РУКОВОДСТВО ПО РЕКТИФИКАЦИИ СПИРТА

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<p> .</p> <p> . , . . , , , , ( 200 96% 300 ), . , - .</p> <p>1</p> <p> ..............................................................................1 ..............................................................................................................................................2 ................................................3 ....................................................................................................................................................4 1. ............................................................................5 2. - ..............................................................6 ..........................................................................................................................6 - ...............................................................................6 .....................................................................................................................................7 -.........................................................................................9 - .........................................9 .................................................................................10 3.1. ............................................................................................................10 3.2. ....................................................................................10 3.3. ........................................................................................10 4. .......................................................................................................................13 4.1. ....................................................................................................................13 4.2. ............................................................................................13 4.3. ........................................................................................14 4.4. .....................................................15 4.5. ..............................................16 4.6. .......................................................................16 4.8. . ...............................................17 4.9. ........................................................18 4.10. .................................................................18 4.11. .............................................................19 4.12. , , .....................................20 5. ......................................................................................................21 5.1. ..................................................................................................21 5.2. ........................................................................................................21 5.3. ..............................................................................................................22 ) ....................................................................................................................................23 ) .................................................................................................................................23 ) ............................................................................................................24 ) ...............................................................................................24 ) ().........................................................................................25 5.4. ..........................................................................................................25 -...............................................................................27 ....................................................................................................................28</p> <p>2</p> <p> . . . , . , . . , , , , . , ( , ), , . , , , .</p> <p>3</p> <p> , , , . , , , . : ( ) ( , ). 1 1997 . , . , , : (, , , , ., , ); , , ; ; ; - , , . ( - ) , ( ) 100/ 3/, , . , . , , .</p> <p>4</p> <p>1. (, ) - C2H5OH . , - . . , -, . . . . : C6H12O6 = 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 + . .. , . : =1, =12 =16: (126+112+166) = 2(122+15+16+1) + 2(12+ 162), 180 = 92 + 88;</p> <p> , 180 92 88 . , 0.511/, ( = 0,8/), 0,64/. , (, , ..), , , . , , 12% , ( 70%) 54/: 1 () =&gt;0.7 () =&gt; 0.084 () =&gt; 0.054 (). (, ..). () (C6H10O5)n + nH2O + = nC6 H12O6, . , 1 1,11 . . , , 60% , 0,426/: 1 () =&gt; 0,6 () =&gt; 0,666 () =&gt; 0,426 (). 