Богатиков - Сборник Задач Вопросов и Упражнений По Общей Неорганической Химии - 2003

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  • .., .., .., .., ..

    , .

    , [ ]: / .., .., .., .., ... . . . (1,2 ). .: - , 2003. : http://anubis.bsu.by/publications/elresources/Chemistry/bogatikov.pdf . . . , 2002. PDF , 1.4 . . : Adobe Acrobat 5.0 .

    2003

    .., .., .., .., .., 2003.

    - , 2003

    www.elbook.bsu.by elbook@bsu.by

  • ); !"

    #!$ !"

    !!%&

    %'(

    ISBN 985-445-803-2.

    !! !"

    ))

    !)*! +

    ) ! $

    )

    ISBN 985-445-803-2

    (

  • 3

    I

    I

    -

    (U

    !!

    "

    !

    26!

    26!

    #r (r relative

    Ar

    12$.

    %12$

    26!

    .!10663,112

    !10995,112

    )C( 272612 =

    =am

    &'

    u !! unit '(

    1u = 1,6631027 !

    Ar(O) = 16!10663,1!10658,2

    1)O(

    27

    26=

    =

    u

    ma.

  • 4

    )!! ) "

    26 !*

    Mr.

    Mr 1/12

    12$

    Mr(H2O) = 18!10663,1!1099,2

    1OH

    27

    262

    =

    =

    u

    m.

    +Mr !

    Ar!

    -!'

    #$2+ $l, Na+, S2;

    !4+, SO42$H3COO.

    ,

    '-

    !!!

    ! ! ! .- .

    ! &!!!

  • 5

    ! -

    '.-!-

    %!

    SiO2!-''-!Si-##

    IVSiO2 !

    Si#(-'IV) 'SiO2.

    %!

    NaCl!-' ' !Na+!Cl#NaCl

    !

    Na+Cl$-''-

    !

    *

    '

    -'-

    #Mf,r(X). Mf,r(X)

    12$.

    +Mf,r

    Ar-'

    !

    !/

    !!" # -''0%

    ' .

  • 6

    n.%'!

    23

    12$

    1

    23!

    N

    :

    N

    = 6,0210231. "

    # !!

    )!!

    m(X) = n(X) M(X) #$

    .#V

    3

    3

    #/! ! ! ! /

    !

    V(X) = n(X) V

    (X) ( !

    '/!

    A

    )()()(

    )()()(

    NXN

    XVXV

    XMXmXn

    m

    === .

    !!

    #!$%#'#

    "

    $ -! '*&'

  • 7

    #!(###

    %

    $-!' !!-*- ! '-

    !!!-'!!- * -

    ")w ' ' 35 )!&!

    &

    -

    ;)()()(

    r

    r

    yxBAMAAxAw = )(

    )()(r

    r

    yxBAMBAyBw = .

    *

    !

    ' "Mr

    Mr(HNO2) = Ar(H) + Ar(N) + 2Ar(O) = 1 + 14 + 32 = 47.

    "

    %;1,2021,0471

    )HNO()H(1)H(2r

    r===

    =

    MA

    w

    ==

    =

    4714

    )HNO()N(1)N(2r

    r

    MA

    w 8,29298,0 = % ;

    %1,68%8,29%1,2%100)O( ==w .

  • 8

    .#-!

    ' *NxOy!"

    m(O) = m(NxOy) w!! m(N) = m(NxOy) m(O) = !!!

    n(N) = )N()N(

    Mm

    =

    !14!85,36

    n(O) = )O()O(

    Mm

    =

    !16!15,63

    n(N) : n(O $- N2#3. . ! !

    ! ! ! 3,6 !#-!!!

    ' * ! !

    !!!

    "!$#2: "$#2!

    !! !$#2) !$ !$#2) -"- x!$ x =!$

    " "2#!!! !2# ! !2# -"- !$!

    !

    !

    m(C) + m(H! *

    $!!!

    !!

    !m# = 6 !

  • 9

    #$#

    !-

    1.:2:1 !16!3,2

    :!1

    !0,4:

    ! 12!2,4

    (O)(O)

    (H)(H)

    (C)(C)(O)(H)(C)

    ==

    ==

    Mm

    :Mm

    :Mm

    : n : nn

    (- $2#

    $-

    )-!-

    "!!

