Физика полупроводников

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<p> 1 .., .. ( ) 2001 2 - ..,..( ,).-.. 2001. . , . : .., . .-. ., </p> <p> , 2001 </p> <p> 3 ( ). 4- , (),. (), , . , . , . ,.. 1973 ., .. , ,,, , .,, ., . ;., ,, ., , . , .., ,.. , .... . 4: . : , &gt; 10-12-1-1; - &gt;105 -1-1. , , , ., (-Ge,-Si,-Se,-Te); (GaAs-, CdS-..);,.. (GaxIn1-xSb,PbxSn1-xTe..); . , , ,,, ..,( ) : , . , (). 20-30- , . , - , . 5 ) ( ) ( r u e rkr k ik = .(1) r - - ;k- ;) (r uk-, . . k, ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (222r r r V rmkkk k c = + V . (2) ) (r V-,. , . , (). , =Njj jkR r CNr ) (1) (0 | . (3) N ; jR- ; ) (0 jR r | -., , jC jR k ije C = . 6(2) ) (jR r V ) ( ) ( ) (0 j j jR r V R r V R r V ' + = , (4) ) (jR r V ' -, ) (0 jR r V ) (jR r V . jR . ) (0 jR r | . ., (2)) (0 jR r V - ) (20220 jR r VmH + V = . (5) (2) </p> <p>3 2 1) ( + + = k c , (6) r d k d R r H R r eNj ij iR R k ii j ) () (10 0*0,) (1 } = | |; (7) r d k d R r V R rNj ij i ) ( ) (10*0 2 ' } = =| |;(8) r d k d R r V R r eNj ij iR R k ii j ) ( ) (10*0) (3 ' } = =| |. (9) 7, j i = j i = . . ,) (jR r V ' ) (0 jR r | .R - , </p> <p> =zjR k ijje R B A k ) ( ) ( c . (10) 2 1 + = A ;) (jR B-.., , i-j-;z- . , 6, - . . . a k a k a k B A kz y xcos cos (cos 2 ) ( + + =c ).(11) (11) k ., , (.. )- a k a t t s s . .1(k) ,,(k)() , , , 8 02 202 202 2 2 mkmP m = = =uc. (12) m0 ; u - ; u0m P = . .1. ();(-); ., , . , . . ,, B A 6 = c k = 0 B A 6 + = c a k k kz y xt = = = , . 12 . ,,,.. . 9,,, , . ,.., , . -, ,.. .- ( d f (. . )). . 5-10 (). ()zN, N , z . , (Li,Na,K..), N.2... , , 2 N ,.. (.2). -F, . , . , . . , , , . 10 . =0, , - g (.2). .2. . . 2. , , ( ), ., g3 0 s &lt; c . 3 , . 1 ~. , g = 0,69 , - 1,09 , 1,43. ., .,, (= 300),g &gt;0,5. (,..) 11. . () (.3) k-,, (.3). ,, . .3. (GaAs, InAs, InP ..).3. - (Ge, Si, GaP ..) , .. -,,. . . 0 T = , ,. ,.( ,) 12, .. , , . , . . , ,,. +. (,,), , ,,, . , ,, . ,, , m0 mn-mp. , 110 k : = + = + + + =2 22 22 22 26 ...)212121 ( 2 ) ( k Ba B Aa ka ka kB A kzyxc</p> <p>nmkconst k Ba const22 22 2+ = + =. (13) 13,.. , . 222Bamn= a .,(,,) (, 11a k t )., ,.. , . </p> <p> 141. . , ., . .. , </p> <p>mkTT3= u , (1) k-;m- . , Eu ,,.. .j jn jp: p n p nep en j j j u u + = + = , (2) n,p-;n ,p . , , , . . . ,n p (). n p , E Ep p n nu u = = ; ,(3) 15 2 : j = ennE + eppE = onE + opE = oE.(4) o-,on op- , . (4) . . 