Τα ορχεοειδή της Α. Μακεδονίας

  • Published on
    07-Aug-2015

  • View
    166

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

, , .

Transcript

<p> (ORCHIDACEAE) . : , </p> <p> . </p> <p> 2009</p> <p>ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKIFACULTY OF SCIENCES SCHOOL OF BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF BOTANYLABORATORY OF SYSTEMATIC BOTANY AND PHYTOGEOGRAPHY</p> <p>THE ORCHIDS (ORCHIDACEAE) OF E. MACEDONIA: DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND HIGH CONSERVATION VALUE AREAS</p> <p>Ph. D. THESIS SPYRIDON E. TSIFTSIS FORESTER</p> <p>THESSALONIKI 2009</p> <p> . ... (Orchidaceae) . : , ISBN:</p> <p> (. 5343/1932, 202, . 2)</p> <p> *. ** . &amp; ** . . . &amp; . &amp; . * ** </p> <p> , 2002 ... . . . , . . . , . . . . , . . , . . . ... . . , . .</p> <p>i</p> <p> . E. Willing, H. Presser H. Kretzschmar . . . , , .</p> <p>ii</p> <p>. ......................................................................................................... II. ORCHIDACEAE .................................................................... 1 .............................................................................. 2 ...................................................................................................... 3 ............................................................................................................ 3.1 .............................................................................. 3.2 ..................................................................... 4 ................................................................................... I. ................................................................................... 1 ....................................... 2 .............................................................. 2.1 .............................................................................................. 2.2 ............................................................................................... 2.3 ......................................................................................... 3 ................................................................................ 4 .............................................................................................................. 5 ...................................................................................... 5.1 ...................................................................................................... 5.2 ...................................................................................................... 5.3 ........................................................................................................ 5.4 ......................................................................................................... 5.4.1 ................................................................................................... 5.4.2 .................................................................................................... 5.4.3 ................................................................................................... 5.4.4 ................................................................................................... 5.4.5 .................................................................................................. 5.4.6 .................................................................................................. 5.5 ....................................................................................................... 5.6 .............................................................................................. 6 ............. V. ................................................................. 1 ............................................................................................ 1.1 taxa ........... 1.2 ............................................ 2 ................................................................................. 3 .................................................................................. 4 ........................................ 4.1 ........................................................ 4.2 .............................. iii 1 7 7 11 14 14 18 22 29 29 32 34 37 39 42 44 46 47 48 50 52 52 53 55 56 56 57 58 59 61 65 65 65 66 69 69 73 74 77</p> <p>4.3 .......................... V. ......................................................................................... 1 ................................................................ 1.1 ............................................................................................ 1.2 ........................................................................................................ 2 ......................................................................................... 3 ........................................... 4 ................................ 5 .............................................................. 6 ........................................ VI. .................................................................................................... 1 ..................................................................................... 2 .............................................. 2.1 ............................................................................................. 2.2 ................................................... 2.3 ............................................ 3 ................................ 4 - - .................................................................................. VII. ............................................................ SUMMARY - CONCLUSIONS .................................................................. ................................................................................................... I: ...... II: ...... III: .............</p> <p>78 81 81 82 108 111 115 117 119 154 165 165 169 169 174 179 181 187 195 199 203 221 247 261</p> <p>iv</p> <p> . </p> <p> I. (Orchidaceae) , 800 - - 25.000 (Chase et al. 2003). , , . 