    M1(CxHyOz) = 29 D = 29 ! "!

    !-

    M2(CH2O * "1 "2

    -!-(-$36#3.

    #!)!#"

    &

    $

    - -

    +--

    " ' '

  • 10

    !.-

    )(1 Xz

    !z*

    !z* +---

    -

    z

    1

    +

    --

    ##)!#"## M

    )(1 Xz

    !!%'!

    !)

    M

    )(1 Xz

    = z

    XM )(.

    $!

    :

    M

    )(1 Xz

    =

    )(1)(

    Xz

    n

    Xm.

    n

    )(1 Xz

    %'

    "# Vm

    )(1 Xz

    $

    %'-

    3

  • 11

    )/! /

    !

    Vm

    )(1 Xz

    = z

    XVm )(.

    /!

    /!

    V

    )(1 Xz

    =

    )(1)(

    Xz

    n

    XV.

    # -

    --

    '

    Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4 4 + 2H2O. '

    z*'

    3PO4+!

    +*z*'

    -

    *211

    *==

    zf .

    &+'

    '

    M

    )POH(1 43z

    = !492

    982

    )POH( 43==

    M.

    #

    !!!!'

    2Cr(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 = Cr2(SO4)3 + 6H2O. '

    $"#3:

    '$"#3

    +,

    ' - " - x

  • 12

    + ! z*

    '

    - $"#3 !

    + '$"#3,

    H+ - " - y'y = 1/3. &'!

    !!!'!-' "$"#3:

    M

    ))OH(Cr(31

    3 = 3))OH(Cr( 3M !

    #!!'II'

    2Mn(OH)2 + 12KOH + 5Cl2 #$%4 + 10KCl + 8H2O. ' )%#2: *-'!!

    !' - '$%4 ')%#2+!

    - !

    !51

    *

    1

    ==

    zf .

    &'!!'!!'!-'

    "!

    M

    ))OH(Mn(51

    2 = 5))OH(Mn( 2M

    =

    5!89

    !

    #-'

    Al2(SO4)3 + 3Pb(NO3)2 = 2Al(NO3)3 + 3PbSO4. ' &'2(SO4)3. '

    +

    !

  • 13

    NO 3 ,''&'2(SO4)33 , z*-

    -

    3 '&'2(SO4)3, - " - x'x = 1/6.

    &'

    - ' !

    -'

    "

    M

    ))SO(Al(61

    342 = 6))SO(Al( 342M !

    #

    !/'

    H2S2 + 8HNO3 2S+6O4 + 8NO2 + 4H2O. '

    2S*

    H2S& z*'

    -

    !

    2S, - " - xx = 1/8.

    &

    ''!

    !/

    Vm

    )SH(81

    2 = 8mV

    =

    84,22

    !!

    !#

    '

    +')0# 02 )

    x+2 #

    2x .

  • 14

    n

    )Me(1*z

    =

    )O(1 2*zn =>

    =

    )O(1)O(

    )Me(1)Me(

    2*

    2

    * zM

    m

    zM

    m.

    + m(Me) !' m(O2) !'

    )Me(1*z

    M

    )O(1 2*zM !'

    m(O2) = m m!!!

    !

    *

    -O 02 O2

    .

    (! #2, - " - xx = 1/4.

    & ''

    M

    )O(41

    2 = !8432

    4)O( 2

    ==

    M.

    *

    M

    )Me(1*z

    =

    89,8810

    )O()O(1)Me(

    2

    2*

    =

    m

    zMm

    !

    2z*!

    *M(Me) = M

    )Me(1*z

    z*

    z* = 1 ")! z* = 2 ")! z* = 3 ")!

  • 15

    #! !!!(Al).

    *!/#

    '

    +')0 + nH+ Men+ +

    2n

    H 02 .

    $

    =

    )H(1)H(

    )Me(1)Me(

    2*

    2

    * zV

    V

    zM

    m

    m

    .

    + m(Me) V(H2) /

    M

    )Me(1*z

    )H(1 2*zVm / "!/

    *H+H 02

    2,

    xx = 21

    .

    (' ' ! * /

    Vm

    )H(21

    2 = 2,1124,22

    2==

    mV.

    *

    M

    )Me(1*z

    =

    72,62,1158,9

    )H()H(1)Me(

    2

    2*

    =

    Vz

    Vm m!

