Компьютерная графика: Учебно-методическое пособие

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<p> -</p> <p> .., ..</p> <p> - </p> <p> 2006</p> <p>2</p> <p>-</p> <p> , - Xara Xtreme 2.0f Adobe Photoshop CS2. 101 15 , . , .</p> <p>3 . 1. . 1.1. . 1.3. . 1.4. . 1.5. .. 1.5.1. PSD 1.5.2. TIFF 1.5.3. BMP 1.5.4. JPEG .. - 4 - 6 - 8 - 15 - 16 - 19 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24</p> <p>1.2. . - 12</p> <p>1.5.5. GIF .. - 25 1.5.6. WMF ... - 26 1.5.7. CDR 1.5.9. XAR. , web- . 1.6. 1.6.1. Corel Painter 1.6.2. Adobe Photoshop 1.6.4. Corel Draw 1.6.5. Xara Xtreme . - 27 - 28 - 29 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 26 1.5.8. AI . - 27</p> <p>1.6.3. Adobe Illustrator ... - 30</p> <p> 2. Xara Xtreme 2.0f - 33 2.1. . - 34 2.2. - 36 2.2.1. File ... - 37 2.2.2. Edit .. 2.2.3. Arrange .. 2.2.4. Utilities 2.2.5. Window .. 2.2.6. Help 2.3. Toolbar Infobar .. 2.3.1. Selector Tool - 44 - 45 - 50 - 60 - 62 - 63 - 63</p> <p>4 2.3.2. Freehand and Brush Tool ... - 65 2.3.3. Shape Editor Tool . - 67 2.3.4. Pen Tool . - 69 2.3.5. Rectangle Tool .. - 70 2.3.6. Ellipse Tool 2.3.8. Text Tool 2.3.9. Fill Tool .. 2.3.10. Transparency Tool . - 72 - 76 - 78 - 80 2.3.7. QuickShape Tool .. - 73</p> <p>2.3.11. Shadow Tool ... - 81 2.3.12. Bevel Tool - 82 2.3.13. Contour Tool ... 2.3.14. Blend Tool ... 2.3.15. Mould Tool .. 2.3.16. Live effect Tool .. 2.3.17. Push Tool 2.3.18. Zoom Tool .. 2.4. Color Line .. 2.5. .. 2.5.1 . 2.5.2 .. 3. Adobe Photoshop CS2 3.1. 3.2. .. 3.3. 3.4. .. 3.5. . 3.6. 3.7. . 3.8. ... - 98 -100 -103 -105 -105 -111 -113 -114 - 83 - 84 - 86 - 88 - 89 - 90 - 91 - 92 - 92 - 95 - 97</p> <p> .</p> <p>-115</p> <p>5 . , . , . , - , () () . , , , . . (, , ) . . . , , , . , , . . . Xara Xtreme 2.0f Adobe Photoshop CS2, , . . 1 , , , , . 2 Xara Xtreme 2.0f , Xara Xtreme 2.0f. </p> <p>6 3 Adobe Photoshop CS2 Adobe Photoshop CS2 .</p> <p>7 I. ( , , , ) . , . , , , , . , , , ( ). , , , , "", . , , , (.. ) . , . , . . , , . , ( , , ) . , , ( ) - </p> <p>8 - , , .. (, ) . , "", . , , , , , . - . , , , , , , , . . , , , , .</p> <p>9 1.1. . , . 90% . , , , . , ? -. , (, , ) [1]. - - , , , , , . , [2]. [3], , - . , , , . , , - , , . , , . - , . , . . . 90%</p> <p>10 , . . , , World Wide Web, "" " ". , . . , , , , , , . , , , . , , . , , , , , : . , ( ) . 60- . , , , , . 1960- ( Itek). 1964 General Motors DAC-1 - , IBM[4]. 70- . . , , , , , . </p> <p>11 , , , . . ( ), . . . , , . , . 80- , , , . , , . , Apple Macintosh (1984.). . -, Macintosh . -, , ( Windows). -, . Macintosh , . . , , , -, . . , , . . , . , . </p> <p>12 . . , , , . , , , . - . - , . - , , , , , , , , .. , . " " - . - , ( ) . "" , . "Animate" - - - "", "". "Animation" - . , "" - : "" "", "" - "". , "" - "multiplication" (), , . , - , . . - , , .. . , , , .</p> <p>13 : 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. . 1.2. : - () - (, ). 2- 3- . , : - ; - ; - . , . (.1.1) - , ( ( ), ) . </p> <p> , . 