מדריך לבניה אקולוגית

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<ul><li> 1. - , " - - - 01-91-MONI-RD 0102 : </li></ul><p> 2. 2 31. . . . . . . . . . . 16 41. . . . . . . . 761. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472. , . . . . . . . . 8 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2171. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6181. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4291. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 63 7. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3412. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999. . . . . . . . . 5422. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70132. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901 42. . . . . . . . . . . . 821 52. . . . . . . 54101. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84841 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15251 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 04 04 83 0.52 ] [2.62 ][5.52 ][1.73 ] * [ 63 63 43 23 23 ] 03 82 82 62 42 42 [ 22 02 02 81 6100 36 9 21 51 81 12 42 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 08 001 06 0403 00:31 00:41 00:51 00:61 00:71 00:81 NOON00:31 00:41 00:5100:61 00:7100:8152 oo08 08 oo ][07 07 o02o06 06 ]%[ oo05 05 oo )%87/ 62( 51 0204 04 oo03 03 oo02 0201 o 01o01)%02/ 04(5 0 0 501510252 03 5304 5405 ][2 3. 1. - 1. - . - . . , , , -. 2.1 1.1 07 , . . , , .[1] , , . , , . , , . . 3891 , , -7891 , ,Our Common Future , , , ( . ). [2] , - (Sustainable . .)Development , , , 1. 2791 ,. .Meadows et al 23 , (4002 ,. )Meadows et al . , , , , , 2791. 2. 7891 ,.Bruntland - . 4. - : : : - 1.1. -. , , 3.1 , , . , , , .. , . , , 4.1 , - :, , . , , , , , , , , , . 5. - 5.1 , . 2991, 2.1. -. . , - . 2. - -. 1.1. , . : . -. -, : , , . . , . ( ), . , . . , , -. - . . - . : , , - - . , , 2.1. 6. 0202 12 - - - - - 53 3.1. - ( ) , 3. - . 12 12 . 12 (12 .)Agenda , , , , . - -. . , 12 ( 12 12.)LA 12 . 5 : . 4. - 6991 , ( ) - . : , , , , -, 7. . - 8991 . . ,5. - , 0202 . . 3.1 - , , .. , , [3]- : , , , , . ; , , ; , . (Ed ; ,)Mazria - ;07, , -%84 ;( ), . , ; , %67 . , , 12 1002 , (12 )Local Agenda . . - . , , , , , . 2002, , - . , , , - . 3002, , (01 ), . , , - , , , . , . - . , 3. , 5002 8. 2. , -%04 ( 1.2) -, , . -, , , , , ( , . 3002 ), , , . fuel ,poverty , , . , 04 , ( )0102 ,* quadrillion Btu in U.S. (EIA . ). , 03 , , , , 02 . .01 * -02 (2091), 0 8002 00 09 08 07 8002 00 09 08 07 8002 00 09 08 07 81-71. 1.2. . . , . , -%09 ! 5401 . , 1825 . , ( ), 2825 (, ), ( ). , , . - . . 8002-5002, - : -%003, - 23$, ;- 041$ . , , , ( , , , ), . . , 9. 3. . , . , . , - . , . , , , - . , , .1. 5401 . , . , 5401, 2002. 5401, 01, : . 1.3. 5401. - [4]. , , , . . , . , 4. ., ., . ., 0002 . 10. 01 () () 0041 [%] [][][ * ][][]568.820.221453.71 0.9 239.235.818674.61 0.6 249.822.71 45318.11 3.4 514.932.522428.02 2.9 1.3. 5401. [5] . , 1.3 5401.5401. ( ). 2. . , - 1, , ; , ( ). ( 82 , . , , 3 ). . , ( ), , , . : . , 2825, 5. , 4991, 01 11. 11 , .: , 5401, . : . 5401 , . , , . : 00:41 %45, %23 . 5401. 1, .2.2 ; 1.2 ; , -034 , . ( , , , . ). . , . , , , . . . 3.2 . , . .: ,. ., , , . . , 4.2 . , , . , , 11 12. 214. . , . , 1. , , . (-007,21 ), . -01 , ( ) , ( .)Atmospheric Boundary Layer , : , . 1.4. : , . . ()Urban Boundary Layer ( )Surface Layer : . , 01 , . , . ( 1.4). 21 13. 1SVF , ( , ) , . L ( , ) . , H - 5-4 , . W -2 , , 2.4. , . . ()Urban Canopy Layer 3) ()Sky View Factor - SVF . . , ,- SVF , : , SVF = cos . -) = tan-1(H / 0.5W , , , : . ( )Frontal Area Density ,2. ; ( )Roof Area Density , ; . ( )Vegetated Fraction ( )urban canyon . - , . , , : , . 1) - ( )H/W ( ,)H 3. (;)W 2) , -. ; 1 14. 1 21 , . , 01 , :, - ][ 8 ( ) 6 [6] .4 ,2 : 0 1) 0 5.0 0.1 5.10.2 ( )anthropogenic heat 5.20.3 5.3 - )(H/W 3.4. ( [6] ) - . , , : , . ( , , ( )albedo . .) , , . ( , , . )., , ( ), (3) , ). , 2) ( .)evapo-transpiration , , , . . , , , . , , , . 