სისტემური მსოფლმხედველობა და ანტიკრიზისული სტრატეგიის პრობლემები

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mamuka macaberiZe, zurab gasitaSvili, ivane gorgiZe, guram javaxaZe

sistemuri msoflmxedveloba da antikrizisuli strategiis problemebi

sagamomcemlo saxli teqnikuri universiteti 2009

eZRvneba uwmidesisa da unetaresis, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia meoris aRsaydrebidan ocdameTerTmete wlisTavs da misi maRalyovladusamRvdeloesobis, saqarTvelos samociqulo marTlmadidebluri eklesiis, manglisisa da walkis eparqiis mmarTvelis, mitropolit, profesor anania jafariZis 60 wlis iubiles

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anotacia monografiaSi aRwerilia sistemuri msoflmxedvelobis TvalsazrisiT sulieri gavlenis, rwmenis da codnis urTierTmimarTeba, marTvis, mecnieruli kvlevis problematikis fundamentur problemaTa tipologia. sistemuri msoflmxedveloba SeucvleliaAantikrizisuli problematikis damuSavebisaTvis. naSromSi ganxilulia ekonomikuri vardnis SeCerebis da lideris poziciis dabruneba ganviTarebis amerikuli modelis zogierTi mniSvnelovani fragmenti, aseve iaponiis saocari ekonomikuri zrdis ZiriTad mizezTa zogadkonceptualuri Taviseburebani. aRwerilia Tanamedrove situaciuri centrebis funqcionirebis strategiebi, sadac Rebuloben sakvanZo, sistemur gadawyvetilebebs mrewvelobisaTvis, ekonomikisa da politikisaTvis, sadac xdeba modelireba yvelanairi krizisuli situaciebisa, samxedro - politikuri xelmZRvanelobisa da sxvadasxva saxis swrafi reagirebis samsaxurebisaTvis. Mmonografia gankuTvlilia umaRlesi skolis yvela donis studentisaTvis da naSromSi ganxiluli problematikiT dainteresebuli mkiTxvelisaTvis.

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seria marTva, gamoTvliTi teqnika, informatizacia seriis redaqtori arCil frangiSvili recenzentebi: giorgi gogiCaiSvili saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis informatikisa da marTvis sistemebis fakultetis organizaciuli marTvis departamentis ufrosi, sruli profesori Tamaz obgaZe saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis informatikisa da marTvis sistemebis fakultetis sainJinro kibernetikisa da xelsawyoTmSeneblobis departamentis ufrosi sruli profesori

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Sinaarsi: Sesavlis magier sistemuri msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibebisa da ganviTarebis qronologia akademikos iveri frangiSvilis mecnieruli memkvidreobis mcire fragmenti sistemuri azrovnebis sferodan rwmenisa da codnis sistemuri urTierTdamokidebuleba sistemur krizisTa winaaRmdeg brZolis sistemuri meTodebis raoba da topologia. simdidre da siRaribe "RvTaebrivi" wonasworoba TviTorganizebadi sistemebi TviTorganizebadi sazogadoebebi da maTi Seqmnis perspeqtivebi sistemuri da struqturuli krizisebis gadaWris Tanamedrove meTodebi codna - yvelaze ZviradRirebuli saqoneli . . . . . . . . . . . . sistemuri msoflmxedveloba da saxelmwifo marTva yvelaze efeqturi antikrizisuli RonisZieba Semoqmedis mier dawesebuli sistemaSemqmneli kategoriebi - sistemuri msoflmxedveloba, sulieri gavlena, codna da rwmena . . . . . . . . . . . sistemuri msoflmxedvelobis naTeli nimuSi saqarTvelos marTlmadidebluri eklesiis saWeTmpyrobelis mosazrebebi Tanamedroveobis fundamentur problemebze . . . sityva "globalizaciis da civilizaciaTa dialogis saerTaSoriso forumze" saqarTvelo da globalizacia, sakvirao qadageba "kulturaTa dialogi", sionis sapatriarqo taZari, 17 X 2004w. . . . . . . .