  • 16

    *"

    )Me(1*z

    = *

    )Me(z

    M

    M(Me) = M

    )Me(1*z

    z*,

    3z*$ *z* = 1 ")! z* = 2 ")! z* = 3 ")!

    #-!

    !()

    ,!!

    !!#

    '

    *

    !

    =

    ++

    ))NO(Me(1))NO(Me(

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    zM

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    *

    !

    !2

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    6264,23

    5,3534,18

    +=

    + xxx!

    #

    *M(Me) = M

    )Me(1*z

    z*,

    ! z* z* = 1 ") = ! ! z* = 2 ")!!*

  • 17

    #!*#+%

    &$

    *!

    **

    $ ! ! /

    #$

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    )/!/!

    !

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    XnXVVm = .

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    YMXMXDY = .

    #! !!Y-/

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    2

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    #

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    ( ) "( ) + (Y) M(Y). +XY) /!"(XM(Y)

    !#/!

  • 18

    /! /

    ''

    *!5!

    /

    5(X) = mVXM )(

    .

    ) 4,22!29.)(

    .

    =

    mVM

    !

    #!,"%#

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    !!/

    p1V1 = p2V2 = const. * */!

    /'!*

    '

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    3,66,162

    4,105,982

    112 =

    ==

    pVpV .

    #!,--#!#

    * $

    &!

    !/

    * / ! !

    const2

    2

    1

    1==

    TV

    TV

    .

  • 19

    *

    $/!

    /!!18 $ '

    "

    T1 = t1 + 273 = 18 + 273 = 291 K; ) T2 = t2 + 273 = 118 + 273 = 391 K.

    ,3-7V2!

    03,9291

    39172,61

    212 =

    ==

    TTVV .

    ./+',*#0',0#!

    *

    $

    const1

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    4,1208,6827310

    1100 =

    ==

    TpVpTV .

    %!

    TpV

    ! R!!* / R 8,314 2 K$!!

    RTpV

    = pV = RT.

  • 20

    %!!n

    pV = nRT. &+ ".

    4Mm

    n =

    .RTMmpV =

    #!!/2!

    !!

    o$*

    / ' ,-)M

    !782,12,83360314,86,2

    =

    ==

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    #!(#%1#"2'$+#",*#0

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    (1)(2) + (n).

    "# $

    *'!'!/

    (1) = ' (1).

    # 14 !!*'!

    ' * / !

    '!'

  • 21

    "!!

    n(N2) =!28!14

    n(O2) =!32!8

    "!

    8(N2) = 666,0

    75,0

    5,0

    )()N( 2

    ==

    n

    n.

    $8#2

    8(O2) = 1 0,666 = 0,334. "'!

    p(N2) = ,(N2) P = 0,666 ** p(O2),(O2) P = 0,334 **.

    / /

    3,5 */ * '

    !

    '

    *6-)!

    '

    *92,726

    5,3125)O()O()O(2

    212122 =

    =

    =

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    *25,966

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    212122 =

    =

    =

    VVpp .

    P

    = p(1) + p(2)*** /

    o$

    !!!!

    *

    '

    , )

    !!!!

  • 22

    VMmRTp = ;

    *35,46325,44

    )19273(314,82,27)O( 2 =

    +=p .

    *16,68445,44

    )19273(314,855)CO( 2 =

    +=p .

    "'

    p(N2) = P p(CO2) p(O2) = 139,05 68,16 * "

    !58,12)19273(31,8285,445,24)N( 2 =+

    ==

    RTpVM

    m .

    !

    $/*"/!!!!

    o$*

    ' "'!!

    (O2) = P(c p(H2O) = 102,455 *

    , /! !! V

    !

    67,4)25273(3,1012,5291,99273

    10

    1100 =+

    ==

    TpVpTV .

    $%%"

    1. $-

    2. C

    + ++

    3. 1 +1 ' ++

    4. *,! +1 +

  • 23

    5. 1 ! !+- ! +' '+

    6. 1 +$--

    !+

    7. 1+!+'+

    8. 1/!+/!!+*!!/+

    9. $--!+

    10. $- + ! ! +*

    11. 1-

    -+

    12. $-2-/

    13. ' +*

    14. *!!!'+*

    15. * ! !

