Л.К. Андрусевич - Распространение радиоволн

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<p> .. .. 2003 621.382.8.037.33. .., . .. . , . , . . 89, 11, . 10 .:.., .. 200700, 201100, 200900, 201000 - , 2003 . 3..................................................................................................3...............................................................................................6 ..................................................7.........................................................................................................91. .................................................111.1 .........................................................................121.2 . ........................................................13 ........................................................................182. .............................................................................................202.1 ............................................................................212.2 ...............................................................222.3 .............................................232.4 ...................................................................................272.5 .....................................................302.6 ...........................................................................38 ........................................................................483. .......................................................................................493.1 , ..........................................................................................503.2 ............................................513.3 ..................................................533.4 ............................................563.5 ................................................6043.6 .................................................69 ........................................................................714. .........................................................................................724.1 , ........................744.2 ......................................................754.3 .........................................................774.4 ................................804.5 ............................................................................................824.6 ..................................................874.7 ...........................884.8 ....................................924.9 ........................................964.10 .........................................................................974.11 11- . .............................................1014.12 .................................................................1044.13 ..........................................108 ......................................................................1105. .................................................1115.1 ..............................................................1125.2 ...............................................................116 ......................................................................1186. ....................................................1196.1 ................................................................1206.2 ...............................................................1245 ......................................................................1267. ......................................................1287.1 . ............................................................................1297.2 ........................1337.3 , ......................................................136 ......................................................................1428. ..................................................1438.1 ...............................................................1448.2 ................................1458.3 , ................................147 ......................................................................1499. ....................................................................................1509.1 ................................................................................1519.2 ...........................................................................1519.3 ...............................1529.4 .......................................................................1549.5 ...............................................................156 ......................................................................15710. .................................................................15910.1 ..........................................................................16010.2 ..........................................................................160 ......................................................................166 ...........................................................................1676 . , , . . , , . . . , , , . . . . . , . . . , . . . , ., . . . 11, . . , . . . . . , .7 ,2z, , , , ~ , , D S , L ,F , , h(t) || , r0, h/1; h/2 , bn n- , (v), S(v) n , () () , 1 W , Is , c c13 , cc3 , N , 31 , 1 ,1f , f , f , , 28h , 9 . , - (, ..). , . , , . , , , , , . , , .. , . , . .1886-1889 . . . . 