193 (Delforge 2006), . . , , , , . , OPTIMA (Organization for the Phyto-Taxonomic Investigation of the Mediterranean Area) 1977 , , OPTIMA . , , Orchidaceae , . , . , , , . , , (Fleischmann 1925, Renz 1928, Renz 1930, Renz 1932). , , , </p> <p>1</p> <p> . </p> <p> , , , (.. Nelson 1976, Glz &amp; Reinchard 1981, Knkele &amp; Paysan 1981, Willing &amp; Willing 1987, 1988, Willing &amp; Willing 1991, Delforge 1995, Biel et al. 1998, Kretzschmar et al. 2002 .). , Orchidaceae. , , (.. Rechinger 1939, Zaganiaris 1940, Kitanov 1943, Quzel &amp; Contandriopoulos 1968, 1976, Zoller et al. 1977, Papanicolaou 1985, Karagiannakidou &amp; Kokkini 1987, &amp; 1989, 1992, Karagiannakidou et al. 1995, Eleftheriadou &amp; Raus 1996, Schreiber 1998, Petermann 1999, Arampatzis et al. 2001, Eleftheriadou et al. 2001, 2001, Theodoropoulos et al. 2003, &amp; 2003). , , (Hampe 2004). , (Summerhayes 1969, Currie 1991, Huntley et al. 1995, Knollov &amp; Chytr 2004, Pearson et al. 2004). , , , , (Bailey et al. 2002, Knollov &amp; Chytr 2004, Tsiripidis et al. 2007). , - , , (Stewart 1992). , ( 1988).</p> <p>2</p> <p> . </p> <p> , , (Red Data Books) (Phitos et al. 1995, Hgsater &amp; Dumont 1996, .. 1996, Whigham &amp; Willems 2003). , Stewart (1992) Hgsater &amp; Dumont (1996), (, , , ..). . (Breiner 1979, Syska 1995, Wallenwein &amp; Saad 2000), Sundermann (1980) . , (.. 2001, Karagiannakidou et al. 2001) (.. - 1983, 1985, 1991). , , . , (Myers et al. 2000, Heywood &amp; Iriondo (2003), Tilman 1999, Kati et al. 2004). , , (Hgsater &amp; Dumont 1996, Cribb et al. 2003). in situ , . , , (Schuiteman &amp; Vogel 2003). 3</p> <p> . </p> <p> , , (Margules &amp; Pressey 2000, Gaston et al. 2002, Williams et al. 2002, Heywood &amp; Iriondo 2003). (Hill et al. 2006). O . , , (Margules &amp; Usher 1981, Prendergast et al. 1993, Myers et al. 2000). , , (Vane-Wright et al. 1991, Arponen et al. 2005). taxa Orchidaceae . , : taxon. taxa . . Orchidaceae , OPTIMA, . , . 4</p> <p> . </p> <p>, Orchidaceae, , , , .</p> <p>5</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> II. ORCHIDACEAE II.1 - - 800 - 25.000 (Chase et al. 2003). (. 1), . , . , - .. - (Cribb 1999).</p> <p> 1. Orchidaceae (: Pridgeon et al. 1999). Figure 1. Distribution map of Orchidaceae (Source: Pridgeon et al. 1999).</p> <p>, Orchidaceae . Orchidoideae Epidendroideae. 7</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> Cypripedioideae, , Cypripedium calceolus L. DNA , . Bateman et al. (1997), Orchis s.l., (Neotinea, Anacamptis Aceras) , (paraphyly). Orchis lactea, Orchis tridentata Orchis ustulata Neotinea, Neotinea maculata. Anacamptis A. pyramidalis, Orchis 2n=36 ( 32) , O. laxiflora, O. palustris, O. collina, O. coriophora subsp. coriophora, O. coriophora subsp. fragrans, O. sancta, O. papilionacea, O. boryi O. morio. Orchis s.s. Orchis ( 2n=42), Aceras anthropophorum Orchis anthropophora. , Coeloglossum viride Dactylorhiza D. viridis. , Pridgeon et al. (1997) Nigritella Gymnadenia, Sundermann (1980), Listera Neottia (Pridgeon et al. 2005). tribes Pridgeon et al. (1999, 2001, 2003, 2005) Chase et al. (2003) : Orchidaceae Cypripedioideae: 155 , , , , , . Apostasioideae: 16 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .</p> <p>8</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> Vanilloideae: tribes (Pogoniieae, Vanillineae) 15 249 , . Orchidoideae: tribes, 3630 , , . , , , , . Tribe Diseae: 400 11 , , . Tribe Diurideae: , , , , . Tribe Orchideae: 62 1800 . - - . Tribe Chloraeeae: (, , , ). Tribe Codonorchideae: . Tribe Cranichideae: 93 600 , , . Tribe Pterostylideae: , , , , , , . Epidendroideae: 18.000 650 , Epidendroideae . , , . , , . 9</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> , , . Tribe Arethuseae: Arethuseae (, , , , , , , ), , ( ...) ( ). Tribe Calypsoeae: 12 , , , , , . Tribe Collabieae: 18 , . Tribe Cymbidieae. Tribe Dendrobieae. Tribe Epidendreae: 6000 , . ... Tribe Gastrodieae: , , , , , , , . , , , , . Tribe Malaxideae: 13 , , . Tribe Neottieae: , , , , , , . , . Tribe Nervilieae: Nervilieae , 10</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p>, , , Malay, , , . Tribe Podochileae: 28 1200 , , , , Malay, , . . Tribe Sobralieae: 237 . Tribe Triphoreae: Triphoreae ..., , , ( ), . , . Tribe Tropidieae: 30 . Tribe Vandeae. Tribe Xerorchideae: , , .</p> <p>II.2 . - , , , (Rasmussen 1995). Delforge (1995) (Ophrys, Orchis s.l.), ( Dactylorhiza), (Gymnadenia), (Cephalanthera, Epipactis), (Corallorhiza, Epipogium) (Neottia). Rasmussen (1995) . , </p> <p>11</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> , . . Spiranthes . Spiranthes , . , Orchis s.l., Platanthera Dactylorhiza , , . , , .</p> <p> 2. Epipactis helleborine. : , : (), : , : , : , : , : , : , : (: Cozzolino &amp; Widmer 2005). Figure 2. Flower of Epipactis helleborine. A: anther, : labellum (epichile), : gynostemium, : petals, : pollinia, : rostellum, : lateral sepal, : dorsal sepal, : stigma (Source: Cozzolino &amp; Widmer 2005).</p> <p> Summerhayes (1969), . . .</p> <p>12</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> , , , (Goodyera). Ophrys. . , (Delforge 1995). 180 . ( ). (labellum). . (spur). , , . , , , . ( Epipogium aphyllum Gymnadenia rhellicani) 180 360 ( 1985, 2001). Orchidoideae Epidendroideae . , , ( ). . (column) (gynostegium). () . (.. Cypripedium), (pollinia). ( ) (caudicle) (retincle). 13</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> . ( ). , ( ). ( ) , (rostellum). . , , . (bursicle). . , , , , ( 1985, 2001, Pridgeon et al. 1999).</p> <p>II.3 I.3.1 , . . , , . . , . . , </p> <p>14</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> (Rasmussen 1995). Dactylorhiza o Averyanov (1990) 6.000 . - - . Dactylorhiza , . , . . , , . , . , (Grime 1979). , , (1995) , - . Rasmussen (1998) , . . Harvey (1985), . Stoutamire (1985) ( ). . , . 15</p> <p> . ORCHIDACEAE</p> <p> , , . , . , . Rasmussen (1995), , , . . 1. (: Rasmussen 1995). Table 1. Time of...</p>

Recommended

View more >