Лучший проект 2009-2010 учебного года - Антарктида - 03

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Современные исследования Антарктиды

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2. , , , . . , .. .. 1820 , XIX . (Carsten Borchgrevink, 18641934), . 1899 . 3. - , , , , , , (Erich von Drygalski, 1865-1949), (Robert Falcon Scott, 18681912), (OttoNordenskjld, 18691928), (Ernest Shackleton, 18741922), (Jean-Baptiste Charcot, 18671936), (Douglas Mawson, 18821958). , - . Sir Ernest Shackleton 4. 19101913 . , . , , , , . 19301940- , (Richard Byrd, 18881957), 19491951 -- 19491952 . , XX 2% , , , . , 19561958 () , . - , . 5. 6. -, -1, , , , . . () : ( , , ) . - . - - 13 1956 . - , - 7. - 16 1957 . . , . 3700 . ( ) : . . : 89,2C (21 1983). 21C. . - , - . . : -78.466667, 106.87828 .. 10648 .. / 78.466667 .. 106.8 ..(G) 8. . 5 /, 27 /. - 3488 . - . - , , , . . . , . . - , , , , , , , ( 12) . - -30, . - -68,0, -70. . - 4,5 , . 9. - , 1253 1260 . , , . ( , ) - ( ) . . 25 - . 13. , ; -, , , ; , , . 1990- , ( ). . 10. - , , . . 13 1956 . - . , . . :663320 .. 930011 ..66.555556 .. 93.003056 .. (G) 11. : 160-200 , - 40-50. 11C. : 220 15 /. . , 30-40. . , .C , , - : - - , , . 1956 . 12. - , ( ). ... 22 1968 . : 621200 .. 585740 .. / 62.2 .. 58.961111 .. (G) - , . , : - . . ()- 6,8, ()- +1,1C. - . 13. (-2)- , . 1989 . 2000 , 2003 . : 692251 .. 762325 .. / 69.380833 .. 76.390278 .. (G) - . ( 2010 ) - . 2004 . 14. - , . 18 1961. , . , 50 1000. . , , , . , 80 . : 704637 .. 114926 .. (G) , , . , . , , - , , 15. , , . -- , 30-40%. 11C, 41C, +9,9C. , . () . , , - . . 30 1961 6- . 2007. , . , 16. , , : ( Aboa ) 1989 ( Alfred Faure / Crozet ) 1964 - ( Amundsen-Scott ) 1956 ( Artigas ) 1984 ( Arctowski ) 1977 ( Asuka ) 1984 ( Bellingshausen ) 1968 II ( Belgrano II ) 1955 ( Bird island ) 1982 ( Almirante Brown ) 1951 ( Wasa ) 1989 ( Great Wall ) 1985 ( Vernadsky ), ( Faraday ) 1996 ( Gabriel Gonzales Videla ) ( Vicente Maldonado ) ( Vostok ) 1957 (Gabriel de Castilla) 1989 17. ( Gough island ) 1956 ( Comodoro Guesalaga ) ( Edward Dallmann ) 1994 ( Davis ) 1957 ( Desepsion ) ( Jubany ) 1953 ( Drescher ) 4 ( Druzhnaya 4 ) 1987 ( Dumont dUrville ) 1956 ( Yelcho ) ( Zhong Shan ) 1989 ( Camara ) ( Teniente Luis Carvajal ) ( Casey ) 1969 ( Kohnen ) 2001 ( King Sejong ) 1988 ( King Edward point ) 1950 ( Concordia ) 2003 ( Dome Fuji ) 1995 18. ( Leningradskaya ) 1971 - ( Law-Racovita ), ( Law ) 2006 ( Macquarie island ) 1911 ( McMurdo ) 1955 ( Dr. Guillermo Mann ) ( Marambio ) 1969 ( Marion island ) - - ( Martin de Vivies / Amsterdam ) 1950 ( Matienzo ) ( Machu Picchu ) 1989 ( Maitri ) 1989 ( Melchior ) ( Mizuho ) 1970 ( Mirny ) 1956 ( Molodezhnaya ) 1970 ( Mawson ) 1954 ( Nelson island ) ( Novolazarevskaya ) 1961 ( Neumayer ) 1981 ( General Bernando OHiggins ) 1948 ( Orcadas ) 1904 19. ( St. Climent Ohridski ) 1988 ( Palmer ) 1968 ( Tte. Arturo Parodi ) ( Petrel ) ( Port aux Francais / Kerguelen ) 1951 ( Capitan Arturo Prat ) 1947 ( Primavera ) ( Progress ) 1989 ( Luis Risopatron ) ( Julio Ripamonti ) ( Rothera ) 1975 ( Russkaya ) 1980 IV ( SANAE IV ) 1965 - ( San-Martin ) 1951 ( Svea ) 1988 ( Syowa ) 1957 ( Signy ) 1947 ( Scott ) 1957 ( Terra Nova ) ( Tor ) 1985 ( Troll ) 1990 ( Commandante Ferraz ) 1984 20. , ., , , , , , . . . , . , , , . , , . ( Fossil Bluff ) 1961 ( Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva ) 1969 ( Halley ) 1956 ( Heard Island ) I ( Juan Carlos I ) 1988 ( Shirreff ) ( Profesor Julio Escudero ) 1994 ( Esperanza ) 1952 21. . 17731775 . () 18191821 . . () 18381842 . () 18391840 . () 18411842 . () , 1895 . . () 18981899 . () 19021903 . () 1908 . () 14.12.1911 . () 18.01.1912 . () 19111931 . () 45 150 .. 1929 . () 1956 . () 1957 . () , (89 ) 1958 . () 19861992 . ( )

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