Η προστασία του ελληνικού θαλάσσιου περιβάλλοντος

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...

, 2004

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-- & ... . . , , , ... . , . . / () / () , , .

...

: (. ): (M.Sc. ) ( - ) ( )

ii

. 1 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 . 2 : , . 1-11 1-16 1-20 1-5 1-5 1-7 1-11 1-1 . i iii 1-1

. 2-1 , , .

2.1 2.1.1 2.1.1.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4

(...) ... 90 ...

2-1 2-1 2-2 2-6 2-12 2-12 2-15 2-18 2-20

. . 3 . 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.1.1 4.1.1.2 4.1.1.3 4.1.1.4 4.1.2 4.1.2.1 4.1.2.2 4.1.2.3 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.1.1 4.3.1.2 4.3.1.3 4.3.1.4 4.3.2 4.3.2.1 4.3.2.2 4.3.2.3 4-22 4-31 4-32 4-19 4-19 4-20 4-20 4-22 4-19 4-17 4-1 4-1 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-9 4-12 4-12 4-14 4-14 4-15 3-1

. 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.5 4.6 , . 5.1 (, , ) 5.2 5.3 5.4 - 5.5 . 5.6 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006 5-6 5-5 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 4-38 4-33 4-36 4-37 4-33

. 5

5-1

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, .. 11/2002. , , . , , , , , . . , , , . . (.. , .., ... ..) , , ( ..). . , ....., , , , & "", , " " .

i

...

, . , , . , . , ..., , , .

ii

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, : , (...) (), , , . 10 80 MEDSPA NORDSPA, , MEDA , . Prestige . , , . , , . , . : , , , , . .., , 70% ,

iii

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, ... .743/77, , , , . , , ( ). , , . , , . , : , . , , . , , , , .

iv

... 1

1. 1.1 , . , . 5 .. , , , , . , , . , , . , . 7.000 , , , . , ; !. . (: - .958). , , . , , . , , . , , . 1-1

... 1

, . , , . , . 6 , 1/10 , , , , .. , , . , , , . , . , , : : . . (.. , , , ). , , : .

1-2

... 1

-

-

-

, , . , , , .. , , , .

: . , , , , . . , . : , . , . . Prestige . , . . , . .1-3

... 1

, . , , (.. ). , , . , : . . , , . , . , .

1-4

... 1

1.2.

1 , , , , , , . , , . : ( , , .), ( ), (PCB, DDT , , .. ), ( ), (, , ), ( ), ( , , , ). . (UNEP) 44% , 33% , 10% , 1% 12% . 1.2.1

. . , , ( , , , ) ( scrapping).

1-5

... 1

: ) () , , , , , , , , . . ) , , , . , , , , . , , , , . ) scrap . . , / , , scrap ... )

1-6

... 1

, , , . . , , .. terminal . , , terminal .. ( ). , , terminal (dock) . . . 1.2.2

( 1992), 82%. . . . ) : , ..., , , ( , , ...) , . (16.500 DWT) 1-7

... 1

. . , ( 200.000 DWT) . ( tankers) . , . , , . . 15 3 10. 42% 15 , 55% 10. 80% 15 , 85% 18 . 1.715 , . , 360-370 . ( 1999), 20-25% . 30% . (REMPEC), 1977 2000 311 , 156 . 1981 1990 36.476 , 1991 2000 21.667 . ) (), ( ) , , (garbage) (dumping). ( ) , 1-8

... 1

. , . , . ( 325.000 ) . ) () . ( ) , .

1-9

... 1 "Prestige": Prestige, offshore , , 77,000 (fuel oil) , ' . 26 . , , , , , in transit . . 3-4000 . 10.000 -' 20.000 - . 3.500 . , :

200 , . 100 La Coruna, . , () . , 35 200 , . . . , , .., , 160 . , , . . , , . , , . . . , , .

To "Prestige" , :

'Torrey Canyon' (1967) 'Amoco Cadiz' (1978) 'Atlantic Empress' (1979) 'Cavo Cambanos' (1981) 18.000 'Khark 5' (1989) 76.000 'Exxon Valdez' (1989) 36.000 'Haven' (4/1991) 144.000 'ABT Summer' (5/1991), 57.000 800 'Katina P' (4/1992), 55.000 112 Durban 'Aegean Sea' (12/1992), 83.000 La Coruna 'Prestige' 'Braer' (1993), 94.500 Shetland 'Sea Empress' (1996), 80.000 Mildford Haven 'Erika' (12/12/1999), 400 ,

1-10

... 1

1.3

: , .

1.3.1 . ) , (slop reception facilities). , , , , . MARPOL 1973 1978. . MARPOL . MARPOL : o , 72 1200 . o (), , 1000 . o , .

1-11

... 1

o () . o . o . , . , , , , . . / 15 ppm. . , . . , . , , , . , . (Container Terminals) . . 1-12

... 1

, . (chemicals and toxic substances) . chemical carriers, , . , , . . . ) : o Load on Top ( ) , , / (slop tank) . 100ppm. H , OILPOL,