    +

    16. $- !!!+

    17. $- ! /!+'+

    18. 1!!!

    !+ !--+

  • 24

    19. 1

    !++1

    +

    20. $- 6 )3-7

    21. $-/!!+

    22. +)- ! +

    !+

    23. '!+!+$-

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    !! ' ! !

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    7. 3! /

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    1,038105*! 8. # / 3

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  • 25

    10. ,'!! / !

    $ 111,9 *'

    11. *///!

    12. ,+

    13. *, +

    14.

    7*

    $/+1!+

    15. $

    7*

    $*

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    $ / /

    17. 3!!!/!*

    $ 5*/

    #-!!

    18. ' ! *

    *!*!!!*/!

    19. ! &3 ! 26 $*/&!

    20. # !! ! !/

    $*

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    22.

  • 26

    21. /!

    22. .!.2!

    $*/

    23. /$5*! ! !+

    24. #/!!

    25. $!!!/!!!!/!

    26. $ ! II /0,5 !!!!/ /

    27. " / ! ! ! '/

    28. $'! ! ! ! / !

    29. )

    !

    $

    *!) !!!

    30. ) ! 19 $*!)!)!!!

    31. !/!!! 20 %; !!!!/

    $*

  • 27

    32. //*/-

    *-

    1!+

    33. !!!! !'**

    / !

    $*

    34. / 3 $!!!!

    !!

    '!

    35. !$*//

    !!

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    36. /!/!*/

    *!

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    37. ! ! !

    /!

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    38. )!/

    $

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    ! !

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    39. )!/-

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    * # -

    !!*

    40. " !

    41. ! 24,75 !!!/

    $

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  • 28

    42. !! /!

    $*

    43. #! !-!!"!!

    44. #

    ! / ' ) 2H2S + (CuOH)2SO4 = 2CuS + H2SO4 + 2H2O; ) 2H2S + O2 = 2H2O + 2S; ) 2H2S + 3O2 = 2H2O + 2SO2; !) H2-2SO4 = 4H2O + 4SO2

    45. # -' ) Al2(SO4)3 + 12KOH = 2K3[Al(OH)6] + 3K2SO4; ) Al2(SO4)3 + Al(OH)3 = 3Al(OH)SO4; ) Al2(SO4)3 + 2KOH = 2Al(OH)SO4 + K2SO4.

    46. " ! --'! ) 4H3PO4 + Ca3(PO4)2 = 3Ca(H2PO4)2; ) 2H3PO4 + (CaOH)3PO4 = 3CaHPO4 + 3H2O.

    47. 2 ! !

    !!

    48. !/&!'!#'

    49. * ! ! - ! !#/!!

    50. "!!I

  • 29

    51. *!!! ! #

    52. !!(!!!!#-!!

    53.

    !!#!!

    54. )!! / !'

    55. )! ! ! /!-!!

    56. )!!!!!#-!!

    57. !6!/

    $*# 6

    58. # - !

    59. #-!

    !!!!/

    60. !!! ! ! / !#-!!

    61. * !! ! !!! ! / # - !

  • 30

    62. #!!#-!

    63. * !!'!'Mn3O4

    !/

    # - !

    64. *!! # !

    -

    65. ! ! *!!

    $ * / # -

    66. #- - 38,10 %.

    67. *!!

    $*/

    #-

    68. !! ! ! / #-!!

    ! 69. ! !!

    !!!

    !!#-! !

    70. !!!!!

    ! !6!

    !!#

    - !

  • 31

    71. *!'IV!!!'!-!+

    72.

    ! ! !!!

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    73. /!/!!/+

    74. $ !,!!II!

    75. )'! ' /

    o$*+

    I I

    34

    *!

    ,!! !---'

    $!!

    $!'-!'*-

  • 32

    !

    !'

    #%'+&

    ! '!-- --! '! % ' '-

    -: NaCl !.2 -!!./0"2 !!

    # Al2O3 4O10 -- 1$# ! !! ./2O3 !!!#! 22 (##2#2 #2

    (): CuS -

    !!22-!2Te

    !!

    3P2; CaC2; MgH2 !

    ,,

    ('!- 4

    +

    4Cl

    2 #2 2

    Na2NH

    !

    '- CN BiO+ SbO+.

