Σημειώσεις Πυρηνικής Φυσικής ΑΠΘ

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, , , . Cherenkov, Scintillator counters, Gas Ionization, Strips

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<p> . 2010 1................................................................................................................ 1 ................................... 1 I. ..................... 2 . ............................................................................. 2 . .................................................................................................... 4 1. ....................................................................... 5 2. ............................................................... 6 3. ........................................................................... 8 4. .................................................................................... 8 . .......................................................... 9 1. Bragg .............................................................................................. 9 2. .......................................................................... 10 . ............................................................................... 11 1. ................................................................................. 11 2. .......................................................................... 12 3. ......................................................................................... 12 . ......................................... 16 . dE/dx .................................................................... 19 . dE/dx ............................................................... 20 . Bethe Bloch..................................................... 21 . Channeling....................................................................................................... 21 . ..................................................... 22 . ................................... 22 II. ................................... 24 . .......................................................... 24 . ...................................................................................... 25 . .............................................................................. 26 1. .............................................. 26 2. ............................................................. 27 2. ............................................................. 28 3. ............................................................................................ 29 . .................................................................. 30 . .............................................................................................. 30 . ........................................................................................ 30 III. CHERENKOV ...................................................................... 32 IV. ................................ 32 . .......................................................................... 33 1. ........................................................................... 33 2. Compton..................................................................................... 36 3. Thomson Rayleigh.................................................................. 38 4. .............................................................................................. 39 . .................................................................... 40 1. ....................................................................... 40 2. .............................................................................................. 41 ii .. ........................................................................................................... 42 V. ................................ 44 . ........................................................................... 46 VI. ................................................ 50 . .................................................................... 50 . ..................................................................................... 52 . .............................................................................................. 53 . ............................................... 54 . ICRP................................................................................ 55 2.............................................................................................................. 61 ............................................................................................. 61 I. ................................................ 62 . ............................................................................ 62 . Fano.......................................................................................... 63 . , ............................................. 64 II. ..................................... 66 . .................................................................................... 66 . ........................................................................................... 67 . ............................................................ 69 III. DC ............. 70 . ............................................................................................... 70 . ................................................................ 71 . ..................................................................... 72 . electret ........................................................................................................ 74 IV. ................................... 75 . .................................................................... 75 . ..................................................................................... 79 V. DC .......................................... 80 . ........................................................................................... 80 . .................................................. 81 . ......................................................................... 83 . ................................................................ 84 VI. PULSE MODE .................................................................... 84 . ............................................................................................... 84 . ................................................................. 86 . ....................................................................... 90 . ........................................................................................ 91 . ................................. 