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qarTuli enis saRvTismetyvelo da sistemuri gaazreba uwmindesis da unetaresis, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis ilia II-is qadagebebidan sistemuroba daviT kakabaZesa da ivane javaxiSvilTan . . . . . . . . . . . daviT kakabaZis sulieri gavlenis sistemuri safuZvlebi . . . . . . ivane javaxiSvilis sulieri gavlenis sistemuri safuZvlebi . . . . ivane javaxiSvilis kredo . . . . . . . . . . . . ivane javaxiSvili da XX saukunis qarTuli universiteti . . ivane javaxiSvili qarTveli eris kulturuli memkvidreobisaTvis . . . ivane javaxiSvili mSeneblobis xelovneba Zvel saqarTveloSi . . . ivane javaxiSvilis samecniero memkvidreoba wyaroTmcodneoba da istoriografia . . . boloTqmis nacvlad . . . bibliografia . . .

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Sesavlis magier sistemuri msoflmxedvelobis erT-erTi gamovlineba, urTierToba rwmenasa da codnas Soris - es uZvelesi problemaa, romlis raobac jer kidev I-II saukuneebSi ganixileboda. amis damadasturebelia Sroma wmida klimenti aleqsandrielisa, romelsac ewodeba stromata anu xaliCebi, sadac naTqvamia, rom orive, codnaca da rwmenac, aucilebelia adamianisaTvis. es udidesi mecnieri da filosofosi ambobs, rom pirveladi aris rwmena da masze aris daSenebuli codna. bolos igi saocar daskvnas akeTebs da ambobs, rom mxolod morwmune adamiani aris mona RvTisa, xolo morwmune ganaTlebuli adamiani aris megobari RvTisa da rom safuZveli amisa aris TviTon saxarebaSi, roca ufali Cveni ieso qriste mimarTavs Tavis mociqulebs da eubneba: megobarno Cemno; me ar giwodebT Tqven monas, aramed megobars, radgan Tqven ukve yvelaferi iciT, rac gadmogeciT. rwmenis, zneobis da mecnieruli dasabuTebis gareSe keTildReobis sazogadoebis Teoriis Seqmnis mcdeloba sruldeba sistemuri krizisiT. aRniSnulis mkafio magaliTia dRevandeli aramdgradi globaluri mdgomareoba. dRes bevri cdilobs gaerkves 2008 wlis globaluri krizisis gamomwvevi mizezebis raobaSi. vis ar adanaSauleben: aSS-s ipoTekis bankebs, e.w. hej-fondebs, navTobis eqsportiorebs da sxva mraval faqtors. iseTi suraTi iqmneba sistemur ekonomikur da finansur krizisTan dakavSirebiT, rom am koliziebis gamomwvevi mizezis Ziebaze ki araa saubari aramed mxolod krizisis simptomebis mkurnalobaze rac daavadebas verafers daaklebs. ramdenic ar unda vimsjeloT, sistemuri krizisi daiwyo finansuri sferodan, imdenad ramdenadac fuli warmoadgens Cveni urTierT damokidebulebis ekvivalents, swored adamianTa Soris

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urTierTdamokidebulebaSia krizisis gamomwvevi mizezebi.