3 2210 ~~ N n . , . . () . kT ET2 3 =, , 0,04 , , ,g. , . +d : c c c c d f g dn ) ( ) ( ) ( = , (5) 21233) 2 (4) ( ctcnmhg =- (6); 16 1 exp1) (+|.|</p> <p>\|=kTFfcc - ( ). (7) (7)F... (.).,f()=1 &lt; F f() = 0 &gt; F (.1). .1. -; . ,, ,.. . = 0 , , , . &gt;F. , ..1 ) ( &gt; , 21 1yy + ~ + +., (22) </p> <p>2 33) 2 ( 2lnkT mh NkT Fndt= ,(23) </p> <p>dN n = .(24) , .. . ( ) (13), . ) 1 ( ln T f n = ,, , (.3).,-, -. (~1018 -1020-3) ... ,( )(). ,.. (). ,,, 23(. .2). (8), ,(7).(9) -. -kT kT F kT 10 2 s s ,,...kT kT F 10 &gt; (), . , . .3. n-. , , ., (3), t () : </p> <p>me t = ,(25) , (4) (25) , : 24</p> <p>mn e to2= . (26) (..), , , .. k ();- . , : rc t t0= . , </p> <p>kT2 10=c tt (27) IN2 30c tt'= .(28) 0 0,t t ' -,; IN - . : }}=02 302 3) exp() exp( ) (dx x xdx x x c tt; kTxc= . (29) (25)-(29) : ; ~2 3 T 2 3 1~ T NI .(30) 25- ,, , : </p> <p>=i i 1 1,(31) i: , , .. () .4. ( ) , (.4, -). , (30) -. , 2 3T (.4,-). (-)..4. . , , 26. , . 1. . 2. . . 1)..( ), .,, 1972. 2. , , . ,,, .... , . : | | B e F =Au , (1) u- ; B - . , () ,,. 27 </p> <p>meBC = e ; (2) m - (. ).,t , (, ). , 1 &gt; t eC (3) . yj(.1), , , 34( ). ... HU ( HE ). ...() ., ,.1, , , - . , ., ,..(1) ,. 28 , t ,..c1210~ , yj' , yj . ( y) , HE - : B j R Ex H H = , (4) HR- . .1. ... 1 2 . 3 4 ... . ,, : | | B e E e r m + = u . (5) ..1,.. z . , z . (2) : =+ =x Emeyy EmexC yC x ee(6) 29 (6) </p> <p> = + =) sin ( ) cos 1 () sin ( ) cos 1 (t t a t b yt t b t a xC C CC C Ce e ee e e,(7) (7) (6). a b </p> <p>==yCxCEmebEmea22ee.(8) .(7) , </p> <p>}|.|</p> <p>\| =0exp1dttu ut t.(9) , </p> <p>}+=|.|</p> <p>\|02 2;1sin expt et etetCCCdttt }+=|.|</p> <p>\|02 211cos expt etetCCdttt, </p> <p>++=+++=2 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 21 1;1 1t et et et et et et et et et eCCCCCCCCCCa b yb a x (10), , t, : 30</p> <p>++=+++=2 222 22 222 21 1;1 1t et et etut et et etuCCxCy yCCyCx xEmeEmeEmeEme(11). . 291., x y- </p> <p> = =+ = =x C y y yy C x x xEmn eEmn een jEmn eEmn een j22122212 e u e u (12). 2 211 t etC+=, 2 2221 t etC+= . .. y - , ExEy , : y C yCxEmn eEmn ej222212 ee+ = . (13) (4)(13), : ||.|</p> <p>\|+ = 222121 eeCCxy Hmn ejE E ;(14) </p> <p>Bmn eB jERCCxHH||.|</p> <p>\|+ = =2221211 ee.(15) (15). 31 . ? (3). , 1 &gt;&gt; = = BmeBCtt e . (16) ,10002/. (0,12/.),&gt;10(105),.., .,, . . , 2 1, (.12) t eC , (15) . , enAenRH= =221tt, (17) -, (.1)., (), =1,93; , =1,18 .. ,, 2 1, , (15). (15) enRH1= ,(18) 32..