БИТВА ПОД ОРШЕЙ 1514 Г. В СОВРЕМЕННОЙ БЕЛОРУССКОЙ ИСТОРИОГРАФИИ И ПРОБЛЕМА КРИТИКИ ИСТОРИЧЕСКИХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ

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  • 292011. 2 (10).

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    8 2014 . 500 , - . . . . -. , , , , , - , 1410 . . 2010 . , , - . - , , - 1514 .

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    1 i . 1514 . . ( : http://www.jivebelarus.net/history/gistografi a/orsha-battle-and-historical-identity-confl ict.html. 11.10.11).

    63.3(2)44; 94(47).042+94(476)

  • 30

    Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana

    , . , . , . , . (i ). , , 19912011 . - , 80- 2.

    1990- ., , . 1990- 2000- . .

    1990- . . . . - , . - , 1514 . .

    , . - -, 1514 . , - 3.

    , , - , . , -. , , .

    XXI . , , . - i 8 1514 ., ARCHE. , . , , 4.

    : , XVI , , , - 15121522 .

    2 ., . // . 1990. 8. . 2930; . 1) 8 1514 . // , 1992. 6. . 211; 2) 1514 . // : . . 1: -. , 2005. . 250; . . I. , 1993. . 187188; . T. I. i, 1996. . 537538; i . . i, 2000. . 288; . 1) : . , 1992. . 3537; 2) i i XVIXVII . i, 1994. . 55; i XVIII .: . i, 2000. . 1. . 297; .

    3 . 1514 .: - . , 2003.4 . i 8 1514 . // ARCHE. 2008. 78. . 169180.

  • 312011. 2 (10).

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    5 . 1514 . // : : 2 . . 1: -. , 2007. . 249251.

    6 . . - 1514 . // - i . , 2010. . 1842.

    7 .: , : VI .?: // SSBP. 2009. 1/2. . 45150.

    8 i . . . 289.

  • 32

    Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana

    9. . , , - , , .

    - XVI . . - . . - : , - 8 1514 ., , ?10

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    9 Stryjkowski M. Kronika Polska, Litewska, mdzka i wszystkiej Rusi. Warszawa, 1846. T. 2. S. 380.10 , . 6067.11 . : . XVI // . 1895.

    2. . 89; Uebersberger . sterreich und Russland seit dem ende des 15. Jahrhunderts. Bd. I. Wien; Leipzig, 1906. S. 8486.

  • 332011. 2 (10).

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  • 34

    Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana

    . .) 7- (, - XVI .)12. , , 13. 1511 . 1514 .14, , : , , 1514 .

    . (Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana), - . , - 12 , 28 1 , () . . ( 29 22 )15.

    ( Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kul-turbesitz GStAPK), 1514 .

    , , . . - . -, , . - , , - , . , (Michel von Swaben, Ordens comptur zuer Memel), - , 3 , - , , - : , , 12 , 5 ., : , , , (Nu hot der konigk, wie man spricht, XII tausent man fremdis volks, und sal noch komen V tausent, vnd hat sunst auch vil volk Littawen, Russen, Thatern, Samaiten und ander volk)16.

    12 cpa ocecx, a oox a aoa Kopo Eo Moc oa apo // . . 389 ( ). . 1. . 1. . 7. 653 . ( , 1298 ).

    13 . -18 (. 389). . 1. . 7.14 , , XVIII ., -

    . 193 AGAD (Archiwum Gwne Akt Dawnych), . (Puaski K. Stosunki z Mendli-Girejem chanem Tatarw Perekopskich (14691515): Akta i listy. Warszawa, 1881).

    15 Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana (Venezia). Cod. marc. I. VII, 437, fol. 167168, 263, 264265. (Susi Marcon).

    16 GStAPK. OBA. 20202. Fol. 3.

  • 352011. 2 (10).

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    . . . 1514 . ...

    , . 16 1514 .: [][], ; , 2 . (konincklike magestat folk hebbenn eyne slachtynge geholdenn by Orse an der Nepe unnd eyne mercklike sint der Moskowiter totgeslagenn unnd levendich gefanngen, so men secht, by IIM). -, . , 2 . 1520 , - .

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    . . . . , (in castris apud Borissow). - , 12 , . .

    17 . : . . 1514 . // : . 2011. 3 (45). . 7172. . . - .

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    Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana

    , . - , , ; , , , (octoginta millia Moscovitarum una acie fudit fugavitque, quorum triginla millia sunt cacsa, octo summi et praecipui eorum voyewodae et consiliarii, triginta septem duces, barones et offi ciates cum aliis supra mille quingenlis nobilibus viris capli)18.

    18 X, - 2000 . , 19.

    . - 25 1514 . , - 8 [] , (hostium cadavera ad octo miliaria veluti frugum manipulos strata et ipso loco pugne super sedecim millia)20. 30- , 40 000. 1514 . - , , - - .

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    . . . 4000 21. , , - : -, , -, .

    , , - . 80 000 , . (Lithuani) , , (Poloni)

    18 GStAPK. OBA. 20209. Fol. 1 ( ); OBA. 20210. Fol. 1 ( -). .

    19 Acta Tomiciana: Epistole, legationes, responsa, actiones, res gest Sigismundi I Regis Poloniae. Posnaniae, 1853. T. III. P. 181, 183, 186187, 157, 180, 252253.

