Экономическая теория. Ч.2. Макроэкономика: Учебное пособие

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<ul><li><p>3 </p><p> . . </p><p> 2. 1999 . </p></li><li><p>4C 7..................................................................................................................................................................... 6 1. .................................................................................................. 6 </p><p>1.1. ......................................................... 6 1.2. ..................................................................................... 7 1.3. ........................................................................................... 7 1.4. , .......................................... 8 ........................................................................................................................................ 8 ....................................................................................................................................... 9 (Monetarism).............................................................................................................................. 10 (RATEX=Rational Expectations School) ................................................ 11 </p><p>1.5. ............................................................................................. 11 ..................................................................................................................................... 12 ......................................................................................................................... 12 ................................................................................................................................ 13 ............................................................... 13 ................................................................................................................... 14 .................................................................................................................................... 14 </p><p> 2. ............................................................................................ 15 2.1. ................................................................................................................................. 15 2.2. ................................................ 16 2.3. ..................................................... 17 ..................................................................................................................................... 17 (Joseph Schumpeter) ...................................................................................... 17 </p><p>2.4. ................................................................................................................ 17 .......................................................................................................................................... 17 ...................................................................................................................................... 18 </p><p>2.5. : , .................................................................................................. 18 .............................................................................................................................................. 18 ............................................................................................ 20 ............................................................................................. 21 ......................................................................................................... 21 </p><p> 8................................................................................................................................................................... 22 1. ............................................................. 22 </p><p>1.1. ................................................................................................................ 22 1.2. , ............................................................................................. 22 1.3. () ...................................................................................................... 23 1.4. .......................................................................................... 23 ....................................................................................................................................... 26 ........................................................................................................................................ 27 </p><p>1.5. ............................................................................................................................................... 28 1.6. , ......................................................................................... 29 </p><p> 2. ............................. 29 2.1. , ............................................................ 29 2.2. ...................................................................................... 30 2.3. .................................................................................................................... 31 (Natural Law) ........................................................................... 31 (Utilitarianism) ......................................................................................................................... 31 (Rawlsian equality theory)...................................................................................... 31 </p><p>2.4. ................................................................. 32 9................................................................................................................................................................... 33 1. ................................................................................................... 33 </p><p>1.1. ....................................................................................................... 33 ................................................................................................................ 33 , , ......................................................................... 34 ........................................................................................................................... 34 </p><p>1.2. , ................................................................................................................ 35 ................................................................................................................................................ 35 ...................................................................................................................................................... 35 </p><p>1.3. ..................................................................................................................................... 36 ................................................................................................................................... 36 ......................................................................................................................... 37 .......................................................... 37 </p></li><li><p>5 ............................................................................................................. 38 </p><p>1.4. ...................................................................................... 38 1.5. ( )................................................................................... 39 </p><p> 2. , ...................................................................................... 40 2.1. ........................................................................................................................................................... 40 ............................................................................................................................................ 40 </p><p>2.2. . ....................................................................................... 41 .............................................................................................. 41 ( )...................................................................................... 41 ........................... 42 </p><p>2.3. ...................................................................................................... 44 - ............................................................................................................... 44 .................................................................... 44 ........................................................................................................................................... 44 ................................................................................................................................. 44 (Money Market Mutual Funds) ........................................................... 44 </p><p>2.4. ................................................................................................................................... 45 3. .............................................................................................. 45 </p><p>3.1. ............................................................................................................... 45 3.2. .......................................................................................................................... 46 3.3. .................................................................................................................................................... 47 </p><p> 10................................................................................................................................................................. 50 1. ................................................................................................................................... 50 </p><p>1.1. ................................................................................................................................... 50 1.2. ............................................................................... 50 1.3. / .......................................... 50 1.4. .......................................................................................................................................... 51 1.5. ....................................................................................................... 52 ............................................................................................................. 52 ................................................................................................................... 53 ......................................................................................................... 53 ........................................................................................................................ 54 </p><p>1.6. ........................................................................................... 55 ............................................................................................................................ 55 ................................................................................................. 56 - /- ................ 56 </p><p> 2. ..................................................................................................... 56 2.1. . ................................................................................ 56 ............................................................................................................................. 56 - ............................................................................................................................... 57 .................................................................................................................... 57 </p><p>2.2. , . ......................................................................................................... 57 2.3. . . ............................................................................................................ 59 2.4. .................................................................................................... 60 </p><p> ....................................................................................... 61 ) .............................................................................................................................. 61 ) ...................................................................................................................................................... 62 </p></li><li><p>6</p><p> 7. </p><p> 1. </p><p>1.1. </p><p>I. . , . , , . , . </p><p> . : . , , 1 , , , , (, ). , , . , , , . </p><p> , . , . </p><p> , , . </p><p> : 1. / (External Effects/Externalities). </p><p> . , . . 3- , , , . , . </p><p> . . </p><p> . , . , $ 100 . , . ( ), . , , .. , $ 100 , . </p><p> . , , . /, , . , , , . . , ( , ..). , $ 20 . : $ 100 + $ 20 = $ 120 . , , . </p><p> , $ 100 , . : , . , , , , , . </p><p>: , . </p><p> ( ), (, , , ). , </p></li><li><p>7 . , , . . </p><p>2. / (Public Goods). , : </p><p> . , , , , . </p><p> . . </p><p> . . , , . , , , . </p><p> . , . . : . , . , , , , . </p><p> - , - , , , . . , ( ) . , , , () . , , . (free riders). . , . </p><p>3. . , , . , - . . ( ) . . . </p><p>II. . . , , . . , , , . , , . </p><p>III. . , . , . </p><p>1.2. </p><p>1. . , . </p><p>2. . , , . </p><p>3. . , . </p><p>4. / . . </p><p>5. . </p><p>1.3. </p><p> -, . </p></li><li><p>8 . </p><p> , . </p><p> / . </p><p> , (destructive competition). , (dumping), . , , . </p><p> , (, ), . , . . </p><p> , , . . , . , 1. , 1992 , 1995 . , . . . ( , ) . , , . </p><p>-, . , . . : </p><p>A. , , , , . B. : </p><p> ; ; . </p><p> ( ), . , . , = . &lt; , (recession)....</p></li></ul>

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