saZebneli

dRevadeli

sazogadoebis mudmivad mzardma egoisturma midrekilebebma sxvadasxva tipis siamovnebebisadmi, kacobrioba moiyvana dRevandel dRemde sadac Cven urTierT damokidebulni varT globalizaciis procesis gamo da erTi bankis kraxi iwvevs jaWvur reaqcias sxva bankebis monawileobiT. sabanko sfero daemsgavsa qviSisgan agebul sasaxles, romlis erTi segmentis destruqcia uciloblad ainicirebs dominos principad wodebul procesebs da rac realurad ukve ganxorcielda msoflio sabanko da safinanso sferoebSi. 2008 welSi dawyebulma krizisma kidev erTxel daarwmuna kacobrioba imaSi, rom yvela, globalizaciis gamo, isea erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, rom egoisturi miswrafebebis gamovlena sxvaTa mimarT SeuZlebelia kompensirebuli iqnas TamaSis wesebis gadaxalisebiT an SecvliT. swored aRniSnuli gamovlinda dRevandeli finansuri krizisisas, radgan fuli aris adamianis egoizmis, Zalisxmevisa da siamovnebis ekvivalenturi gamovlineba da igi (fuli) aris Cveni egoizmis hipertrofirebuli maxasiaTebeli. rogorc ki daiwyo krizisi cxadi gaxda rom sazogadoeba gadaxdis uunaro aRmoCnda, im mizeziTac rom Seqmnili materialuri dovlaTi gacilebiT naklebi iyo mzardi egoizmis gamovlinebaSi gamoxatul fulis masasTan da daiwyo Seuqcevadi procesebi amgvari finansuri piramidebis rRvevisa. magram es krizisi, ar unda aRviqvaT gamouval Cixad, igi gvaiZulebs axali, gamWvirvale da mkafio urTierT damokidebulebebiT, ufro usafrTxo gavxadoT msoflio safinanso da ekonomikuri sistemebi. dRes SeuZlebelia erTi saxelmwifo iyos warmatebuli da masze gavlenas ar axdendes meore saxelmwifoSi dawyebuli koliziebi.

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amJamindeli globaluri krizisis Sedegad, evropamac da aSS-mac kursi aiRes ekonomikis saxelmwifo regulirebis gaZlierebaze, anu Tavisufali bazridan regulirebad bazarze gadasvlaze. bunebrivia, TiToeuli maTgani efeqturi marTvis sakuTari meqanizmis Ziebas iwyebs. cxovrebis done dasavleTis qveynebSi arsebiTad zemomxmareblobisa da momgebianobis xarjzea aweuli. ekonomikuri krizisi am qveynebSi mkveTrad daaqveiTebs cxovrebis dones. es, samwuxarod, mTeli ZaliT Cvenc Segvexeba. amitom Cven saswrafod unda gamovZebnoT Seqmnili mdgomareobidan gamosavali gzebi. magram, upirveles yovlisa, is unda gaviazroT, ra gziT gvmarTebs svla. Cveni reformatorebi varaudobdnen, rom Tavisufal fasebsa da kerZo sakuTrebaze erTi naxtomiT gadasvla bazars saxelmwifos regulirebis gareSe funqcionirebis dawyebis saSualebas miscemda. maT ekonomikidan saxelmwifos wasvlis aucilobleba gamoacxades da mxari dauWires mTlian Sida produqtTan mimarTebaSi saxelmwifo xarjebis wilis mkveTr Semcirebas. aseTi mcdari receptebis realizacia mosaxleobis didi nawilis Semzaravi gaRatakebiT Semogvibrunda. dRes reformebis msvlelobaze im maCvenebliT msjelobas amjobineben, romlebic ar asaxaven sazogadoebis realur mdgomareobas. reformebis miRwevebs miakuTvneben: oqrosavaluto rezervebis dagrovebas, udeficito biujets, mTliani Sida produqtisa da mosaxleobis realuri Semosavlebis zrdis tempebs. amasTan erTad, reformebis gavlena adamianebis cxovrebis yvelaze mniSvnelovan mxareebze, (iseTebze, rogoricaa mosaxleobis cxovrebis xarisxi, anu realuri materialuri donis amaRleba, sicocxlis xangrZlivoba, samedicino momsaxurebisa da sapensio uzrunvelyofis gaumjobeseba, ganaTlebis, kulturis, mecnierebisa da sxva mniSvnelovani maCveneblebi) situacias ki ar aumjobesebs, aramed auaresebs. reformirebisas gardaqmnaTa socialuri mdgeneli, samwuxarod, mxedvelobis miRma aRmoCnda.

