აკმოლინსკის ბანაკი სამშობლოს მოღალატეთა ცოლებისათვის (ალჟირი) - ისტორიული ცნობა

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wignidan: `alJiris tyveTa portretebi: stalinizmis istoriidan hainrih biolis fondi Tbilisi 2008

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akmolinskis banaki samSoblos moRalateTa colebisaTvis ( alJiri ) istoriuli cnoba arseni roginski aleqsandr danieli

Tema@`qali banakSi~ _ yovelTvis tragikulia, tragikulia Tavisi arsiT. SemTxveviTi araa, rom sabanako memuaristikis yvelaze mkafio da yvelaze saSineli furclebi qalis kalmiTaa dawerili: evgenia ginzburgis `rTuli marSruti~, ekaterina olickaias `Cemi mogonebebi~, nadeJda surovcevas, olga adamovasliozbergis, xava voloviCis, ada voitolovskaias da sxvaTa aTobiT memuari. kolimis, vorkutis, norilskisa da taiSetis qalebis mier da maTze dawerili gulagis yvelaze Rirebuli da yvelaze STambeWdavi damowmebaa. da mainc, TviT `qalTa TemaSi~ yaragandis banakis istorias gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs. swored aq, 1938 wels, 26-e SromiTi dasaxlebis bazaze akmolinskis qalTa specganyofileba gaixsna, `gulagis arqipelagis~ sami kunZulidan erT-erTi, sadac xelisuflebas isini Cahyavda, vinc Tavisi patimrobis vada miiRo, rogorc `smow-ma~ _ `samSoblos moRalatis ojaxis wevrma~. danarCeni ori banaki, sadac 1937-38 wlebSi `moRalateTa colebs~ gzavnidnen, mordveTSi da tomskSi iyo ganlagebuli. akmolinskeli patimari qalebi TavianT kunZuls erTmaneTTan saubrisas naxevradxumrobiT moixseniebdnen egzotikuri sityviT alJir _ akmolinskis samSoblos moRalateTa colebis banaki.

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prevenciuli dapatimrebebi, proskripciebi, mZevloba da `krugovaia poruka~, koleqtiuri pasuxismgeblobis principi, represiebi ama Tu im jgufisTvis mikuTvnebulobis niSniT _ bolSevikTa yvela es iuridiuli novatoroba (ufro zustad, kargad gaxsenebuli Zveli gamocdileba, kacobriobis istoriis

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barbarosul epoqaTa memkvidreoba) sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirvelive Tveebidan daedo safuZvlad politikur represiebs. 1918-1920 wlebSi `kontrrevolucionerTa~ mSoblebs, colebs, Svilebs apatimrebdnen. iZulebiT samuSaoze gzavnidnen, sakoncentracio banakebSi amwyvdevdnen, xvretdnen. maSinac da samoqalaqo omis damTavrebis Semdegac apatimrebdnen da aseve xvretdnen, banakebSi gzavnidnen glexTa ajanyebebis monawileTa naTesavebs. `kontrrevoluciur elementTa~ ojaxis wevrebis devna epizodurad mTeli 1920-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi xdeboda. ojaxebis winaaRmdeg represiebs TiTqmis centraluri adgili uWiravs koleqtivizaciis istoriaSic. rogorc cnobilia, `kulakebi~ sam kategoriad iyvnen dayofili. isini, vinc xelisuflebam pirvel kategorias, anu `kontrrevoluciur aqtivs~ miakuTvna, daapatimres da Semdeg daxvrites an banakebSi gagzavnes. maTi ojaxebi ki `kavSiris CrdiloeT raionebSi~ unda gaegzavnaT. es sabWoTa istoriaSi, represirebulTa ojaxis wevrebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli yvelaze masobrivi operacia iyo. mas dapatimrebul glexTa asiaTasobiT naTesavi emsxverpla.1 1934 wels sabWoTa kanonmdeblobaSi Cndeba termini `[samSoblos] moRalatis ojaxis wevri~. ssrk cak-is 8 ivnisis dadgenilebiT isjebodnen sazRvargareT gaqceul samxedro mosamsaxureTa ojaxebi. imis mixedviT (gamomZiebelTa azriT), icodnen Tu ara gaqceulTa gegmebis Sesaxeb, ojaxis wevrebs sjidnen banakiT 5-dan 10 wlamde an cimbirSi gadasaxlebiT 5 wliT2. `yofilTa~ (Tavadaznaurobis, sasuliero da msxvili burJuaziis wridan gamosulTa) ojaxebis gasaxleba leningradidan 1935 wels, `antisabWoTa elementebis~ ojaxTa deportaciebi dasavleT ukrainidan, dasavleT belorusiidan, baltiispireTidan 1939-1941 wlebSi, moRalateTa (namdvil da arcTu ise) ojaxebis dapatimrebebi da gadasaxlebebi omis wlebSi da omis Semdgom, baltiispireTisa da dasavleT ukrainis nacionaluri winaaRmdegobis monawileTa ojaxebis omisSemdgomi gadasaxlebebi _ es CamonaTvali SeiZleba kidec Seivsos da kidec gagrZeldes. 1937 wlis ivlisis pirvel ricxvebSi miRebul iqna gadawyvetilebebi, romlebmac gansazRvres teroris mravali aTasi momavali msxverplis bedi. maTgan1

