate). Nhng sn phm ny c gi l sn phm 3-khng.2

    1 C ghi trong ti liu v tiu chun thng tin nguy him ca OSHA, ni mc 29 CFR 1910.1200 2 Ngy 10 thng 4 nm 2012, C quan Gim st cc Cht c hi ca tiu bang California (DTSC) loan bo tm thy mt s thuc nh bng mng tay v sn phm chm sc mng tay c th gy nguy him cho th Nail v cng chng, mc d c qung co l khng c hi. Trong thng 5 nm 2011, DTSC th nghim 25 sn phm lm mng tay do cc nh phn phi California bn

  • 6

    o Khng axt: Mt s sn lt t cho l c sn xut m khng c ha cht nh axt methacrylic. Nhng sn phm ny c dn nhn acid free (khng axt).

    Hy lun lun c nhn sn phm v cc t MSDS v lm theo hng dn ca nh sn xut khi s dng tt c cc sn phm lm Nail, k c nhng sn phm c dn nhn ni l free (khng c) cc ha cht c hi.

    Thng gi trong tim v cho khng kh trong lnh vo timThng gi l cch tt nht gim mc ha cht trong tim. Cc