[IxD] Week 09. The Process of Interaction Design

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  • Lecture 9

    The Process of Interaction Design

    Interaction Design / IID 2016 Spring Class hours : Tuesday 2 pm 6 pm Lecture room : International Campus Veritas Hall B203 3rd May

  • Final Project Concept Statement

    Title

    Description of what the project will be about

    The goal of the project

    Who are the users of final outcomes

    Describe the use context

    Outline the technical ideas, and provision

    Add some preliminary sketches of your concept

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 2

  • Homework

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 3

    [Team] Data Gathering

    [Team] Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Presentation

    [Individual] Setting a laptop

    for studio classes

    1 2 3

    Steps - Set a goal - Recruit

    participants - Conduct data

    gathering by - Interviews - Questionnair

    es - Observations

    Outcomes - Raw data

    - Transcripts - Voice recordings - Video Recordings

    - Coding - Open coding - Axial coding - Selective Coding

    - Models and possible quantitative Analysis

    - Presentation

    Setting up your laptop for tiny VR experiments - Follow the instruction for

    your laptop OS. - https://developers.google.com

    /cardboard/unity/

    https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/

  • THE PROCESS OF INTERACTION DESIGN

    Chapter 9

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 4

  • Overview

    What is involved in Interaction Design?

    Importance of involving users

    Degrees of user involvement

    What is a user-centered approach?

    Four basic activities

    Some practical issues

    Who are the users?

    What are needs?

    Where do alternatives come from?

    How to choose among alternatives?

    How to integrate interaction design activities in other lifecycle models?

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 5

  • What is involved in Interaction Design?

    It is a process:

    a goal-directed problem solving activity informed by intended use, target

    domain, materials, cost, and feasibility

    a creative activity

    a decision-making activity to balance trade-offs

    Generating alternatives and choosing between them is key

    Four approaches: user-centered design, activity-centered design,

    systems design, and genius design

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 6

  • What is involved in Interaction Design?

    Saffer(2010) suggests

    User-centered design

    the user knows best and is the only guide to the designer;

    the designer's role is to translate the users needs and goals into a design

    solution.

    Activity-centered design

    focuses on the behavior surrounding particular tasks.

    Users still play a significant role but it is their behavior rather than their

    goals and needs that are important.

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 7

  • What is involved in Interaction Design?

    Systems design

    a structured, rigorous, and holistic design approach that focuses on

    context and is particularly appropriate for complex problems.

    In systems design it is the system (i.e. the people, computers, objects,

    devices, and so on) that are the center of attention while the users role is

    to set the goals of the system

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 8

  • What is involved in Interaction Design?

    Genius design

    different from the other three approaches because it relies solely on the

    experience and creative flair of a designer.

    In this approach the users role is to validate ideas generated by the

    designer, and users are not involved during the design process itself.

    Saffer points out that this is not necessarily by choice, but may be due to

    limited or no resources for user involvement.

    Apple, for example, does very little user research or testing, yet the Apple

    iPod is acknowledged as a significant design achievement.

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 9

  • three fundamental activities that are recognized in all design

    Understanding the requirements

    Producing a design that satisfies those requirements

    (Producing an interactive version of the solution)

    Evaluating the design

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 10

  • How?

    The design to be captured and expressed in some suitable form that

    allows review, revision, and improvement.

    one of the simplest being to produce a series of sketches.

    to write a description in natural language

    to draw a series of diagrams

    to build prototypes

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 11

  • Importance of involving users

    Expectation management

    Realistic expectations

    No surprises, no disappointments

    Timely training

    Communication, but no hype

    Ownership

    Make the users active stakeholders

    More likely to forgive or accept problems

    Can make a big difference to acceptance and success of product

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 12

  • Degrees of user involvement

    Member of the design team

    Full time: constant input, but lose touch with users

    Part time: patchy input, and very stressful

    Short term: inconsistent across project life

    Long term: consistent, but lose touch with users

    Newsletters and other dissemination devices

    Reach wider selection of users

    Need communication both ways

    User involvement after product is released

    Combination of these approaches

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 13

  • What is a user-centered approach?

    User-centered approach is based on:

    Early focus on users and tasks: directly studying cognitive, behavioral,

    anthropomorphic & attitudinal characteristics

    Empirical measurement: users reactions and performance to scenarios,

    manuals, simulations & prototypes are observed, recorded and analysed

    Iterative design: when problems are found in user testing, fix them and

    carry out more tests

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 14

  • Four basic activities in Interaction Design

    Establishing requirements

    Designing alternatives

    Prototyping

    Evaluating

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 15

  • A simple interaction design lifecycle model

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 16

    Figure 9.3 A simple interaction design lifecyle model

    Exemplifies a user-centered design approach

  • Some practical issues

    Who are the users?

    What do we mean by needs?

    How to generate alternatives

    How to choose among alternatives

    How to integrate interaction design activities with other lifecycle models?

