эрэлт ба нийлүүлэлт

  • Published on
    12-Nov-2014

  • View
    2.929

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

, .

Transcript

  • 1. -2,

2. : 1. , 2. , 3. , 4. . 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-2 3. : : =+ = +- 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-3 4. : . : - , 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-4 5. : - - . 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-5 6. :Qd=f(Pd,Pa,Pb,I,E,T,N,M) Qd- , , I- - - N- 7. : Qd = a-d*Pd Qd- d- a,d 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-7 8. p , $ per kg 2.1 14.304.30 2.300200240286 Q, Million kg of pork per year 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-8 9. p, $ per kg 2.1 14.30Demand curve for pork, D1 : . . 4.30 3.30 2.300 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.200 220 240286 Q, Million kg of pork per year 2-9 10. : : 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-10 11. : : : , , , 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-11 12. p , $ per kgFigure 2.2 Effect of a 60 increase in the price of beef3.30 D2 D10176 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.220232 Q, Million kg of pork per year 2-12 13. : Q = D(p, pb, pc, Y) where Q p (/) pb (/) pc (/) Y (.) 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-13 14. : Q = 17120p + 20pb + 3pc + 2Y pb = 4, pc = 3.33 and Y = 12.5, we have Q = 28620p ? 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-14 15. p = $3.30 , Q = 220p , $ per kgQ = 28620p 14.30DQ = -20Dp = Dp p = 0, Q = 286Demand cu rve for po rk, D14.30 3.30 2.300 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. p $1 (to $4.30) , Q = 200 p $1 (to $2.30) , Q = 240200 220 240 286 Q, Million kg of pork per year2-15 16. 2.1: 1. . Q = 28620p 20p = 286 - Q p = 14.30 0.05Q 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-16 17. 2.1: 2. 1 . p = p2 p1 = (14.30 0.05Q2) (14.30 0.05Q1) = 0.05(Q2 Q1) = 0.05Q. Q = Q2 Q1 = (Q1 + 1)Q1 = 1, p = 0.05. 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-17 18. : Broadband service- 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-18 19. , 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-19 20. : : , = + 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-20 21. : - - . 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-21 22. 2.3 , p , $ per kg ... Supply cu rve , S 15.303.30 .0176220 . 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.300 Q, Million kg of pork per year2-22 23. : : 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-23 24. : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. , 7. 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-24 25. p , $ per kg 2.4 $0.25 .. S2 S13.30 0176 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.205220 Q, Million kg of po rk per year 2-25 26. : Qs = a+d*ps Qs- s- c,d 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-26 27. : Q = 178 + 40p60ph ph = $1.50 Q = 88 + 40p. ? p = p2p1? 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-27 28. 2.5 : 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-28 29. 1. 2. 1. , . . 2. , . . . 5 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-29 30. 1., 2., 3. 9-13 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-30 31. . : // : , // 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-31 32. : 1. 2. 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-32 33. p , $ per kg 2.6 ! Excess supply = 39 S3.95 e3.30 2.65Excess demand = 39 0176 194 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.207220 D 233 246 Q , Million kg of pork per year ... 2-33 34. : Qd = 286 20p : Qs = 88 + 40p : Qd = Qs 286 20p = 88 + 40p 60p = 198 P = $3.30 Q = 286 20(3.3) = 220 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-34 35. 2.7a p , $ per kgA $0.60 . e23.50 3.30S D2e1D1 . = 120176220228 232Q, Million kg of pork per year 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-35 36. p , $ per kg 2.7b A $0.25 S2 S1e23.55 3.30e1 D = 150176205215 220 Q, Million kg of pork per year 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-36 37. 2.3: 1. .Qd = 28620p Qs = 178 + 40p60ph 28620p = 178 + 40p60ph 60p = 108 60ph p = 1.8 ph 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-37 38. 2.4 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-38 39. p , Pr ice of r ice per pound 2.8 () SS ( )e2p2p1 e1D Q2 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.Q1Q, Tons of r ice per year 2-39 40. 2.5 - ? ( ). 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-40 41. 2.5 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-41 42. p , $ per gallon 2.9 S1S2 ...e1p p1 = p1Price ceilingD ?Q1= QdQs 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.Q , Gallons of gasoline per month 2-42 43. ? , . : . 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-43 44. 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.2-44