1.1 - . () (pixel picture element, .. ), , </p> <p>14 . - , . , , , . : - - ; - - ; - - , . . , .. , - . . . , , , , . . . : , , , . . , - , .. . , 1.2 - , (.1.2) . . </p> <p>15 . , , , . , . , ( ), "" , "" - , . , , , . , , .. - . , , , , , ( ) .., . . , , , , , . , . : - ; - ; - , . . , . . . ( ), . , </p> <p>16 . . , . : , , . (.1.3), , . , , </p> <p>, .. . , , , . 1.3 - , -</p> <p>, , . ( ), , , . , . . 1.3. - , , . - . , , . , , . . , [5].</p> <p>17 , : - , - , - . ( ) (, Windows). , . 72 . , , . dpi (. dpi - dot per inch - ) , , . . . , . Web 72 dpi. - . , (, , ). . , , , . , , , . 1.4. . . , 1 , .. , . , </p> <p>18 ( - 32 ), 16,7 . . (true color) 24 , 24 , 16,7 . True Color ( ). - , . . , 256 , . , , , . , . . () . , . , . : - 2 ; - c 256 ; - RGB red, green, blue , , ; - CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK , , , . , - . , , . , - ( 1.4 - RGB ) </p> <p>19 . . , . , . RGB (.1.4.) (Red, Green, Blue , , ). ( , ). , . , . , . , , - , - . , , , . . , . ( ) (). . , , . . , , . , , . , , , . : , , . CMYK (.1.5.) Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Blk (, , , ). , 1.5 - CMYK</p> <p>20 . . CMYK , (). , . , , . , RGB CMYK, . - () , (grayscale). . , Bitmap (). , . . , , ( GIF), . , . (palette) - , . ( RGB- RGB). . , , . , . 1.5. , , . , . </p> <p>21 , , . , web-, , . , , , . , , , . , , . , , . web- , . , . . . , , . web- -. , . , , . web- . , . . , . , , , .</p> <p>22 . : - , (PSD, GIF, JPG, TIFF, BMP, PCX) - (WMF), - , ( ) (CDR, AI, XAR, EPS). . 1.5.1 PSD Adobe PhotoShop web-, (PSD) . , . . PSD PhotoShop, , . . , , , PhotoShop 5.0, PhotoShop 7.0 - . , . , . PSD PhotoShop 3.0. , . PSD , . , SD- , RLE (Run-Length Encoding ). , , , . PSD- , , , </p> <p>23 TIFF. PSD -. ( ) . 1.5.2. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format , ) , . . TIF TIFF. TIFF - . TIFF (IFH Image File Header), 8 . , (IFD Image File, Directory). . IFD , , , ( ), . . . . TIFF , . , . , - , . TIFF CMYK, RGB . , web-, . , , . , , , , . , TIFF, 24. 16 777 216 .</p> <p>24 , TIFF- (alpha), . PhotoShop, TIFF , , . Layers () ( Enhanced TIFF ( TIFF)). TIFF . . LZW ( --, ), ( JPEG). . , , , . . , LZW , - . . - TIFF, - - (, WinRAR WinZip). , . 1.6.3. BMP( bitmap) BMP . Windows . , . , , Windows, , BMP-. BMP ( , ) 1, 4, 8 24 , 2, 16, 256 16 777 216 . , , .</p> <p>25 TIFF PSD, BMP . , , , (, , , , ). , ( Adobe PhotoShop Adobe Gamma, ). Adobe PhotoShop (Control panel &gt; Adobe Gamma ( &gt; Adobe Gamma)). BMP RLE ( .RLE .BMP). . Adobe PhotoShop , 4 8 (16 256 ). RGB, BMP- 16, 24 32 . 4 8 , . - ( bitmap) BMP . . , BMP , , . , Windows. , , , . 1.5.4. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group , "") web- </p> <p> , , . JPEG. 24 (16 777 216 ), .</p> <p>26 JPEG , . . ( , ), . , , , . , , . ( , ) JPEG . , , , . , [6]. 1.5.5. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format ) GIF CompuServe . , , WWW. . -, GIF , . GIF , , , (), , , , , , . GIF 256-, , , 64 (26), . , GIFa , , , , . , , ( ), ( ), , , </p> <p>27 . , . (interlaced). . . GIFConstractionSet, Xara, Adobe ImageReady. 