92 . ................................................... 93 3.............................................................................................................. 97 ......................................................................... 97 I. ................ 97 . ................................................. 97 iii . G M....................................................... 98 . .............................................. 100 II. ............................................................... 102 . ................................................................................... 103 . ............................................................................ 105 . ........................................................................... 106 III. ........................................................... 108 . ............................................................. 108 . ..................................................................... 110 . .................................................................. 112 IV. ................................................................................................... 114 . .................................................. 114 . MOSFET ..................................................................................... 115 V. ............................................................................. 116 . ............................................................................... 116 . ...................................... 120 1. .............................................................................................. 120 2. ........................................................... 121 3. ............................................................... 122 4. .............................................. 122 5. ........................................................................................ 123 4............................................................................................................ 127 ......................................................................... 127 I. ............................................. 127 . ............................................................................... 127 . .................................................. 128 II. ...................................... 129 . ................................................... 129 . ......................................................................................... 129 1. .............................................. 130 2. ......................................... 131 . ........................................................ 131 1. ............................................................................... 131 2. ...................................................................................... 131 3. ....................................................... 133 . .................................................................... 134 . ................................................................ 134 1. ...................................................................................... 135 . ...................................................................................... 135 . ............................................. 136 . ............................................................................. 136 . ................................................................ 137 1 ., .. Evans1,, . , : : ( ~ 10-5 m) ( ~ 10-1 m) : ( ~ 10-3 m) ( ~ 10-1 m) ,, Coulomb,. :) ) . : 1. 2. 2 ., . : 3. Cherenkov 4. 5. , ,Cherenkov, . Coulomb., ( ), . , . , ( ) . ,, ., , . (). , . ,, , . , ( ) . I. . , , Coulomb . ( Rutherford), 3 . , . , . Coulomb,. , () (). . 0m , , M Em / 40,1/500. , . , . , ,1.1. , ., . , , . . . . , . , 1.1 . 4 ,, . ., . , . , , . . S, , : dxdES = (1.1) dx dE / , , . Bethe Bloch : ((</p> <p>||.|</p> <p>\|= 22max2 2022202 2 2ln 2IW m zAZc m NrdxdEe (1.2),,: C, : ((</p> <p> ||.|</p> <p>\|= ZCIW m zAZc m NrdxdEe2 2 2ln 222max2 2022202 (1.3):g cm MeV c m Nre/ 1535 , 0 22 202 = ,Avogadro(6,022x1023 mol-1), er (2,817x10-13cm), 0m ,,,, ,z ,c / = , 2 1 = , maxW ,, C. : 2 22 20max 1 2 1 2s sc mW+ + +=(1.4) 5 M m s /0= ,, = ., 0m M &gt;&gt; , : 2 20 2 c m Wm ~ (1.2) (1.3) .,dx dE /. dx dE / . , , , ,. dx dE / , (1.2)(1.3) 2z , . , . ,, , . , dx dE / ,. . . BetheBloch , . , . z . 1. ,,Bethe Bloch , Bohr,Planck, h ., (oscillator strengths)., . , dx dE / . : 13 712 &lt; + = Z eVZ ZI 13 82 , 58 76 , 919 , 1&gt; + =Z eV ZZI (1.5)6 ,,2. , .1.1. Sternheimer et al.2, 3. 2. @CBetheBloch . . , ., BetheBloch. ( ), . BetheBloch 1.2. : 11 0 106052 , 4) ( 6052 , 40X X C XX X X X X C XX Xm&gt; +&lt; &lt; + + : 3 9 6 4 22 6 6 4 210 x ) 00157955 , 0 1667989 , 0 850190 , 3 (10 x ) 00038106 , 0 0304043 , 0 422377 , 0 ( ) , (II I C + ++ + = (1.7) = eV. 8 3. 1.3dx dE / , Bethe Bloch, .dx dE / , , 2 / 1 = 0,96c, ( ). .dx dE / 2 MeV g/cm2 ., 2 / 1 dx dE / (1.2)(1.3)., , , 1.2. , dx dE / . . 1.3, Bethe Bloch. , dx dE / . , . . 4. : 1.3 dx dE / . 9 ) , (12I fAZzdxdEdXdE= = (1.8) ./ () Z I .,10MeV 1 g/cm2 , , ... , . . 1. Bragg Bragg,1.4. MeV. , 1/,(1.2)(1.3). , .1.4Bragg . (straggling), . 1.4BraggPo150C760mmHg( ) Bragg ( ). 10 1.5dx dE / . . . , ( ) 100keV,He3 400 keV. 2. , ., , . (energy straggling), . 1.6 .,( ), 1.5 dx dE / . mT dx dE / 4. 11 ., , . . 1. 1.7. .( .) 1.7. ,, ,. 1.6 . 4. 1.7. t 0I . mR eR . 12 , . , . , . . . . , . , . ,1.7 . , . 1.8 1.10. , . 2. . , ., , . 1.7. . 3. . , : 13 ( )Am amu MeVEsmMcEcME|.|</p> <p>\|= = = u/ 931210 x 00 , 32 282 (1.9) Am MeV. ( ) = , R : Em amu MeVs m KREMcKcR RTA2/ 931) / 10 x 00 , 3 ( 282= =u= (1.10) 2 / = 0,5. ,,, 1.8150C 760 mm Hg. 14 ,. = 0,6, : EmR TA710 x 2 , 1~ (1.11) Am (amu), second,RmMeV. (, ..) 1.9 . log log , , baE R = , b . 15 . , , . , ,(1.11),ps ns . , , . 1.10 . 6. 16 . () , : tdxdEEavg|.|</p> <p>\| = (1.12)t( )avgdx dE / ., .dx dE / 1.11 5. 17 611. 1.11 1.13. ,( )avgdx dE / ., 1.81.10. : 1R 0E . t 1R , 2R 1.12 . 6. 18 . 2R , tE . tE E E =0 . . . ( ). dx dE / 1.14. ., . , , 1.13. . () ( 1 MeV/amu)9. 19 (). 425keV ., . , (1.12), . ( 1.5), .1.14 (tE ) . . dE/dx,BetheBloch : ) (2f zdxdE= (1.13) ( ) f . , . 2) 1 ( Mc , /,) / ( M T g = .(1.13) : ) / (2M T f zdxdE' = (1.14) (1.14) : dx dE / 1 z1, dx dE / M2, 1.14 4,6m(). ()4. 20 z221 2) / (2 1 2M M T T = ) / (1 2z z , : ||.|</p> <p>\|||.|</p> <p>\| = 212121222) (MMTdxdEzzTdxdE(1.15) . dE/dx dx dE / .,,dx dE / ; ., ,, dx dE / ( Bragg Kleeman). : |.|</p> <p>\|||.|</p> <p>\|=i iidxdE wdxdE 1 (1.16) iw 1,2,... . , ia i , : mi iiAA aw =(1.17) iA i =i i mA a A . (1...</p>