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<p> ... : (3-D) . , , , 60- . , , 40- : , , . , . , . , , . DuPonts Global Automotive Color Popularity Report . , , , . , PPG Industries, . . , , , . , , . , , . , , . , . , PPG , 105 25 20102011 . .</p> <p>1</p> <p> (2-D) . , , . 3-D 2-D, . , . . 3-D , . : ; , , , ; , , , , ; - , . , X-Rite Inc., , 3-D , , . , , , . X-Rite xDNA 3-D [1]. ( DNA ). MA98 .</p> <p> , , , (.1). .</p> <p>2</p> <p> , , .. (), . , , , . . ( ) ( ). . , . , . , . 1 . , , / , . , , , . . / () . . , .. , , .. . , . , , (), , . , .., . 1/. , , . 3</p> <p> . . 2. . , , . , .</p> <p>. 2 ONERA , . , . , , - , . , , . , , , () , , ... ( ) . . . , / . , / (, , ..). , . N : N = 2 + 4</p> <p>, , , (.. , , ..). , 3. . 1 , 2, , 3, 4 5 6 . , 7 = 23 +1. , , . .3 .</p> <p> . : -, , , ; -, . , , , ( , MA 68 II X-Rite). , , . . , . , : - ; - ( ); , , ( ). 'as' ( aspecular - ) 'az' ( ). , 45, 25, 90 - 90 , 45as25az90 45as25az-90 . / X-Rite MA98 . 45 : 45as-15; 45as15; 45as25; 45as75; 45as110; 45as25az90; 45as25az-90; 45as60az125.3; 45as60az-125.3 15 : 15as-15; 15as15. . 4. 5</p> <p> 400 700 10 (31 ). , 15 45 . , 31 .4 . 10 ( , ), . , , 1 10 10- 310 . , , . 45as 0 () . , (BDSF), . .</p> <p> xDNA, . X-Rite Inc. xDNA [2]. , . , , . , xDNA . xDNA , . ; . . , xDNA . 6</p> <p> xDNA ( z), , ( y), ( ). 3D . 5, 2D .6. , x-DNA , , . , () , , .</p> <p>. 5. 3D xDNA </p> <p>. 6. 2D xDNA </p> <p> x-DNA - [3]. , . xDNA . , , , xDNA xDNA . , , . xDNA . - , . xDNAt. C xDNA , . 7</p> <p> . . , , . , , . , xDNAt, ( ) xT - xTx, xTy, xTz . , . xDNAa xDNAa. , xA. , xDNA , , , . xDNAs xDNAs. xS. , .. . , : xDNAa xDNAs. , , , xDNAa, , xDNAs , , , , . , , xDNAs . , , xS, .. xDNA . , , xDNAt xDNAs. dF, dFt , dFa dFs . , . xDNA ( 311) ( 31), ( 331) ( 311). xDNA ( 33), . , . 8</p> <p>x</p> <p>Xx</p> <p>Xy Yy Zy</p> <p>Xz Yz Zz</p> <p>y xDNA = Yx z Zx</p> <p> CIELAB XYZ , CIELAB xDNA: CIE _ L ( X x , Yx , X x ) CIE _ L ( X y , Yy , X y ) CIE _ L ( X z , Yz , X z ) L L Lx y</p> <p>ax bx</p> <p>ay by</p> <p>az = CIE _ a ( X x , Yx , X x ) CIE _ a ( X y , Yy , X y ) CIE _ a ( X z , Yz , X z ) bz CIE _ b ( X x , Yx , X x ) CIE _ b ( X y , Yy , X y ) CIE _ b ( X y , Yy , X y )</p> <p>z</p> <p> dF , , 33 :dF =</p> <p>(L</p> <p>x</p> <p>' ' ' L'x ) + ( ax ax ) + ( bx bx ) + ( Ly L'y ) + ... + ( az az ) + ( bz bz' ) 2 2 2 2 2</p> <p>2</p> <p> , . , xDNAt, xDNAa, xDNAs, , , , , , , . dFt , dFa dFs . dDNA dDNAt, dDNAa, dDNAs .. , , , xDNA . , , , .. xDNA . DF , dDNAt , dDNAt, dDNAa, dDNAs . [4]. . ( 450) 10 . , xDNA , , .</p> <p>9</p> <p>Spectralon Spectralon , , .. . 99.1% . , , , xDNA . . 7 7 xDNA . z , y , x . , z . , . 7 , Spectralon . 99.1, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10, 5 2%.</p> <p> . . 8 8, . 1%, 3.5,15,</p> <p>10</p> <p>32, 50, 88%. , (.8) , . Spectralon.</p> <p> BCRA (British Ceramic Research Association). .9 xDNA BCRA. . 9 . .9 9 BCRA. xDNA ( x).</p> <p>11</p> <p> Pure Chroma Flair .10 Chroma Flair flake , . . 10 Blue Red 280, 10 - Cyan Purple 230, 10 Green Purple 190. , . xDNa . , , .</p> <p> Mica Xyrallic .11 .11. , - 1% Mica, 1% Xyrallic , . . . ( ) . , Xyrallic . xDNA 700 Mica. Mica . , Xyrallic .</p> <p>12</p> <p> .12 xDNA . LAHF ( ), HALF ( ). , ( LAHF) , ( HALF). , .12 , xDNA , . .12 . , , .</p> <p> . . 13 5 Chroma flair . , 5 , , . , 3 . , , () , </p> <p>13</p> <p>xDNA , . , , ( ).</p> <p> , , -, , , .</p> <p>: 1. Bidirectional Reflectance: An Overview with Remote Sensing Applications &amp; Measurement Recommendations. James R. Shell, II_Center for Imaging Science; Rochester Institute of Technology; Rochester, New York; May 26, 2004 2. Quality Manufacturing Today Nov.2008 pp. 21-23. 3. , 2002, 63, 6, . 473-493 4. Major Advances in the Reliable Measurement of the Color and Appearance of Special Effect Paints and Coatings. JonNisper, Tom Richardson, and Brian Teunis; X-Rite, Incorporated.</p> <p>14</p>