1.5.6. WMF (Windows Meta File) Windows , , . WMF Windows . Clipboard, . Windows, . , , WMF . WMF , , , , Macintosh. 1.5.7. CDR CDR Corel Draw. , . CDR . . , AI. . (Illustrator, PageMaker - ) Corel Draw. CDR , , 4545 ( , , ).</p> <p>28 1.5.8. AI AI - Adobe Illustrator. , . , , Adobe Photoshop. . AI : , , , . Adobe "" (Prolog) . " " (Script Setup); , , . " " (Page Trailer) " " (Document Trailer). , , , , . 1.5.9. XAR. , web- Xara X, Corel Xara, Xara Xtreme. , . . (JPG, GIF, TIF, AI .) Export . </p> <p> , web- ! GIF JPEG? - GIF, JPEG. . , GIF, . ? GIF , JPEG, GIF , [7].</p> <p>29 (, ). , . , 100 100 , 1000 1000. , . , , . , . , , . , , . JPEG, . , , , , . 1.6. , . , . , , , , . . . , , , , , -, .. . . , , , . : , , . .</p> <p>30 . . . , . ( , , , ). , , . Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator, Xara; Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter. . 1.6.1.Corel Painter Corel Painter Paint, ( Windows). Corel Painter , (, , , , .), , . , Painter , . , , , , [8]. 1.6.2.Adobe Photoshop Adobe Photoshop - . Corel Painter ( Photoshop ) , Photoshop (, , ). , ( Photoshop , , , , </p> <p>31 , Painter). , , [8]. 1.6.3.Adobe Illustrator </p> <p> (, , , , , , ). Illustrator (, , , , Photoshop). , Adobe Illustrator Corel Draw - . Illustrator , Corel Draw . , Illustrator, Corel Draw, . , Photoshop , Photoshop. . 1.6.4.Corel Draw CorelDraw , e. </p> <p> CorelDraw , </p> <p> Adobe Illustrator - . </p> <p> . , , , , . : DRAW Illustrator - - - . , DRAW - . (highest level of customizability , </p> <p>32 ), . , , . - , . , Corel Draw (Corel Version). , : ; , , . Illustrator , , . , , , , , . Corel Draw. 1.7.5.Xara Xtreme. CorelDraw Adobe Illustrator Xara Xtreme , , . , , . Xara Xtreme - , Xara X orel Xara. , , , , . , Xara Xtreme , , web-. . , Xara Xtreme , . , , ( ), , , . Xara Xtreme </p> <p>33 web- . , , , . , , . Xara Xtreme Javascript , GIF , , XAR . Xara Xtreme , , Corel Draw Adobe Illustrator. , Xara , , . , : (real-time), JPEG, . , Xara Xtreme , . , . , blur, shadow, transparency, blending. Xara Xtreme ~8 , 25 Illustrator CS2. .</p> <p>34 2. Xara Xtreme 2.0f Xara Xtreme 50 . : , (antialiasing) , , , ; ( Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop Corel Draw); , , , , ( , , ( ); , , , , , , ; , , , ; GIF- , , ; web- HTML-. () , . , , . , . . , , (, ) . ( ) ( ). . . , .</p> <p>35 2.1. Xara Xtreme 2.0f - , , . 2.1. 1 3 3 2 3 3 3</p> <p>4</p> <p>5</p> <p>6</p> <p> 2.1 Xara Xtreme 2.0f . 1 , , , , . 2 , , , . 3 , , , . : 3 Standart ( );</p> <p>36 3 Galleries ( ); 3 Feathering (, ); 3 Toolbar ( , ); 3 Infobar ( , , ). 4 . 5 () (Color Line), , . 6 , , (), .</p> <p>37 2.2. File, Edit, Arrange, Utilities, Window, Help Xara Xtreme 2.0f.</p> <p> 2.2 Xara Xtreme 2.0f.</p> <p>38 2.2.1. File File 7 . 1 . New. (.2.3). 1, 3 4 . 2.3 New 5, 6 7 </p> <p> 4. ( 2 , ). 8 . , , . 2 , xar gif. , 1 . Open. Windows. xar, . Close . , : ? , Windows....</p>