    20 Acta Tomiciana. T. III. . 184185. 21 Acta Tomiciana. T. III. P. 6.

  • 372011. 2 (10).

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    22 . // : . . . M., 1992. . 4650.

    23 Puaski K. Stosunki z Mendli-Girejem chanem Tatarw Perekopskich... S. 438; cpa ocecx... . 574.24 Puaski K. Stosunki z Mendli-Girejem chanem Tatarw Perekopskich... S. 439; cpa ocecx... . 575.25 Puaski K. Stosunki z Mendli-Girejem chanem Tatarw Perekopskich... S. 327438; cpa ocecx...

    . 574.

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    , , - .

    , - 15141515 . XVI . - , - . - . , . , . -, . , . , , , . , - 16 000, 17 000, 25 000, 30 000, 33 000, 35 000.

    ? , , - - . , . , (80 000), ( , ) , , . 15201580- ., 15141515 ., 3040 . .

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    . , , , - , , , , , . . , 16 - Peremeskeho Gerick Sasenskeho. , ( , , , , ?)26.

    (Mychell Schelady). , ,

    26 GStAPK. OBA. 20215. Fol. 2.

  • 392011. 2 (10).

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    . . . 1514 . ...

    , - (). , , . 26 - 1514 ., , : , (in dieser schlachtung vorgangen ist gefangen worden ein herczog mit namen Andreas woiboth zu Naugarden)27. (artickel) . - . , , .

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    :: , ,

    , - , -, , alobin@mail.ru

    : 1514 . -

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    - , 2003. 40 .

    , , , . (8621918): , , . 3- . : , 2002. 223 .

    , . i 8 2524 . // ARCHE. 2008. 78. . 169180.

    27 GStAPK. OBA. 20267. Fol. 1. .: Joachim E. Die Politik des letzten Hochmeisters in Preuen Albrecht von Brandenburg. Theil 1 (15101517). Leipzig, 1892. S. 234235. Nr. 78.

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    , . // - : . . . M, 1992. . 4650.

    , : VI .? // Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana = . 2009. 1. . 45150.

    i, . . i: , 2003. 448 .

    , . 1514 . - // : . 2011. 3 (45). . 7172.

    , . - 1514 . // i . : I- , 2010. . 1842.

    , . i i XVI-XVII . i: i i, 1994. 79 .

    , . : . : , 1992. 62 .

    Information about the articleAuthor: Lobin, Alexei Nikolaevich, Ph. D. in History, head of scientifi c-methods development group,

    The National Congress Palace, St.-Petersburg, Russia, alobin@mail.ruTitle: The Battle of Orsha in 1514 in modern Belarusian historiography and the problem of criticism of

    historical sourcesAbstract: The paper deals witn the main historiographical myths about Orsha battle in 1514. The main

    problems of the Belarusian historiography are the predominance of ideological and political views on objectivism, undeveloped source base and lack of consideration by historians of questions concerning military and practical nature. The article provides a number of new documents, identifi es the problem of fi nding, analysis and criticism of historical sources

    Key words: military service, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, History of Lithuania, Orsha Battle 1514

    References (Transliteration)Ambrazhevich, Nikolay. Orshanskaya bitva 1514 g.: Voenno-istoricheskiy aspekt. Minsk: Institut

    socialno-politicheskih issledovaniy pri Administracii Prezidenta Respubliki Belarus, 2003. 40 s.Arlov, Uladzmer; Saganovch, Genadz. Dzesjac vjakov belaruskay gstory (8621918): Padze, daty,

    ljustracy. 3-e vyd. Vlnya: Nasha Buduchynja, 2002. 223 s.Garmatny, Vital. Arshanskaja bitva 8 verasnja 2524 g., in ARCHE. 2008. 78. S.169180.Gralya, Ieronim. Motivy orshanskogo triumfa v jagellonskoy propaganda, in Problemy otechestvennoy

    istorii i kultury perioda feodalizma: Chteniya pamyati V. B. Kobrina. Moskva, 1992. S. 4650.i be ih stolko, ezhe nest chisla: Skolko voinov voevalo v Russkoj armii v XVI v.?: Forum, in Studia

    Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana. 2009. 1. S. 45150.Ermalovich, Mikolay. Belaruskaya dzyarzhava Vyalkae Knyastva Ltovskae. Minsk: Belltfond, 2003.

    448 s.Lobin, Aleksei Nikolaevich. Novye istochniki o bitve pod Orshey 1514 g. iz sobraniya Kyonigsbergskogo

    taynogo arhiva, in Drevnyaya Rus: Voprosy medievistiki. 2011. 3 (45). S. 7172.Lobin, Aleksei Nikolaevich. K voprosu o chislennosti i sostave polsko-litovskoy armii v bitve pod Orshej

    1514 g., in Prablemy ntegracy inkarparacy v razvcc Centralnaj Ushodnjay Eropy v peryyad rannyaga Novaga chasu. Mnsk: BIP-S PLUS, 2010. S. 1842.

    Saganovich, Genadz. Vayska Vyalikaga knyastva Litoskaga XVIXVII stst. Minsk: Navuka i tekhnika, 1994. 79 s.

    Saganovch, Genadz. Aychynu svayu baronyachy: Kanstancn Astrozhsk. Mnsk: Navuka tekhnka, 1992. 62 s.

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