rac Seexeba meore da mesame kategoriis gankulakebulT, aq represia imTaviTve mimarTuli iyo mTeli glexuri meurneobis winaaRmdeg.gankulakebul mamas da meuRles Semdeg ki ar miayolebdnen xolme col-Svils, aramed asaxlebdnen mTel ojaxs, rogorc aseTs. 2 zogierT smows 1937-38 wlebSi dapatimrebis mizezad dakiTxvaze ganumartavdnen, rom maTze axla vrceldeboda kanoni ardabrunebulTa ojaxebis Sesaxeb. ix. M .., ...1998. .77.

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mTavaria _ politbiuros 2 ivlisis dadgenileba antisabWoTa elementebis Sesaxeb, romelmac startis niSani misca didi teroris epoqis yvelaze masStabur operacias. am gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze ivlisis bolosTvis momzaddeba Sinsaxkomis // saxelganTqmuli operatiuli brZaneba # 00447 (kulakuri brZaneba), romlis Tanaxmadac specialurad Seqmnili _-s sameulebi 1937 wlis 5 agvistodan 1938 wlis Sua noembramde gaasamarTleben aranakleb 800 aTasi adamianisa, maTgan naxevars daxvretas miusjian3. rogorc Cans, swored ivlisis am pirvel dReebSi moxda Semobruneba gegmebSic xalxis mterTa ojaxebisTvis momzadebuli xvedris Sesaxeb. 1937 wlis 3 ivliss maTi Semdgomi dapatimrebis mizniT kulakTa aRricxvis Catarebis moTxovnis depeSasTan erTad eJovma Tavis qveSevrdomebs ori gankarguleba gaugzavna. pirveli moiTxovda ssrk-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro kolegiis mier gasamarTlebulTa ojaxebis ukve dawyebuli gasaxlebis droebiT SeCerebas. pirdapir iyo miTiTebuli droebiTi SeCerebis mizezic: es ojaxebi uaxloes xanebSi damwyvdeuli iqnebian specialur banakebSi. meore gankarguleba daegzavna -s yvela ufross: a.w. ivlisisaTvis warmomidgineT im pirTa yvela ojaxis siebi, romlebic 1934 wlis pirveli dekembris Semdgom iqnen gasamarTlebulni uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro kolegiis mier pirveli, meore da mesame kategoriiT, agreTve, sasamarTloTa speckolegiebis mier gasamarTlebulTa socialurad saSiSi ojaxebis siebi. siebSi mieTiTos: 1) ojaxis gasamarTlebuli ufrosis gvari, saxeli, mamis saxeli, romeli kategoriiT aris gasamarTlebuli; 2) gasamarTlebulis ojaxis wevrTa gvarebi, saxelebi, mamis saxelebi, agreTve maTi asaki, sad da ra Tanamdebobaze muSaoben an romel saswavlo dawesebulebaSi swavloben. ojaxis SemadgenlobaSi CaiTvalos: coli, qmari, Svilebi, agreTve, maT kmayofaze myofi da maTTan erTad mcxovrebi mama, deda, Zmebi da debi. es ojaxebi uaxloes xanebSi moTavsdebian specialur banakebSi.1937 wlis agvistodan moyolebuli, gamoscems kidev ramdenime specialur brZanebas e.w. nacionaluri operaciebis Catarebis Sesaxeb, romelTa Sedegad 1937-38 wlebis teroris msxverplTa ricxvi TiTqmis 350 aTasiT gaizarda. dasaxelebuli cifrebi eyrdnoba 1937-38 w.w. politikuri represiebis statistikis Seswavlis Sedegebs; kvleva Caatara memorialis TanamSromelTa jgufma.3