7891 ,6. Oke 1 15. 1 4.4. - . ( )urban albedo , . .( , , , -.) . 4) ( SVF) - () , . . , H/W, ( : ). , , , . . ( ) , ( ( ). ), ( )turbulence, , , . . 1 16. 15. . . , ?1. . (0377 .)ISO , . , . , , 1.3 , . . ( , 2. .) , , . , ( ), , , . ( ) , ( ). . , , , . .2.3 3. . , . , , . ,. ( ) , . . : 1 17. 1 : 3.3 . , , : ( ) . 5.63 -5.73 , , 53-33 , ( ). . , . . 4.3 ( 5. ), . : , . . . , : 1.5 M - W = E + DC + DR M , W . , E , DC - DR : , . . , , 4. . , , , -73 . , , :2.5 , (), .met , :(1 58.15 = met/ ) , . .clo ( ) (1 0.155 = clo/ ) 1 18. 1 met/ 8.0 54 0.1 85 2.1 07 6.1 59 9.1 011 (2 ) 1.5. . - 3.5 , , , , . , , - . , - ( ), . . - , - : ( , . ). , . , , . , 6. . , , , , . . : 1 19. 1 clo/ 60.0 900.0 90.0 410.0 ( )52.0 930.0 ( )52.0 930.0 53.0 450.0 53.0 450.007.0 901.0 2.5. . 8. 7. , . . , , , . . , . Fanger , . : , 0, . . , . ( .)PMV - predicted mean vote ( ) , , - . (PPD - percent .)predicted dissatisfied . 1 20. 02%08)Predicted Percent Dissatis ed (PPD06Thermal Comfort Scales04)(Fanger030201 8 COLD SLIGHTLY COLDNEUTRALSLIGHTLY HOTHOT65 0.2- 5.1- 0.1- 5.0- 0.05.00.1 5.10.2)Predicted Mean Vote (PMV 1.5. .( ). 1.5 . . 1.8 , - . Fanger - : , , , . - - . ( 2.5) 8.0 ( clo ) 3.1 ( met . ). , ( . ) . , , . . , - . . 02 21. 12 04 0.20.4 0.1 ][ 035.0 ][B 0207012 A 01 053][ 00 02 04 06 08 001 ]%[ 2.5. -, . A ( ), , ( ( B). ). . ( 3.5) , ( ): . 2.8 ( , ) -() ( . , ) , , . - ( )discomfort index 12 22. 22 51 ][ 010907 ]%[05503 51 025203 53 ][ 3.5. , . ( ) , : ( ):discomfort index = DBT + WBT (F 24 = MRTp-i )4x Tin 3.5 . []oC MRT Fp-i i p ()MRT - mean radiant temperature Ti ]oC[ i , 7 ( 4.7). . : ()OT - operative temperature () . 22 23. 2 - . 22 : 42-22 82-42 82 . 3.5. - . :%05 , , OT = hr x MRT + hc x DBT_______________ . hr + hc9. OT []oC MRT []oC . DBT []oC . hr []W/m2oC , , hr []W/m2oC . , , . . , . ()ET* - new effective temperature , . , , , , . . : , , , ( )*ET . 2 24. 2 6. : . . : ( )radiation. ( , ), . , . , (.)conduction , , (.)convection1. ( -): , . , 4R = T . , - R [2]W/m . - - - [2]5.67 x 10-8 W/m - T []K : . , , . , . ( ): .0881 =max T 2 25. 2 - max ()m []K -T , , 000,6 , . , , 003 , -. 1.6. , , . .1.1 ( ) 51.0 - 3 , . - %74 , 93.0 - 67.0 ; - %05 , 8.0 - 3 , ; -. , . 2.6. . 2 26. 22.1 ( ) , . -, . . - (2 )CO ( ), . , . 3.6. - -.3.1 , , , , . , , , . , :1=++ - )(absorptivity 4.6. . - )(reflectivity . - )(transmissivity , . , . 2 27. 2 : , , . , , ( )absorptivity 51.0 , %51 ( ,)emissivity . , () - : 80.0 , : ) (T, , )= (T, , %8.31 = (80.0 15 )15 x - )(absorptivity , - )(emissivity , - )(wavelength , 2.0, %02. - 9.0, - T - : - %0.2 = (9.0 20 )20 x 88.0 04.0 59.0 32.0 59.0 34.0 59.0 04.0 () 82.0 51.0() 80.0 58.0 () 19.0 08.0 09.0 01.0 1.6. 2 28. 2 2. , . , . : 1.2 , , . . : . 1Q = T2 T d - Q [2]W/m - []W/m K - T []K - d []m ( )thermal conductivity, . , . ( )thermal resistivity, r ( ,):.r=1/ : r[]Wm K []m K/W [3]kg/m720.07372 040.05204 (-) 22.05.4056 ( ) 52.18.00002 1.2 84.0004276510.0 0087 2.6. 2 29. 2 , , . , , : , . ( )thermal resistance :R= d - R []m2 K/W - d []m - []W/m K 5.6. . , : . 3 :(total )thermal resistance : :21.0 =R = 1/hin: 1 + Rtot = 1 + R = 0.8 W/m2 K hin houtd = 0.003 m57300.0 = 8.0/300.0 = R - Rtot []m2 K/W - R []m2 K/W :40.0 =R = 1/hin -1/hin []m2 K/W: -1/hout []m2 K/W40.0 + 57300.0 + 21.0 = Rtot 0.16 m2 K/W . 2 30. 0 . , , . , ( )Rtot ( )ri : Rtot = r1+ r2 + . . . rn , ( ,total thermal conductance .)U ( ,)R : U=1/Rtot - U []W/m2 K - Rtot []m2 K/W 6.6. . 2.2 , ( ,)steady-state . , . : ( )volumetric heat capacity . . , . , , , . ( )C : .C = cp , - [3]kg/m : - cp []kJ/kg 0 31. 1 kJ/m KkJ/kg Kkg/m 040258.0 0042 075 59.0006 ( ) 081481.4 00015.103.181.1 3.6. :. : . . .: 01 005 . - 4 / 2 . ( ), . , , , ., 7.6. , . 1 32. 2 3. ( ) , ( ,)convection : (), ( ) . . : , , . . , . , , . .1.3 ( ) , . ( ), , ,...</p>