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sabazro TviTregulirebam ar gaamarTla, rac iyo kidec mosalodneli. aseTi ram maSin xdeba, roca sxva qveynis modelis gadmoRebas vcdilobT da ar viTvaliswinebT sakuTar Taviseburebebs. amis Sedegad miviReT warmoebis warmoudgeneli daqveiTeba, mosaxleobis udidesi nawilis arnaxuli gaRatakeba da socialuri uTanasworobis warmoudgeneli zrda, xolo am yvelafris gamo, socialur-politikuri arastabiluroba. ramdenadac Cven msoflios nawils warmovadgenT, sistemuri krizisidan gamosasvleli gzac erTi gvaqvs esaa daCqarebuli msoflio teqnikuri progresi, teqnologiuri sazogadoeba da teqnologiuri civilizacia. amis Sedegad materialuri aqtivebis mkveTri gazrda. amisaTvis saWiroa mrewvelobis, soflis meurneobis, gadamamuSavebeli dargis saswrafo ganviTareba da, upirveles yovlisa, saSualo da mcire sawarmoTa doneze. magram uciloblad uaryofiT Sedegs miviRebT, Tu sworad ar vmarTavT. xolo imisaTvis, rom vmarToT, saWiroa strategiuli miznis gansazRvra erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi ideis gansazRvra, rac sistemuri msoflmxedvelobis gareSe SeuZlebelia. sistemuri msoflmxedvelobis ganviTarebis qronologia Camoyalibebisa da

sistemurobis elementebi, Tavdapirvelad, adamianis miTologiur azrovnebaSi gamoCnda - homerosis (Homeros 800-750 Zv.w.) miTebi atareben sistematizebisa da racionalobis formebs. Zveli berZeni poetis hesiodis (Hesiod - 700 Zv.w.) Teogonia-Si (The Theogony) aRwerilia samyaros dabadeba pirveladi qaosisagan, raSic samyaros erTianobis idea SeiZleba davinaxoT. Teogonia-Si kosmologiuri procesi aRwerilia analogiebiT, rogorc TandaTanobiTi dabadeba RmerTebisa(Theogonia, or Genealogy of the Gods), rac Tavis mxriv Teogoniis - sistemur mowesrigebulobaze metyvelebs.

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sazogadoebis ganviTarebis kvaldakval, miTologiuri cnobiereba winaaRmdegobaSi movida praqtikasTan da mis safuZvelze Seqmnil codnasTan, amitom saWiro gaxda iseTi sistemis Seqmna, romelic erTi mxriv mianiWebda adamians msoflmxedvelobriv orientacias da meore mxriv es sistema damyarebuli iqneboda garkveul codnaze, amgvari roli, im periodSi, Camoyalibebadma filosofiam ikisra. pirvelad, antikur filosofiaSi Camoyalibda termini sistema rac mowesrigebulobisa da mTlianobis maxasiaTebeli iyo. filosofosebi eZebdnen im raRacas rac aerTianebda yvelafers samyaroSi. samyaro ganixileboda rogorc erTi mTliani, rogorc sistema, romelsac erTi pirvelsawyisi aqvs. amasTan ismeboda kiTxva: SesaZlebelia Tu ara SeviswavloT, aRviqvaT, SevimecnoT da avxsnaT mTeli buneba misi calkeuli nawilebis Secnobis xarjze. cneba yofierebisa pirvelad Semoitana filosofosma parmenidma (Parmenides 540 - 450 Zv.w) da ganixila problema urTierTmimarTebisa yofierebasa da arayofierebas. yofierebasa da azrovnebas Soris. yofiereba es isaa, rac yovelTvis aris, is erTiania, maradiulia, ganuyofelia da uZravia. demokrites (Democritus 460 - 370 Zv.w) atomisturi swavlebiT, daibada idea pirvelwyaroTa simravlisa, romelic mdgomareobda erTiani samyaros konstruirebaSi umciresi da dauyofadi nawilakebisagan - atomebisagan, amiT aixsneboda mravali formis arseboba rac ganisazRvreboda atomebis sxvadasxva TanafardobebiT. sistemuri SexedulebiT samyaros agebulebaze xasiaTdeboda aristoteles (Aristoteles 384 - 322 Zv.w) moZRvreba, sadac, ZvelberZnul filosofiaSi dagrovili codna, sistematizebuli da ganzogadebuli iyo. aristotele amtkicebda, rom warmoudgenelia nivTi da