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Tqvengan siebis miRebis Semdeg miTiTebas am ojaxebis banakebSi gagzavnis wesis Sesaxeb mogawvdiT damatebiT. eJovi4 . dabolos, imave dRes, 1937 wlis 3 ivliss dasavleT cimbiris mxaris -s ufrosis mironovisa da yazaxeTis Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisris zalinis saxelze moskovidan gaigzavna kidev erTi Sifrotelegrama, romelic dagegmili operaciis mniSvnelovan detalebs Seicavda. mas xels awerda gulagis ufrosi m. bermani, magram ueWvelia, rom gankarguleba, romelic masSia gawerili, eJovisgan momdinareobs: uaxloes xanebSi gasamarTldebian da gansakuTrebiT gaZlierebuli reJimis pirobebSi unda izolirdnen daxvretil trockistTa da memarjveneTa ojaxebi, daaxloebiT 6-7 aTasi adamiani, upiratesad qalebi da moxucTa umniSvnelo raodenoba. maTTan erTad gaigzavnebian skolamdeli asakis bavSvebi. am kontingentis mosavlelad aucilebelia ori sakoncentracio banakis organizeba daaxloebiT sam aTas kacze, mkacri reJimiT, gaZlierebuli dacviT (mxolod Tavisufal daqiravebulTagan), rac gamoricxavs gaqcevebs, aucilebeli SemoRobviT mavTulxlarTiT an RobiT, sayaraulo koSkebiT da msgavsi rameebiT, kontingenti gamoyenebuli unda iyos samuSaoze banakis SigniT. vinaidan aucilebelia am banakebis swrafad Seqmna, yvelaze mizanSewonilad mimaCnia maTi organizeba narimSi da yaragandaSi arsebuli SromiTi dasaxlebebis bazaze; pirvel rigSiGunda gamoyenebul iqnas Tavisufali an is nawilobriv Sesaxlebuli Senobebi, romlebic swrafad SeiZleba gamoTavisufldes iq myof gadasaxlebulTa sxvagan gadaadgilebis Sedegad. gTavazobT, swrafad daamuSaoT narimSi da yazaxeTSi sakoncentracio banakebis organizebis sakiTxi, TiToeuli _ sam aTas kacze.5 bermanis depeSa _ pirveli dokumentia, romelsac pirdapiri da uSualo kavSiri aqvs alJiris SeqmnasTan.

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am depeSebSi bevri ram bundovani rCeboda: banakebSi yvela gasamarTlebulis ojaxebi gaigzavneboda Tu mxolod maTi ojaxebi, visac daxvreta hqonda misjili, axali represiebi mxolod trockistTa da memarjveneTa ojaxebs unda Sexeboda Tu amas safuZvlad aRebulia saxeldobr samxedro kolegiis mier gasamarTlebis principi (braldebis Semadgenlobisgan damoukideblad) edo, ra unda eqnaT sxva organoTa mier gasamarTlebulTa ojaxebsTvis. cxadi mxolod erTia _ 1937 wlis4 5

rf-s ufs-s centraluri arqivi, .3., .4., .147., .315. iqve, furceli 310-311

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ivlisisaTvis msjavrdebulTa ojaxis wevrebis mniSvnelovani nawilis mimarT gasaxleba represiis arasakmaris zomad miiCnies da gadawyvites misis banakebSi gamomwyvdeviT Canacvleba.