1897. . , . . , , , , , . , . , . 19 , , , , . . -, .. , , .. , .10 , . . . . , . . , . . , . , , , . , . . , . . , . .111. . . . . .1.1 1.2 . 121.1 . , ( ) , , . , . , . , ( 1.1). 1.1/ () f () 1 , ()10510431033104 ()2 , ()10410331043105 ()3 , ()10310231053106 ()4 , ()10210 31063107 ()5 , ()101 31073108 ()6 , ()1101310831097 , ()1011023109310108 , ()10210331010310119 1031043101131012. , . . , (, , , ), (), (), 1. 13 () . , , , , , , , . : . , , . .1. , , . .2. , .3. , . , , , , , . , . , () - . , (, - ). , . . , . , , .1.2 . , . 1.1 , .14 , , .. , , ., . . , , , . , , . . , , . ( 1.1) (), . , r, ( ) :2r 4P ,2. (1.1) , ] [ H E , :EH-. , E H Z, :Z , Z = a, ., , , , , . , = 0 = 8,861012 /, = 0 = 4107 /. :1. 15377 120aaZ ,. , :2r 4 , (1.2) 240mE120E22, (1.3) , m . m, :r60mE . (1.4) (1.4), . , , . . : , , () D. , :r D 60m1 , (1.5)D1 . (1.5):rPD 2451m,, (1.6)r D 1731 ,, , r .16 , , :4DS22, (1.7)D2 . : 2S , (1.8) (1.1) (1.7):222 1 12) r 4 (D D ,, (1.9) 1 . (1.9) . , , . , , . , . , (1.1). . . . (1.8) :2 1221D D1 r 4L ,_</p> <p> , (1.10)"", . D1=D2=1 :2r 4L ,_</p> <p> . (1.11) , . (1.10) (1.11) :1. 17. lg 20 ) r 4 lg( 20 ) ( L), ( D ) ( D lg 20 ) r 4 lg( 20 L lg 10 ) ( L2 1 (1.12) . (1.12) 1.2. 1.2r () () LL ()10 10000 160 2281070,03 1027270: r =8107 . , , , , . , . . , :,LL L + . (1.13) , , F:0EEF , (1.14) 0 , ., (1.6) :FrPD 245E1m . (1.15) :2222 1 12Fr 4D D . (1.16) (1.16) F , .18 (1.10) :( )( )2 12221D D1Fr 4PPL . (1.17) , , :) (21) ( D ) ( D F lg 20 lg 20 ) r 4 lg( 20 L lg 10 L . (1.18) (1.16) . , . , , . , , . (1.16) , F lg 20 lg 20 D ) r 4 lg( 20 ) ) (1) (2 (1 + , (1.19) 1 2 1. , (1.18):) ( (2) (1L ) + . (1.20) (1.19) , , . , (1.19) , . 1. , .2. ?3. ?4. ?5. ?6. ?7. , ?8. ?9. , ?1. 19202. . . . . .2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2. 212.1 . . , , , . ( ). (, , , ..). ( 2.1). . , , , , . 2.1 , / 80 4 80 10 3 10 10 2 4 10 3 10 3 . , . , . . , . , . , . 22, , . , , . 2.5.2.2 . : , . , , , .. , , h . h1, , , , . , , , ( ). , , . . , h&gt;&gt;, , . , , , , .2. 232.3 . . , . , . , , , . , = 6 = 102 . , (= 50 ), :560. , . . , . . , , , . ,, 2.1, . 24, . . 2.1 2.2 . , , :rI 60 ,(2.1) . :rI 60 ,,(2.2) I , ,r , . :rI 120 ,.(2.3) , .2.2, . , , , , . 2. 25 , . , . , . , , , . , . 1909 . . . , , , , . 1923 . .. , . 1931 . , . . , , , . , , (, , ), . , , . : = 0F(), (2.4) 0 , ; , :( ) ( )( )2 22 26060 1 rx + + ,(2.5) , .26 (2.5) . &gt;&gt;1. , , 60 &gt;&gt; . :260rx.(2.6) , 60 1.(2.12) , - - . , :( )11]1</p> <p> + + 226021sinnsinsin, (2.13)n . ~&gt;&gt;1, (2.13), , .. . , n , :n0 &gt;1) . , , . :2. 29~120EHx 2y 2. (2.15) , , ..:x 2 x 1E E , x 2 x 1H H . (2.16)C (2.15) :~120EHx 1y 1.(2.17) (2.17) . () :120EHz 1y 1.(2.18) (2.17), . 60 jE~EEz 1 z 1x 1 .(2.19) (2.16) x 1E x 2E, : 60 jEEz 1x 2 .(2.20) :1 z 1 2 z 2~E~E , 1~ = 1, : 60 j1E Ez 1 z 2 .(2.21) (2.19, 2.20, 2.21) , , , , . 2.5 . 2.6 .30 (2.19) , . , , , ( 2.5). -, - . - .2.5 . . , , h&gt;&gt;. , ( 2.6). , . . , . 2.6, , , , , , .. . . . 2 1 + . , h1 h2 &gt;1, , , :2E... )2E5E( )5E2E( )2E2E(2E1 765 543 221 1 + + + + + + + + . (2.47), . , ( ) , . , . , , , ( 2.18). 2.19 .ACBCl1l2bn 2.20 .42 , , , . , . , , , .. 2.19, , , , . . 2.20. :2n 2 1+ + + , (2.48)n n- . :2n21b + , 2n22b B C + . (2.49) (2.49) (2.48), :2. 43,2n2b2b21b121b1 b b2 122n12n22n221n12n222n21+ + + 111]1</p> <p>,_</p> <p>+ +111]1</p> <p>,_</p> <p>+ + + + n- :2 12 1nnb +, (2.50) :2 12 11b +. (2.51) 2 1 . , 22 1 , :4b 1, (2.52) 2.3 , 10 . 2.3 ()100 10 1 0,1 0,01 0,001b1 500 160 50 17 5 1,6 . , , . . . . , . 2.21 . 2.22 .44 , , , , , , , , , ( 2.21). , , , , . , 2.22. . , , . 2.22 , . 2b. , , MN 2b. , X ( 2.22), , b , : 2.24 .. 2.25 2. 451byax2222 + . (2.53) , 2r, r . MN : tg x y, (2.54) MN : +2 2 2tg a babx,. (2.55)x N . , , b. , , , . 2.2. , , , : r = 50 , h1=h2= 50 . (2.51) , 1 =2 = 25 : 3510 501 , 0 10 25 10 25b33 3 . (2.29) :342 110 210 550 50rh h ++ (). (2.25) , , a 2r = 25103 , : 17 10 1710 4 10 25 3535 10 25x36 6 2 23 +. , , 35 . , , 2.23 . 2.24 .. 2.25 46. . , , , . , , , . , , , . - - - . -, - ( , ..). - . -. 2.23- -- . , . ( &lt; 0) (&gt;0). , :[ ] ) V ( jS ) V ( C21F , (2.56)(V) S(V) , :dx2xcos21) V ( Cv02 , (2.57)dx2xsin21) V ( Sv02 .(2.58) 2.24 .. 2.25 2. 471b2 HV , b1 . 2.24F V. , , , ( 2.25)., , , , , . . . , , , . . , . , . , , , , , . . , . , , 240 , 1690 80 . , , . . ( , ..) . , , , 48 - . ( ) . . . , . 1. ?2. ?3. ?4. ?5. ?6. ?7. ?8. ?9. ?10. , ?11. ?12., ?2. 493. . . . . . 3.1 , 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 503.1 , . , 14 . , . , , , . , . - , , . . , . , 8-10 , 18 . 20 . . (). , , . 6. 55, 80.54. 1014 , 5 , 11 225. 90 . , 1 , 1 . , , : 1 .. = 1,332 . 3.2 . 3.3 .3. 51 , . , . . , 1,5 , , . (), , , = t + 273, ( ). , 1 3. , . , 1 3. 1925 . , , , . , . : =1013, t= 15, S= 60%. 10012, 0,55. . 11 . , , .3.2 . . 1,0006, 1,0003. , , , :N = (n 1) 106. (3.1) 3.1 constdhdN 3.2 . 3.3 .52 , :</p> <p>,_</p> <p>+ T e 4810PT6 , 77N. (3.2)0,1. , , , . N :( ) e 167 , 0 PT6 , 77N . (3.3) , .. . () , . , 300. , 3.1. 8 ( ). , 7 , , . , . . 3.2 . 3.3 .3. 53 , , , , .3.3 . , , , . . ,...</p>

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