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moZraoba(ganviTareba) im mizezis gareSe, ganpirobebulia garkveuli mizandasaxulobiT.

romelic

sityva sistema gaCnda Zvel eladaSi 2000-2500 wlis winaT da aRniSnavda: Tanwyobas, organizms, mowyobilobas, organizacias, wyobas, kavSirs. garda aRniSnulisa, sistema, gamoxatavda qmedunarianobis Sedegs. XV- saukuneSi yofierebis, rogorc kosmosis definicia icvleba sistemiT samyaro aRiqmeba rogorc, adamianisagan damoukidebeli sistema, romelsac gaaCnia organizebulobis, ierarqiulobis, imanenturi [laTinurad Immanens (Immanentis ) - sagnis bunebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movlena] kanonebis da suverenuli struqturis sakuTari tipi. yvela epoqis moazrovne adamiani, azrovnebda sistemurad, risi magaliTicaa platonis (Plton 428 - 347 Zv.w) filosofiuri sistema, aristoteles (Aristotel 384 322 Zv.w) loRikis sistema, hegelis (Hegel 1770 - 1831) filosofia da kantis (Kant 1724 1804) idealizmi, ptolomeusis (Ptolomeus 100 - 170 ax.w), kepleris (Kepler 1571- 1630), galileis (Galilei 1564 1642 ) astronomiuli sistemebi, vinerisa (Wiener 18941964) da eSbis (Ashby 1903 1972) kibernetikis sistemebi. sistemurobis mecnieruli formebi viTardeba XVI-XVIIIsaukuneebSi, antikuri epoqis pirmSo ganviTarda spinozasa (Spinoza, Espinosa 1632-1677) da leibnicis (Leibniz 1646 - 1716) SexedulebaTa wyalobiT, romelnic cdilobdnen samyaros sistemurobis interpretirebas. sistemurobis ideaa kopernikis (Copernicus, Kopernik 1473 1543) heliocentrizmSi da laplasis (Laplace 1749 1827) kosmogenur TeoriaSi. XVIII-saukunidan iwyeba sistemuri msoflmxedvelobis intensiuri ganviTareba, spinoza (Spinoza, Espinosa) loRikas ganixilavda rogorc, sayovelTao wesrigisa da kavSirebis gamoxatvis meTods, igi sxeuls da mis

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garemocvas erT mTlianad Tvlida azrovnebis calsaxa gamovlinebaa.

-

rac

sistemuri

amave periodSi, iwyeba cneba sistema-s aqtiuri gamoyeneba mecnierebaSi - germaneli filosofosi da maTematikosi lamberti (Lambert 1728-1777) aRniSnavda, rom rogorc mecniereba, ise misi nawili aris sistema, radgan sistema ideebisa da principebis Serwymaa, rac erTi mTlianis saxiT SeiZleba warmovidginoT. sistemaSi unda iyos subordinacia da koordinacia. e. kanti (Kant) Tvlida, rom sistema esaa codnaTa erToblioba, romelic erTiandeba erTi saerTo ideiT. hegeli (Hegel) aRniSnavda, rom konkretuli idea romelic viTardeba aris organuli sistema, es erTobliobaa romelic mravali safexurisa da momentisagan Sedgeba. sistemuri warmodgenebis gansakuTrebulad swrafi ganviTareba daiwyo XIX-saukunis Sua wlebidan, am droidan Cndebian sistemur-struqturuli Teoriebi biologiasa da qimiaSi. fundamenturi Teoriebis koncefciebis Seqmnisas - einSteinis (Einstein 1879 1955) fizika, lobaCevskisa (Lobachevsky 17931856) da rimanis (Riemann 1826 1866) geometria, farTovdeboda monacemebi sistemuri principebis Sesaxeb samyar...

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