samSoblos moRalateTa colebis winaaRmdeg momavali operaciis konturebi sabolood kidev ori dRis Semdeg gamoikveTa _ 1937 wlis 5 ivliss politbiurom daadgina: 1. miRebul iqnes Sinsaxkomis winadadeba 5-8 wliT banakebSi gamwesebis Sesaxeb samSoblos moRalateTa, memarjvene-trockistuli jaSuSur-diversiuli organizaciis wevrTa yvela colisa,warmodgenili siis mixedviT. 2. winadadeba mieces Sinsaxkoms, moawyos amisaTvis banakebi narimis mxareSi da yazaxeTis turgais raionSi. specialuri

3. samomavlod dadgindes wesi, romlis mixedviTac gamovlenil samSoblos moRalateTa, memarjvene-trockist jaSuSTa yvela coli daeqvemdebareba banakSi gamwesebas aranakleb 5-8 wliT. 4. msjavrdebis Semdeg darCenili 15 wlamde asakis yveli oboli bavSvi ayvanil iqnas saxelmwifos kmayofaze, rac Seexeba 15 welze meti asakis bavSvebs, maTi sakiTxebi gadawydes individualurad. 5. Sinsaxkoms winadadeba mieces ganaTavson bavSvebi respublikebis ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatTa sabavSvo saxlebisa da daxuruli internatebis arsebul qselSi. yvela bavSvi unda ganTavsdes qalaqebSi, garda moskovisa, leningradisa, kievisa, Tbilisisa, minskisa, zRvispira da sazRvrispira qalaqebisa6.

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1937 wlis 5 ivlisis Semdeg SinsaxkomSi daiwyo gaZlierebuli mzadeba momavali operaciisaTvis.6

dadgenilebis fototipuri gamocema ix.: sazogadoeba memorialis mmarTvelobis sainformacio biuletenSi seqtemberi, 1999, #12. gv. 18. agreTve: gulagis bavSvebi, 1918-1956,Sedgenili s.s.vilenskisa da sxvaTa mier. moskovi, 2002.gv. 229-230. aqve unda aRvniSnoT,rom am wignSi warmodgenilia dokumentTa didi korpusi bavSvebis _ smow-ebis Sesaxeb.

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aRiricxa dapatimrebulTa da msjavrdebulTa ojaxebis yvela wevri. monacemebi igzavneboda moskovSi, sadac maT Sinsaxkomis centraluri aparatis aRricxvisa da statistikis ganyofilebis TanamSromlebi amuSavebdnen. miwermowera mimdinareobda ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatTan sabavSvo saxlebSi adgilebis momzadebis Sesaxeb, FfarTovdeboda Sinsaxkomis bavSvTa mimRebgamanawileblebis qseli. grZeldeboda qalTa banakebis mosawyobad Sesaferisi adgilebis Zebna. sabolood, 1937 wlis 15 agvistos gamoica ssrk Sinsaxkomis brZaneba # 00486. Tu imave wlis 5 ivlisis politbiuros lapidaruli gadawyvetileba SeiZleba CaiTvalos dokumentad, romelic inicirebas ukeTebs Sinsaxkomis operacias samSoblos moRalateTa colebis winaaRmdeg, es mravalgverdiani brZaneba iyo dokumenti, romelic am operaciis dawvrilebiT reglamentacias warmoadgenda. es dokumenti ukanasknel wlebSi araerTxel gamoqveynda,7 amitom mivuTiTebT mis mxolod sam yvelaze mniSvnelovan debulebas. pirvel yovlisa, am brZanebis Tanaxmad, dapatimrebas eqvemdebarebodnen imaTi colebi, visac 1936 wlis 1 agvistodan miesaja daxvreta, cixe an banaki uzenaesi sasamarTlos samxedro kolegiis an samxedro tribunalebis mier memarjvenetrockistul jaSuSur-diversiul organizaciebSi saqmianobis gamo. meorec _ SemdgomSi evalebodaT momavalSi gamovlenil samSoblos moRalateTa, memarjvene-trockist jaSuSTa yvela coli dapatimrebul iqnes qmrebTan erTad. mesamec _ gansazRvruli iyo ganaCenTa gaformebis meqanizmi _ Sinsaxkomis sagangebo TaTbiri da patimrobis vada _ aranakleb 5-8 weli. ssrk

