История и направления развития вычислительной техники

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история и направления развития вычислительной техники

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<ul><li> 1. , 2013 : </li></ul> <p> 2. 3000 . . . , . 500 . . . , . . XVI , 10 . 3. , ( ), , (). 4. 1492 (1452-1519) 13- . 5. 1623 , (1592-1635) , , ( ) . , 6. (16231662) , , , - (). (1642 .) 7. , . , , , . . , , , . , : , ! 1799 . 8. , ). , . , .. 0, . , , (, 1 99) .. 9. , , , . (1673 .) (1646 - 1716) " ." 10. 1801- (1752 - 1834) (1801 .) , . , . . 11. 1822 (1791-1871) , , ( ) (Analytical Engine). , Analytical Engine . , , ! , , . 12. 3. , ( , ); 4. . , Analytical Engine : 1. (); 2. , (); 1991 , , 2,6- 2, 2000 3,5- . , XIX , , , . 13. . , . ( ), , . 1840 , . , , . , . . . . . 14. 18841887 (1860 -1929) , , 1890 1900 1897 . . 15. , 6 , . 13 . , 62 622 250 ., 1890 . . 1896 TMC (Tabulating Machine Company) . 1911 , C-T-R, . 1924 C-T-R IBM (International Business Machines ). 16. 1897 . . 1946 , , . to compute, computer, , ( , , computo ). , . , , . - 1897 17. , . (1890 1974) () , . 1927 18. . 1929 1978 . , . . 9 13 ( 8 ). . (1929 .) , 13 (1970-), . , , . 19. , 1936 , , , . (1912 - 1954) ). 1936 . . , (. Gordon Welchman), , . , . 20. (1938 1956 ) : 1. . 2. . 3. ( , ). 4. . . 5. . 6. . 21. Z- Z1. . . , Z1 - . , , . 1938 - 22. 1941 Z3, . , , , , , . , , . , Z3 . 23. 1943. - "Colossus". . , , . , . 10 1943 Colossus. - . ... (1943 .) Colossus 24. (. Iowa State University) (. John Atanasoff) (. Clifford Berry) ( ) (. Atanasoff-Berry Computer ABC ()). ( ), , , , . 1939 Atanasoff-Berry Computer ABC 25. , . (. XIX ). , , . . , . . (1815 1864) 26. . 1939 : 1. . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 27. 1937 . . IBM (International Business Machines, Inc), . Mark1 , IBM , , , Mark1. 28. 500 , . 1939 , 1944. Mark1 (17 2.5 ) (750 , 800 , 3 ) . 29. , - , . . (J. Presper Eckert), 1000 , . ENIAC, , . 1946 . 14 1946 . , , . 1943 1946 , 30. ( , ). ENIAC 18 1500 , 85 , 30 150 . , ENIAC 10 31. . 40 , , 6 000. , . , , . . ENIAC 18 . 32. - , , , , , , (1903 - 1957) 1945 . 33. 1. . 2. . 3. , . 4. . 5. (), ( ). , . 6. . 7. ; . 8. 9. , . 10. . 34. 1948 Curta , . 1950- 1960- . (1948 .) 35. .. .. - , - (1952 , ). 8000 . 1951 . 1952 . 36. 28 1955 . 37. (1956 1963 ) : 1. . 2. . 3. -. 4. , , , . 5. - , - . 6. . 7. . (, , ..). 38. Bell Labs , . 200 100 . 1947-1954 . 1956 . 1954 Texas Instruments . 1956 -. 39. 1945 , . . 1953 . . 1949 ( , pulse transfer controlling device) , , . 1949 , 1955 . 1950- . IBM, IBM 500 000 $. 40. , RAMAC 305. , HDD 1956 900 , 5 . 50 , . , . $50 000 . 41. 1954-57 . IBM FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation), . . FORTRAN 42. 1958 . Texas Instruments ( INTEL) Fairchild Semiconductor . : ?. , , , . , . . 1958 . 43. COBOL, 60-70- . ALGOL BASIC. DEC PDP-1, - ( ) . 120 . PDP-1 , , IT , Star War. ASCII. - 1959-64 . 44. .0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .A .B .C .D .E .F 0. NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS TAB LF VT FF CR SO SI 1. DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US 2. ! " # $ % &amp; ' ( ) * + , . / 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; &lt; = &gt; ? 4. @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 5. P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [] ^ _ 6. ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 7. p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ DE L ASCII 45. 1. , . . 2. , . 3. . , .. . (1964 1971 ) 46. 20 000 IBM System 360, . - IBM-370, EC ( ), ( ) . IBM-360 IBM-370 1964 . IBM 1964 . BASIC, 47. . 1925 - . , : ; ; ( ); ; , 1967 . . 48. 1969 , . (ARPA) . -, , -. ARPANET, , . ARPANET , . 1973 , . ARPANET 50 . 1984 ARPANET , (56 /), ARPANET. 1990 ARPANET , NSFNet. 1969 . ARPANET 49. 1970 Unix; , . , - ( 80 ); . , , Borland (Aka Inprise, aka Corel) . RAD- , Delphi, Object Pascal. 50. . . . . . (1971 . ) 51. Intel Intel 4004. 60 300 . Poketronic. @ (""). . QWERTYUIOP. 1971 . . 52. Apple 1975 . , , 53. 1971 . Apple I. Apple I ( Apple-1) . . . Apple I Apple Computer ( Apple Inc.), 1976 -, 54. 1977 . Apple II Apple II, 5 1977 , MOS Technology 6502 1 , 4 ( 48 ), 4 , Integer BASIC ( Basic ), . 55. Macintosh 128k ( Macintosh, 1984 Newton MessagePad 1993 . Macintosh. 56. Apple Mac Pro Apple Mac mini iPhone Apple Mac Book Apple Mac OS 57. International Business Machines Corporation 1911 - 1921 - 58. 1981 . IBM Corporation (International Business Machines)() IBM 5150, . IBM PC IBM . -, . , 12 ( : Microsoft 32 ). IBM , IBM PC (, Intel, MS-DOS Microsoft Seattle Computer Products) 1981 . IBM. 59. IBM - iSeries 400. . IBM 60. , , </p>