- 1. n p. , - . ., ., , o A enenARH H= = = ,(19) -, . , ,( ).,n RH1 ~ , ( ) kTg2 exp c , ( ) kTd2 exp c (..13.211). , , , . (. 17, 18). 33 . ., , , : </p> <p>( )22 2n pn pHn pn peAR + = .(20) ,p n &gt;&gt; 2017( HR !),n p &gt;&gt; - . n = p (20) </p> <p>pnHn eAR|||=+ = ;11,(21) .. (). (19) ., ., (. ) ... . ,,, 1920, . , , HR , . (.2). (20), 34</p> <p>2 2n pn p = , (22) , , , . .2. (1-2-3-4) (1I-2I-3I-4I) . -. , , , . , ,. , ,. , (). 2, .,,. , (), 35.-()., , .. . 1. . , . 2. .3. ( ) T RH1 ln . . 1).. ( ), .,, 1972. 3. . . 1873. .. . . , , . 361) , .,.. n., , . 2) (),, (). . o = o0 + o , (1) 0-,.. . , , . = enn + epp.(2) np . (),, (). (.1) . (.1;,) , . () (). 37.1.()(,) . () . ,.. . , ,.. , h . (3) = g, (3) = I.(3), ,, (.1). ,. () (). (. . 4). 38: , </p> <p> =A =Ap pn nR Gdtp dR Gdtn d) () (, (4) Gn , Gp - ;Rn , Rp - . J G o| = .(5) J ; - ; -,.. , , - , .s1, , , . . ( )0 0p n np R = ,(6) n,p ; n0, p0 ; . 39 , n = n0 + n; p = p0 + p, (6) ( ) p n p n n p R A A + A + A =0 0 .(7) , . ,.. , n, pn0,p0. - 7, 412) ( n R A = .(17) ( ) t JJt n o|o|tanh ) ( = A , (18) t o|Jn = A .(19) 2) () (ndtn dA =A (20) 1) (+= At JJt no|o|.(21) , , J . (. . 18, 21). () () -.(13), (19) ( ) (. 2). 42 .2.(- ). IKA= (22) . . ,-, (. .3): hcc = (23). , (.3). = 103-105 -1. 10-310-5,.. . , ( ) , , 43., , , , . .3. . - (). . , &lt; f , , (.4). = ~, ,f. , ffto o41tanh~A = A , (24) f = 1/T () . ~/ f, f., ~/=0,76, (.4), 44f* * 41ff = t .(25) , .. ., , (21). .4. - . -, ,,, ,. 1-2 ,, () 2 12 1) ( ) (T TT I T ITK= ,(26) I - , . , , .. ( 45-).. , (.1). ., -, ., . CdS. 1.- . 2.(-). . 3... 25 . 4.. 50 . . 1).,.,.,.,, 1980. 464. . ,, , . . , , p-n . 50- 60- , 1961 ... ,.. .. p-n .1962 .. . , (). 1970 . .. . . ,2000 . . ,-- -. : 1., ; 2., (~ 10-10 c); 3., ; 4.,, (); 475. , .. () .,, , Cr3+Al2O3. AIIIBV (. ). . (.1). . .1. . 48 ., , ., , - xe R J x Jo = ) 1 )( 0 ( ) ( . (1) R - ; - . ,,, ,,, - . (,,), , , ( )., . 12 ,, (.2). , .h12, 1 2. f1,, :(1- f2), P(h12) ) ( ) 1 (12 2 1 12 12v 0 h P f f B = .(2) , . 49,2, ,, ... , . : ) 1 (1 2 21 21f f Ac = 0 (3) ) ( ) 1 (12 1 2 21 21v 0 h P f f B = .(4) </p> <p> c21 21 120 0 0 + = .(5) 5, , 12, 21 21 ( ) , : ;21 12B B =213 3212321) ( 8Bc hh nAv t=, (6) n ; . ,, , .. , (h12) ., , : ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (2 1 12 1 2 21v v h P f f B h P f f B &gt; .(7) 1 2 ;1111+=kTFVefc 1122+=kTFCefc,(8) g V CF F c c c &gt; &gt; 1 2 , (9) 50..12 g. -. .2. . . 9 .. - FC FV . ,, . (, (.)),, : </p> <p>ft t </p>