Общая и неорганическая химия. Лекция 17

  • Published on
    05-Jan-2016

  • View
    70

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

. 17. s - (). Mg Be. p - . VIIA - (). . H 3 O +. OH . . Be + 2 HCl = BeCl 2 + H 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript

  • . 17 s- (). Mg Be. p-. VIIA- ().

  • Be + 2HCl = BeCl2 + H2 Be + 2NaOH + 2H2O = Na2[Be(OH)4] + H2

    Be + 2NaOH() = Na2BeO2 + H2

    [Be(H2O)4]2+[Be(OH)4]2 Be(OH)2 ( 1022)t()

  • Mg + H2O Mg + 2H2O = Mg(OH)2 + H2t Mg + 2NH4Cl + 2H2O = = MgCl2 + 2NH3H2O + H2[Mg(H2O)6]2+ Mg(OH)2 ( 1010)

  • Mg(OH)2 Mg(OH)2()+ 2NH4Cl = MgCl2 + 2NH3H2O Mg(OH)2()+ 2NH4+ = Mg2+ + 2NH3H2O Mg2+ + 2OH 2NH4+ + 2Cl 2NH3H2O

  • Be2+ Mg2+ :Be2+ + 4OH = [Be(OH)4]2Mg2+ + 2OH = Mg(OH)2 NH4Cl + NH3H2O: Be2+ + 2NH3H2O = Be(OH)2Mg2+ + NH3H2O + NH4+

  • Sr2+ Ba2+ :Sr2+ + CrO42 = SrCrO4Ba2+ + CrO42 = BaCrO4 :2SrCrO4() + 2CH3COOH = = SrCr2O7 + Sr(CH3COO)2 + H2O

  • CH3COOH SrCrO4 BaCrO4 SrCrO4() + CH3COOH ? Sr2+ + CrO42 H3O+ + CH3COO 2HCrO4+H2O; K 105 Cr2O72 + H2O +H2O; K 107 105 Sr2+ + Cr2O72 + CH3COO + H2O BaCrO4() + CH3COOH 1010

  • HCl BaCrO4 BaCrO4() + HCl ? Ba2+ + CrO42 H3O+ + Cl H2CrO4+H2O H2Cr2O7 + H2O +H2O; K 107 1010 Ba2+ + H2Cr2O7 + Cl + H2O 2HCrO42BaCrO4() + 4HCl = 2BaCl2 + H2Cr2O7 + H2O

  • Li3PO4: CLi+3CPO43 Li3PO4 3LiCl + Na3PO4 = Li3PO4 + 2NaCl LiCl + Na2HPO4 Li3PO4 + Na2HPO4 = 2Na+ + HPO42HPO42 + H2O H2PO4 + OHHPO42 + H2O PO43 + H3O+ 3LiCl = 3Li+ + 3Cl2HPO42 H2PO4 + PO43 3LiCl + 2Na2HPO4 Li3PO4 + NaH2PO4 + 3NaCl

  • p - :[] ns 2(n2)f 14(n1)d 10np 16 ( IV +VII). (6 ): . , IIIA- (I); IVA- (II); VA- (III) .. (- -) ; sp3.

  • - : : (O3, P4, S8, Na2Se5, HN3 ) (H2S2O7, Na2B4O7 ...). : (S2, Cl ..), (NH4+, NO+ ..), . ( ) .

  • VII- () :[] ns 2 (n1)d 10np 5 Ei 1700 / Ee 385 / :F: I, 0Cl, Br, I, At: I, 0, +I, . +VII

  • VII- ()

    FClBrIAtz917355385Ar18,99835,4579,90126,90209,994,102,832,742,211,90

  • : F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, At2

  • (E , /)F2 Cl2 Br2 I29 17 35 53 z--+

    F2Cl2Br2I2159243194153

  • : 0,03% ( ) CaF2 Na3[AlF6] 3Ca3(PO4)2 CaF2

  • F2 .. 220 , .. 183 + F2 +FI ( - ; , He, Ne, Ar, N2, O2) NH3 + 3F2 = NF3 + 3HF H2O + F2 = 2HF + [O] [O] + F2 = OF2 OnF2 (n = 1 8) 2F2 + 2KOH (.) = 2KF + OF2 + H2O SiO2 + 2F2 = SiF4 + O2

  • . HF : (HF)n .. +19,5 , : H2F2 + HF HF2 + H2F+, Ks = 2,1 1011 : HF + HNO3 F + H2NO3+ - : HF + H2O F + H3O+, K = 6,67 . 104 (25 C)

  • SiO2 + 4HF() = SiF4 + 2H2O ( ) SiO2 + 6HF (.) = =H2[SiF6] + 2H2O

  • 1886 . (. , HF KF)

  • : KHF2 (. . 239 C) KH2F3 (. . 70 C) () : 2HF + 2e = H2 + 2F (+): 2F 2e = F2 : 2CoF3 = 2CoF2 + F2K2[NiF6] = 2KF + NiF2 + F2 HF: CaF2 + H2SO4() = CaSO4 + 2HF (150-300 )

  • ( ) (, , () ..HF: , , , , .