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 17

  • Who are the users/stakeholders?

    Not as obvious as you think: those who interact directly with the product

    those who manage direct users

    those who receive output from the product

    those who make the purchasing decision

    those who use competitors products

    Three categories of user (Eason, 1987): primary: frequent hands-on

    secondary: occasional or via someone else

    tertiary: affected by its introduction, or will influence its purchase

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 18

  • Who are the stakeholders?

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 19

    Check-out operators

    Customers Managers and owners

    Suppliers Local shop owners

  • What do we mean by needs?

    Users rarely know what is possible

    Users cant tell you what they need to help them achieve their goals

    Instead, look at existing tasks:

    their context

    what information do they require?

    who collaborates to achieve the task?

    why is the task achieved the way it is?

    Envisioned tasks:

    can be rooted in existing behaviour

    can be described as future scenarios

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 20

  • How to generate alternatives

    Humans stick to what they know works

    But considering alternatives is important to break out of the box

    Designers are trained to consider alternatives, software people generally

    are not

    How do you generate alternatives?

    Flair and creativity: research and synthesis

    Seek inspiration: look at similar products or look at very different products

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 21

  • IDEO TechBox

    Library, database and website all-in-one

    Contains physical gizmos for inspiration

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 22

  • The TechBox

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 23

  • How to choose among alternatives

    Evaluation with users or with peers, e.g. prototypes

    Technical feasibility: some not possible

    Quality thresholds: Usability goals lead to usability criteria set early on and

    check regularly

    safety: how safe?

    utility: which functions are superfluous?

    effectiveness: appropriate support? task coverage, information available

    efficiency: performance measurements

    learnability: is the time taken to learn a function acceptable to the users?

    memorability: can infrequent users remember how to achieve their goal?

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 24

  • Testing prototypes to choose among alternatives

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 25

  • How to integrate interaction design in other models

    Integrating interaction design activities in lifecycle models from other

    disciplines needs careful planning

    Several software engineering lifecycle models have been considered

    Integrating with agile software development is promising

    it stresses the importance of iteration

    it champions early and regular feedback

    it handles emergent requirements

    it aims to strike a balance between flexibility and structure

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 26

  • Summary

    Four basic activities in the design process

    Establishing requirements

    Designing alternatives

    Prototyping

    Evaluating

    User-centered design rests on three principles

    Early focus on users and tasks

    Empirical measurement using quantifiable & measurable usability criteria

    Iterative design

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 27

  • Summer Show Proposal

    Presentation Categories Poster

    The goal of user research

    User research process, and results

    Conceptual Design

    User Scenario/Storyboard

    User-Centered

    Acitivy-Centered

    System- Centered

    Mood board

    Keywords > Visual Images

    Concept Video

    Max. 3 mins

    Models

    Paper/Cardboard

    3D Printing

    Prototype

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 28

  • Senior Show Cases

    Seniors share the 2015 Summer Show Experience

    Forms and procedures of presentations, and the preparation.

    Research Experiences

    Production bottlenecks

    Case 1 Buddy Wall

    Presenter : Yurae

    http://teamsimple.wix.com/buddy-wall

    Case 2 Fridgear

    Presenter : Yunji

    https://fridgear.wordpress.com/

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 29

    http://teamsimple.wix.com/buddy-wallhttps://fridgear.wordpress.com/

  • Homework

    Lecture #9 IID_Interaction Design 30

    [Team] Data Analysis,

    Interpretation, and Presentation

    [Team] Summer Show Proposal

    [Individual] Complete the

    studio activity

    1 2 3

    Outcomes - Raw data

    - Transcripts - Voice

    recordings - Video

    Recordings - Coding

    - Open coding - Axial coding - Selective

    Coding - Models and

    possible quantitative Analysis

    - Presentation

    What you have to consider - Presentation Categories - Team Competitiveness

    - What you can do better and best

    - The division of works - Schedule

    - Week 1/2/3/4/5

    - How to promote your ideas, and identities

    Setting up your laptop for tiny VR experiments - Follow the instruction for

    your laptop OS. - https://developers.google.com

    /cardboard/unity/

    Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 8th May

    https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/https://developers.google.com/cardboard/unity/

    Lecture 9 The Process of Interaction DesignFinal Project Concept StatementHomeworkThe Process of Interaction DesignOverviewWhat is involved in Interaction Design?What is involved in Interaction Design?What is involved in Interaction Design?What is involved in Interaction Design?three fundamental activities that are recognized in all designHow?Importance of involving usersDegrees of user involvementWhat is a user-centered approach?Four basic activities in Interaction DesignA simple interaction design lifecycle modelSome practical issuesWho are the users/stakeholders?Who are the stakeholders?What do we mean by needs?How to generate alternativesIDEO TechBoxThe TechBoxHow to choose among alternatives Testing prototypes to choose among alternativesHow to integrate interaction design in other modelsSummarySummer Show ProposalSenior Show CasesHomework

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