1015% . , , : , , ; , , ; , , .</p> <p>5</p> <p>2. - . 100% () (t=78,3C 760..., =790/3). , () + , -. . , (), . - . , . - ( % . , /, /). ( % . , 3/3 , / , /). - (=790/3=0,79/) (=1000/3=1/). , . - (X) : -3 040%, -3 4070%, 3 70100%, 95105%, -2 96101%, 60100%. , - , ( ). 20C, . 40% - 96,4%. , 712%, - , , , . Y, .. ( ) 760... (. ). - . , - (t=100C 760..) (t=78,3C 760..) . - () Y .1. , 96,4% 100%- . 6</p> <p>.1 - - ( 760 ..) . ( ) , . , : . , . .. , . - . ( .2) - X , Y. , ( ), , Y X . - , . + .2.</p> <p>7</p> <p>.2 - ( 760 ..) , , , . , X=10% Y=42%, (, ) . , - , . - 40%- 60%- . , Y=X. , , - , . - , X=Y=96,4%. . , , , , (X=Y). , . . - (). , , - (t=78,15C 760... . .1).</p> <p>8</p> <p> - 5962-67, - 96% 96,4% . - ( 20)... ( 760 ...)... ( 760 ..) . 812 /3 (0.8/) 1,601 /3 78,15 C 925 /</p> <p> . . - . , . (. .3), , , , , , .</p> <p>.3 - , , . , , , . , , , , . 77,0C, 78,0C, , : - 730..., 755... 9</p> <p> . () , . 3.1. 6 12%. , , - , , - (), . . (. ). , 8085% - . , , 40%. , , . , , 40%- . 3.2. .4. 1 - 2, 3. 4, 5. - ( ). 6, . 3.3. . . . 4 -, . 7 8. , , (.2). , ( 1012%), , , (4245%). , , - . - , , 9094, (, , , 10</p> <p> .) , 6575C. ( ) , . , , . , - . . 6 .1, Y, . , , 6. 100, , . , (.2) 8 , 9798C. , . ( ), , 40%. .5.</p> <p>.5 40%- 60% (. .2). 9094%. , , . , 40% , . , . 11</p> <p> ! , , , () 96%- -, , . ( ) .</p> <p>12</p> <p>4. , (, ). . , . , (), . , . , . , , , . 4.1. . - 40%- 96% . . - , . -. 4.2. . 85%- 40%- - 94C (. .1). , , . . , . , . .6. 1 , . 4, 5. 13</p> <p> 9 10. 11, 12 13. 3 : 6, 2, 14 15. 16 . 14 2 . 4.3. . . . 9 2, . () , 14 7 8. 15. . ( ) , ( ) . , . 15 . 6. , , . . (20), (30), (50) (100). 200. 7. 120, () 80. .7. (t=const) </p> <p> , . 760..., : 1 2 3 4 78,1 t, C 56,2 64,7 50 100 -, -, % 20 16,7 30 25,0 41,7 20+80 16,7</p> <p> . ,</p> <p>14</p> <p> 8, , .</p> <p>.7 4- 4.4. . - , .2. , 10%- 40%- . 40%- 60%- . 10-40; 40-60; 60-70; 70-75; .. , , 96%, 910 . - (). , 96%- 10%- . ( ) (). ( ). , - . ( ) . 70 , -. , . , 2530 , , - 2530 . , 35 , , -3, 40 ( !). 15</p> <p>4.5. . . , , (). , , - . . , . , . . () . 50-60%. .. , , . 40 80 . , 100%. -3 -3 , 40 , 40 . 4.6. . , , , , , . (10-30) , , . . , , , , ; () , , , - - . ( ), ( ) -. , , , . , , .. ( ). , . , , 30 - 2025, 1520. . , . 16</p> <p> , . . - , , . , ( ), . 4.8. . . , , . , , , . .. , ( ) . . . 3060 . , , . ( -3 ), ( -015), . , . , . , 0,51,2/. , (/) ( 2). 20007000(/)/2. . , ( ) . , . ( 925/), , , . , , 1 1 = 0,00108 / = 3,89 / . : = 925 (W), . , , , , . .</p> <p>17</p> <p> , () , . . , , . , . - ( 230), . - . . 4.9. . 720780... .. , . , . ( ) 1 3,89/ . 760... ( 1,6/3) 2,433/, (, 30) 0,96/. 700..., 1,47/3, 2,643/, , , 1,04/. , . , , (.). , ( ) . , . - , . , . , ( ) . 4.10. . . .. 18</p> <p> , (). , P. P () , (. .6). , . , , , P, , P = g (: , g = 9.81/2). . -3 350. , , .. . . - , . 4.11. . .8 . = , , =. , R. , () . , = R+. : V=R/ - R, , .</p> <p> =0, R= . , , - V=. , . =, R=0. . , - , , " ". - .</p> <p>19</p> <p> V3. , 4- , , 1 , 3 . .</p> <p>max= .!, , . , . : 1 (): . 2 ( ): , 2-3 . 4.12. , , . (W), . . , , 1 : 1 = = 0,00108 / = 3,89 / 925 / 4,86/ .</p> <p> , , , , max = 1,2 /. 1. = 1 /. , , . , , 1015%. , , 20%- . , . : 1 1/ -. , .. . 20</p> <p>5. , , 70 : , , , , , .. , , . -. ( ) 6%. . , -. ( 6%) (t = 78,15C 760...): - ( 2.5% ); - ( 3.5%). , 78,15C ( ) . () . (t=64,7C) , t , t . , 78,15C, . . (t , t ).</p> <p>5.1. .) , . ) 2/3 , . 3/4 , 35-45%,( -015-100 2/3 ). ) . ) . ) . ) . 5-20 , ( ).</p> <p>5.2. . ( ) () . 21</p> <p> ( , ) . . -1. 10. W=1. : . -1 -... 10 .... 40% : 1) 2) :1) W =1 20C 95C. 4,2/();</p> <p> =(10 4,2/() (95-20)) / (1) = 3150 502) .</p> <p> 10 40%- - 100,4=4=4000 . ( - ): % 2,5 100 94 3760 3,5 140 % / / 30 300 5,0 100 1000 16,6 100 1000 16,6 : 0.3 20 0:20 3,76 225 3:45 0,14 10 0:10</p> <p> = + + + + = = 15 + 50 + 20 + 345 + 10 = 520 =5,3, , 3760 - 3,76/5,30,71/. -1 - = 0,71/ 24 17/.</p> <p>5.3. . . t .9, : - W =0 W =0 W 30% W () W 22</p> <p>.9 .</p> <p>) . W. , . W, . , . , 30-60 , . , , , . W. , .</p> <p>) . W. =0. , V=. , . () . 10-15 , 3-5 . , . t .3. , 15 . , . , . , . 23</p> <p>) . ( ). . , , ( .7 ) . , , ( -1). % % / / 33 7 10% 100 1,66 33 7 30% 300 5 33 7 50% 500 8,3 : - , ; - ; - 50% - . , 0,1-0.05 t. , , , . . : - ; - ; - . . , , 1...3% . !, , , , , , , , , .</p> <p>) . , . ( -1 1/=16,6/), . . 510 . , . . . , ( ) : 24</p> <p> 5% ( -1 200); - - 80% ( -1 3360); - 5% ( -1 200). , , 10% - 10%- . max ( V=2,5). max , . , . max . - !. , . , , , . , ( ), . 0,10,05 t. , , , . "" ( -1 3760) .</p> <p>-</p> <p>) (). ( ). W ; . 82...85, . ! . . , ....</p>

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