[IxD] Week 09. The Process of Interaction Design

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Lecture 9 The Process of Interaction Design Interaction Design / IID 2016 Spring Class hours : Tuesday 2 pm 6 pm Lecture room : International Campus Veritas Hall B203 3rd May Final Project Concept Statement Title Description of what the project will be about The goal of the project Who are the users of final outcomes Describe the use context Outline the technical ideas, and provision Add some preliminary sketches of your concept Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 2 Homework Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 3 [Team] Data Gathering [Team] Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Presentation [Individual] Setting a laptop for studio classes 1 2 3 Steps - Set a goal - Recruit participants - Conduct data gathering by - Interviews - Questionnaires - Observations Outcomes - Raw data - Transcripts - Voice recordings - Video Recordings - Coding - Open coding - Axial coding - Selective Coding - Models and possible quantitative Analysis - Presentation Setting up your laptop for tiny VR experiments - Follow the instruction for your laptop OS. - https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/ https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/THE PROCESS OF INTERACTION DESIGN Chapter 9 Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 4 Overview What is involved in Interaction Design? Importance of involving users Degrees of user involvement What is a user-centered approach? Four basic activities Some practical issues Who are the users? What are needs? Where do alternatives come from? How to choose among alternatives? How to integrate interaction design activities in other lifecycle models? Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 5 What is involved in Interaction Design? It is a process: a goal-directed problem solving activity informed by intended use, target domain, materials, cost, and feasibility a creative activity a decision-making activity to balance trade-offs Generating alternatives and choosing between them is key Four approaches: user-centered design, activity-centered design, systems design, and genius design Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 6 What is involved in Interaction Design? Saffer(2010) suggests User-centered design the user knows best and is the only guide to the designer; the designer's role is to translate the users needs and goals into a design solution. Activity-centered design focuses on the behavior surrounding particular tasks. Users still play a significant role but it is their behavior rather than their goals and needs that are important. Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 7 What is involved in Interaction Design? Systems design a structured, rigorous, and holistic design approach that focuses on context and is particularly appropriate for complex problems. In systems design it is the system (i.e. the people, computers, objects, devices, and so on) that are the center of attention while the users role is to set the goals of the system Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 8 What is involved in Interaction Design? Genius design different from the other three approaches because it relies solely on the experience and creative flair of a designer. In this approach the users role is to validate ideas generated by the designer, and users are not involved during the design process itself. Saffer points out that this is not necessarily by choice, but may be due to limited or no resources for user involvement. Apple, for example, does very little user research or testing, yet the Apple iPod is acknowledged as a significant design achievement. Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 9 three fundamental activities that are recognized in all design Understanding the requirements Producing a design that satisfies those requirements (Producing an interactive version of the solution) Evaluating the design Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 10 How? The design to be captured and expressed in some suitable form that allows review, revision, and improvement. one of the simplest being to produce a series of sketches. to write a description in natural language to draw a series of diagrams to build prototypes Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 11 Importance of involving users Expectation management Realistic expectations No surprises, no disappointments Timely training Communication, but no hype Ownership Make the users active stakeholders More likely to forgive or accept problems Can make a big difference to acceptance and success of product Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 12 Degrees of user involvement Member of the design team Full time: constant input, but lose touch with users Part time: patchy input, and very stressful Short term: inconsistent across project life Long term: consistent, but lose touch with users Newsletters and other dissemination devices Reach wider selection of users Need communication both ways User involvement after product is released Combination of these approaches Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 13 What is a user-centered approach? User-centered approach is based on: Early focus on users and tasks: directly studying cognitive, behavioral, anthropomorphic & attitudinal characteristics Empirical measurement: users reactions and performance to scenarios, manuals, simulations & prototypes are observed, recorded and analysed Iterative design: when problems are found in user testing, fix them and carry out more tests Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 14 Four basic activities in Interaction Design Establishing requirements Designing alternatives Prototyping Evaluating Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 15 A simple interaction design lifecycle model Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 16 Figure 9.3 A simple interaction design lifecyle model Exemplifies a user-centered design approach Some practical issues Who are the users? What do we mean by needs? How to generate alternatives How to choose among alternatives How to integrate interaction design activities with other lifecycle models? Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 17 Who are the users/stakeholders? Not as obvious as you think: those who interact directly with the product those who manage direct users those who receive output from the product those who make the purchasing decision those who use competitors products Three categories of user (Eason, 1987): primary: frequent hands-on secondary: occasional or via someone else tertiary: affected by its introduction, or will influence its purchase Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 18 Who are the stakeholders? Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 19 Check-out operators Customers Managers and owners Suppliers Local shop owners What do we mean by needs? Users rarely know what is possible Users cant tell you what they need to help them achieve their goals Instead, look at existing tasks: their context what information do they require? who collaborates to achieve the task? why is the task achieved the way it is? Envisioned tasks: can be rooted in existing behaviour can be described as future scenarios Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 20 How to generate alternatives Humans stick to what they know works But considering alternatives is important to break out of the box Designers are trained to consider alternatives, software people generally are not How do you generate alternatives? Flair and creativity: research and synthesis Seek inspiration: look at similar products or look at very different products Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 21 IDEO TechBox Library, database and website all-in-one Contains physical gizmos for inspiration Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 22 The TechBox Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 23 How to choose among alternatives Evaluation with users or with peers, e.g. prototypes Technical feasibility: some not possible Quality thresholds: Usability goals lead to usability criteria set early on and check regularly safety: how safe? utility: which functions are superfluous? effectiveness: appropriate support? task coverage, information available efficiency: performance measurements learnability: is the time taken to learn a function acceptable to the users? memorability: can infrequent users remember how to achieve their goal? Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 24 Testing prototypes to choose among alternatives Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 25 How to integrate interaction design in other models Integrating interaction design activities in lifecycle models from other disciplines needs careful planning Several software engineering lifecycle models have been considered Integrating with agile software development is promising it stresses the importance of iteration it champions early and regular feedback it handles emergent requirements it aims to strike a balance between flexibility and structure Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 26 Summary Four basic activities in the design process Establishing requirements Designing alternatives Prototyping Evaluating User-centered design rests on three principles Early focus on users and tasks Empirical measurement using quantifiable & measurable usability criteria Iterative design Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 27 Summer Show Proposal Presentation Categories Poster The goal of user research User research process, and results Conceptual Design User Scenario/Storyboard User-Centered Acitivy-Centered System- Centered Mood board Keywords > Visual Images Concept Video Max. 3 mins Models Paper/Cardboard 3D Printing Prototype Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 28 Senior Show Cases Seniors share the 2015 Summer Show Experience Forms and procedures of presentations, and the preparation. Research Experiences Production bottlenecks Case 1 Buddy Wall Presenter : Yurae http://teamsimple.wix.com/buddy-wall Case 2 Fridgear Presenter : Yunji https://fridgear.wordpress.com/ Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 29 http://teamsimple.wix.com/buddy-wallhttps://fridgear.wordpress.com/Homework Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 30 [Team] Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Presentation [Team] Summer Show Proposal [Individual] Complete the studio activity 1 2 3 Outcomes - Raw data - Transcripts - Voice recordings - Video Recordings - Coding - Open coding - Axial coding - Selective Coding - Models and possible quantitative Analysis - Presentation What you have to consider - Presentation Categories - Team Competitiveness - What you can do better and best - The division of works - Schedule - Week 1/2/3/4/5 - How to promote your ideas, and identities Setting up your laptop for tiny VR experiments - Follow the instruction for your laptop OS. - https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/ Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 8th May https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/Lecture 9 The Process of Interaction DesignFinal Project Concept StatementHomeworkThe Process of Interaction DesignOverviewWhat is involved in Interaction Design?What is involved in Interaction Design?What is involved in Interaction Design?What is involved in Interaction Design?three fundamental activities that are recognized in all designHow?Importance of involving usersDegrees of user involvementWhat is a user-centered approach?Four basic activities in Interaction DesignA simple interaction design lifecycle modelSome practical issuesWho are the users/stakeholders?Who are the stakeholders?What do we mean by needs?How to generate alternativesIDEO TechBoxThe TechBoxHow to choose among alternatives Testing prototypes to choose among alternativesHow to integrate interaction design in other modelsSummarySummer Show ProposalSenior Show CasesHomework

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