лек. 11 iiia элементы (в,аl)

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  • 1. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl 1 . . 37 , . IIIA- B Al Ga, In Tl : B[He]2 2s22p1 Al [Ne]10 3s2sp1 Ga [Ar]18 3d104s24p1 In [Kr]36 4d105s25p1Tl [Xe]544f145d106s26p1http://arkadiyzaharov.ru/studentu/chto-delat-studentam/neorganicheskaya-ximiya/

2. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl 1 :BAl GaIn Tl : ,0,097 0,143 0,139 0,1660,171 , 0,088 0,126 0,127 0,1440,147 3+, 0,020 0,0570,0620,0920,105 . 0 = + + e ; 8,298 5,986 5,998 5,788 6,11 3. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl 1 . , -, . . , . 4. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl 1 . Ga d-, d-. Al Ga - , . 5. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl1 . Tl f-, , . ns2- . 6s2- . Tl, IIIA- +3, +1, . 6. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl2. : . B Al: Na2B4O7 10H2O H3BO3 Al2O3 nH2O Al2O3 Mg[Al2O4] Na3[AlF6] 7. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl 2. Ga, In Tl :, , . Ga Al . CuGaS2. 8. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl3. 10 -. 12, : 9. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl3. , - : 10. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl3 - , . ( BN).Al, Ga, In Tl - . 11. 3 IIIA- : B Al Ga InTl,2,46 2,70 5,907,3111,85/3. ., 02040660 29,8 156,2 302,5. ., 02550227020702075 14570(3+()/), 1,620,650,343+0,710(1+()/), 0,25 0,386 12. B, Al, Ga, In In : , (). : 23 + 3Mg = 3MgO + 2B; G0298= 532,2 / 2BCl3 + 3Zn = 3ZnCl2 + 2B; G0298 = 504,5 /t0B2H62B + 3H2 13. B, Al, Ga, In In : - (Al2O3) Na3AlF6:toAl2O3 Al3+ + AlO33 : Al3+ + 3e = Al :4AlO33 12e = 2Al2O3 + 3O2 , . - . 14. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl : . IIIA- . . 23 ()3 . , , , , . 15. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl : . ( 400-700 0) , , , ( 1200 0) . , P2O5, CO2 SiO2, :3SiO2 + 4B = 3Si + 2B2O3; (Gof,298 = 1178 /) 16. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl : (2, ,2 .). d- f- , (2000 3000 0) . HNO3, H2SO4 33: B + 3HNO3 = H3BO3 + NO2 17. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl :, Ga, In Tl , (23) . . Al, Ga, In Tl ,, . . 18. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl : - Al, Ga, In Tl , [(2)6]3+:2O + 6H3+ + 6H2O = 2[(OH2)6]3+ + 3H2HNO3 . , [()6]3 : 2Al0 + 6H2O + 6NaOH = 2Na3[Al(OH)6] + 3H2 19. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl4. IIIA- IIIA- +3, +1. () : 3 4; III- 6 4. 3, III- ; 23, N 3 . 20. 4 IIIA- : 23 , . 33:23 + 32 = 233 Al2O3 (), . : , . . 21. 4 IIIA- :Ga2O3, In2O3 Tl2O3 , . Tl2O. ()3. TlOH ( ). 22. 4 IIIA- : ()3 (), , , :()3 + [()4] + + ; pK = 9,0 , . ()3 , () . 23. 4 IIIA- : ()3 :3 + 32 ()3 + 3 ; ( = Cl, Br I) ()3 . : ()3 2 23 . nB2O3 mH2O. 24. 4 IIIA- (n = 2, m = 1) 247 . (1 =2104,2 = 2105) 33, . 247 33:2NaOH + 4H3BO3 = Na2B4O7 + 7H2O Na2B4O7 102 (). 25. 4 IIIA- :2NaOH + Na2B4O7 = 4Na2 + H2O, () :Na2B4O7 + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + H2B4O7H2B4O7 + 5H2O = 4H3BO3 26. 4 IIIA- . . ,. 23 33 : + 23 + (2)2 27. 4 IIIA- : IIIA- : Cl3 = 3NaOH = (OH)3 + 3NaCl ()3 ( Tl(OH)3), .. :()3 + 3+ + 32 = [(2)6]3+()3 + 3 = [()6]3 Al Tl, :Al(OH)3 > Ga(OH)3 < In(OH)3 < Tl(OH)3 28. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl IIIA- : 3 . . :BF3 BCl3 BBr3 BI3 AlF3 , . AlCl3 . AlBr3 AlI3 , Al2Br6 Al2I6. Ga(+3), In(+3) Tl(+3) . 29. IIIA- : 3 ( ), 3+1[]6 +1[]4 : 3 + 3 = 3[ ]6 BF3, BCl3, AlCl3, AlBr3 . 30. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl IIIA- , (+3) () , :1) :Mg3B2 + 6HCl = 3MCl2 + B2H6 () nn+4 nn+6. 26 (3)2, 410. 31. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl2) Li 3:Cl3 + LiH = 3LiCl + 3 BF3 + LiH = LiBF4 + (BH3)2 Li Li[H4] :3 + LiH = Li[H4] Al, Ga, In Tl (3)n. . , () , :3 + 32 = ()3 + 32 Li[H4] + 42 = ()3 + Li + 42 32. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl (): - . . ., 26 12, .. . - .HHHBBHHH 33. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl : Al3+, Ga3+, In3+ Tl3+ , . (Al(CN)3, 2S3, 2(3)3 .) , . 34. IIIA-: B, Al, Ga, In Tl : Tl(+3) -:Tl3+ + 2e = Tl+ , 0298 = +1,25 Tl(+1). Tl(+1) . ; TlCl, TlBr, TlI, Tl2S. 35. : Tl(+1). Tl . NaOH, RbOH (100 0) :Tl () = Tl2 () + 2 () Ag(+1), . 4 6. - (+3), Al(+3), Ga(+3) : [BF4] ,[AlF6]3, [GaF6]3, In(+3) Tl(+3) -.