dabolos _ yvelaze arsebiTi _ politbiuros gadawyvetilebis kvaldakval brZaneba eZRvneba saxeldobr colebs da Svilebs, da ara zogadad ojaxis wevrebs, rogorc es Sinsaxkomis ufro adrindel dokumentebSia. Tumca, daviwyebuli arc msjavrdebulTa sxva kategoriebis naTesavebi arian. magram zomebi, romlebic Sinsaxkomis organoebma am kategoriebis mimarT unda miiRon, bevrad ufro individualizebulia. ase, msjavrdebulTa yofili colebi dapatimrebas mxolod im SemTxvevaSi eqvemdebarebian, Tu isini monawileobdnen msjavrdebulis kontrrevoluciur saqmianobaSi, malavdnen an icodnen mainc amis Sesaxeb da ar daabezRes. 15 welze meti asakis bavSvebic aseve mxolod maSin7

pirvelad gamoqveynda: memorial-aspeqti. 1993, #2/3, n.g. oxotinis publ. ix. agreTve: gulagis bavSvebi. 1918-1956 , moskovi,2002 gv. 234-238.

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eqvemdebarebodnen dapatimrebas, roca maT cnobdnen socialurad saSiSad da antisabWoTa qmedebis Cadenis SemZled. am SemTxvevaSi maTi saqmeebi, iseve, rogorc dapatimrebul colTa saqmeebi, gansaxilvelad sagangebo TaTbirs () gadaecemoda. marTalia, msjavrdebuli Svilebi SeiZleba ara marto banakSi an Sroma-gasworebis koloniaSi gaegzavnaT, aramed gaemwesebinaT gansakuTrebuli reJimis sabavSvo saxlebSi. dabolos, unda SevniSnoT, rom brZanebis Tanaxmad, orsuli qalebis, mZime avadmyofebis, meZuZurebis, agreTve xnieri colebis dapatimreba droebiT unda gadadebuliyo. Tumca, brZanebis sxva adgilas maTi Semdgomi bedis Sesaxeb mkafiod aris naTqvami: samSoblos moRalateTa msjavrdebuli colebi, romlebic ar iyvnen dapatimrebuli avadmyofobis an avadmyofi bavSvebis yolis gamo, gamojanmrTelebisTanave dapatimrdebian da gaigzavnebian banakSi. samSoblos moRalateTa meZuZuri colebi ganaCenis gamotanisTanave dapatimrdebian da cixeSi Segzavnis gareSe igzavnebian uSualod banakSi. aseve unda moeqceT xnier msjavrdebul colebs. brZanebis mniSvnelovani nawili eTmoba dedis dapatimrebis Semdeg umeTvalyureod darCenil bavSvebs. Cvilebi erTidan sam wlamde igzavnebodnen jandacvis saxalxo komisariatis bagebSi da sabavSvo saxlebSi, bavSvebi 3-dan 15 wlamde _ ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatis sabavSvo saxlebSi. amasTanave, specialurad iyo miTiTebuli, rom Tu darCenili oblebis TavianT srul kmayofaze ayvanas sxva naTesavebi (ararepresirebuli) moindomeben _ amas ar SeewinaaRmdegoT.

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stalinis TvalsazrisiT qalebi, romlebic represirdebodnen # 00486 brZanebis CarCoebSi, mxolod xalxis mtrebis colebi ar iyvnen. isini iyvnen colebi mTavari mtrebisa: trockist-buxarinel SeTqmulTa _ partiul da sabWoTa moRvaweTa, mrewvelobis xelmZRvanelTa, gamoCenil samxedroTa, kulturis moRvaweTa8 . Tanamedrove enaze rom vTqvaT, elitis colebi iyvnen. swored im8

gagaxsenebT, rom represirebulTa am kategoriis bedis gansazRvraSi stalini piradad monawileobda. 1937-38 wlebSi, manam, sanam saqme samxedro kolegias gaegzavneboda xolme, igi (Tavis uaxloes garemocvasTan erTad, Cveulebriv _ molotovTan, voroSilovTan, kaganoviCTan, JdanovTan erTad) aTvalierebda da vizas aZlevda momaval msjavrdebulTa Si...