تعلم التصوير

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دروس من مجلة التصوير الضوئي

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2 ...........................................................3 ...........................................................10 .................................................................24 ...............................................................26 ....................................................29 ............................................... 33 ............................................38 ................................................42 ....................................................... 46 ...........................................................51 ........................................................53 .................................................. 58 .................................60 CCDCMOS ..................................... 62 ............................................ 64 ...............................................................69 ......................................................70 Close-up ............................................73 Macro ..............................................75 ...............................................................79 ............................................................80 .................................84 Multiple .............................................91 ..................................................92 Cross-Process ............................... 94 .............................................................95 ...........................................98 ...............................................100 ...............................................103 ...................................................105 .......................................111 ............................................112 .. ...........................................117 ........................................122 Polarizer .........................................125 .........................................127 Camera ...................................................129 .............................................................. 133 .......................................................................136

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..Tv " Time Value ." 1000 / 1 ,500 / 1 , 250 / 1 , 125 / 1 , 60 / 1 , 30 / 1 , 15 / 1 , 8 / 1 , 4 / 1 , 2 / 1 , 1 ., .250 / 1 125 / 1 500 / 1 .

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10

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21., ) ( ,6 - 7 ) Ev .( . ) ( 18 % . , , ,. " ,. , :1 - ) ( Integral Metering, Sensor. ,. 2 - Spot Metering, , 1 - 3 %. - 10 % . ) 8 .( ) ( , ,, .., . ) 8 (

223 - Center-weighted Metering.75 % - 25 .% , ,, , , . 4 - Matrix &Multi-zone Metering) ( ., .. , , , : . ., ,) ( . . :, , , , . , . " " ) P ( ,, . ,) f11 f16 ( , . ,) ( ,) , .( - AP ) ( : ,. - SP )( : ,.23 (M): . ( (.) 9 ( Bracketing- ., ) ( ,, ., : [ +10-1 ] ,- (0). : [ +1 + 0 - -1 ]: [ +2+10-1-2 ] . * * " - "

24

" " , " ".3400 , . . :Hyperfocal Distance - ,. , .: 20 , ) A ( - B ,f/22 1.5 ) C ( , f/16 1.8 3f/8 . , , 5035 , f/11 ,) ( 15 ., 10 , 6 30 .20 , 8 .: : ) U (U = f / Ff F : ) U ( ) D ( QQ= U * D D : DfDf=1+Q DbDb=1-Q = ) D ( ) Df ( = ) D ( ) Db (- , 80 , f16254 .U ) 16 /80 ( ) 0.2 ( Q ) 4 * 0.2 ()0.8 ( ) 1 + 0.8 =1.8 () 1 0.8 =0.2 ( ) 4 /1.8 =2.2 () 4 / 0.2 =20 ( 2.2 20 ,., .50 : ,f/2 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/220.30.27- 0.34 0.50.41- 0.64 1.00.69- 1.78 2.01.51- 2.94 1.06- 16.6 3.01.8 8.81.30 - 5.01.56 - 10.01.83 - 20.02.02 - -* . , ,. ,.* . , .Landscapes .Close-up .* ) .( ,, ) ( ) .(

26

LIa.I as Photographing Landscapes

* " ,, . * " , " ," " . * " , . , , ". * 28 , . * f/16 ."( Sharp ( . * ) Filters ( ."." , . , " Contrast. *,.

*.

27

Iat as 85 . . , , . SLR , ) f/4 ( ) Out of Focus . ( " . . . . " , " . , . Soft Light Soft Focus Filter . , , . , Red-eye Reduction . oIaaaI as

, . . , . " , " . SLR ) f/4 ( . ) Compact camera ( . , . " , . . . , . " , ." 1 / 125 .

28

aI as " " . " , " , . , , . " , . " , , . " " . " , , " " - 400 . . , . , . , , .

29

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33

- .- )Fill-in flash .(- .- Bouncing flash.- . .. , ... ., ) ( . , . . , ,.. , ,. :- .- .- , .- , ,.- . 34:- . ,.- ,, ..) ( ,.- .,Out of focus . Red-eye reduction .. .)( , . ,., . . : . ).(Under-expose . Expose compensate ., + + 1 . ) .(.... , ., . , ... .35, .,.Fill-in flash ).( ,., . .

.: . ) .( . . , . . Synch cord Hot shoe .,.,., . . , . .36 . . . : . . -. - .: ,. . Bouncing flash, . , -.,.10 ,.)EV +1 ( ,. : , , , .. ,,. ,. . ,.37., Closu-up , ,45 .. . ,. ., , fill-in . , )( .: . .f-stop .

38

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42

, ,, ,,)CCD .( ) CCD ( ," " ,,. Resolution- .Resolution ) * ( 1800 * 1200 ,, 3.3 ) .( 3.3. 357.5 64 . 1005 6 ) ( , ,35 6 .6 .

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Digital Storage Media SmartMedia CompactFlash Memory Stick PC Card ,. , .: CompactFlash , SmartMedia , MicroDriveMrmory Stick . 81 . :CompactFlash :. , , , Hard Disk ., . 1 , . ., ,, .) ( ,Compact , ,) 13 * 18 .(

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