    *-'

    # CO, NO, N2$.

  • 33

    *)"'+&

    ! '!

    # # !!

    # ##3)#456-"0$!!!

    LiOH ! #2 ! Fe(OH)3 (III); Re(OH)4 (IV). +&

    !

    !!! -- 6,

    1 . HNO3 2SO4 3PO4 4P2O7 3COOH

    !n&mnXm!& !!!!nm

    *!##(H2SO5 (H3PS4).

    ('

    !! !

    !!

  • 34

    %

    ! --

    !--, ------, --, -#-, -#-

    (

    !#

    #

    !-'

    !-3, Mg(HCO3)2, #./2(SO4)3, Na2CO3!./'22CO3.

    "

    #&'-4)2, KCr(SO4)2),

    ''

    '2 -"-' 7&83)2]ClO4, K3[Fe(CN)6]).

    6 !

    )!

    ('

    !!

    ! --

    !

    %

    ---#-:

    Na2CO3 K2SiO3 %

    -- -#- --:

    CaSO4 -'MgSO3 -! *

    !

    (%----#:

    KBr+7O4

  • 35

    --

    --#: KBr+5O3

    ---: KBr+3O2 *(----:

    KBr+1O *'

    *+%-'

    $#3

    Fe(H2PO4)2 --II). - '

    *+%!-:

    (CuOH)2CO3 !II); Al(OH)2NO3 !

    %

    -

    KCr(SO4)2 -III; Ca(ClO)Cl -' AlNO3SO4 - (' -

    6 H3BO3 6 4! H2CO3 ) H2SiO3 ) # H4SiO4 # ) H3AsO4 ) H3AsO3 0- H3PO4 0- 2-- H4P2O7 2-- 0- H3PO3 0-

  • 36

    0- H3PO2 3-- HNO3 HNO2 . H2CrO4 . 2 H2Cr2O7 2 $ H2SO4 $- $ H2SO3 $- )!' HMnO4 *! )!' H2MnO4 )! . HClO 3 . HClO2 . . HClO3 . . HClO4 *

    &'

    76. - !4SiO4, Cu(OH)2, H3AsO3, H6TeO6, Fe(OH)3.

    77. $'

    ) Ba 00'2 03)2 0-4; ) Mg $8-4 $82 $8O $8'2 .

    78. !'2S, NO2, N2, Cl2, CH4, SO2, NH3+'

    79. 2-4, AgNO3, K3PO4, BaCl2+'

    80. $!2O3, Zn(OH)2, CaO, AgNO3, SiO2, H3PO4+$'

    81. ! ! HNO3, CaO, CO2, CuSO4, Cd(OH)2, P4O10+$'

    82. ' ./62O, HgO, Bi2O3.

  • 37

    83. 'SeO2, SO3, Mn2O7, P4O6, CrO3.

    84. : SbCl2NO3, (Fe(OH)2)2CrO4, (AlOH)SO4, Cd(HS)2, Ca(H2PO4)2.

    85. ' $82P2O7, Ca3(PO4)2, Mg(ClO4)2, Ba(NO3)2 !!

    !

    !

    !

    86. 9%3COO)2, NaH2SbO4, K2H2P2O7, Al(OH)2NO3, Na2Cr2O7, Ba(HSO3)2, CrOHSO4, NaHS.

    87. *

    !'2O3; N2O5; NO2? 88. #

    FeCl3Fe2O3; Al(CH3COO)3Al2O3; CuSO4CuO; MnBr2MnO. !!!

    !222O././2O3; P4O10 4O6; $%$%2O7; NO2+

    89. 0$8 59%-)22$%

    9%./-)2? 90. 1+*

    !--

    --

    !+

    91. - - -- -!!

    +

    92.

    HNO2; HClO; H3PO3; H2WO4; H3AsO4; HBO2; H2B4O7; HAsO3; H2S3O10?

    93. $2O3; AgNO3; SO3; Pb(NO3)2; CuSO4; FeS; FeO; Cu; Zn?

    94. #!!

    &63 0)3; Sn(OH)2 -%4; Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)3; Ba(OH)20/2?

  • 38

    95. #!

    96. !!!2!!1/!!$#2?

    97. /3"#4''!-!--+

    98. ' !-' !

    99. ' ! 22SO4, Ca(HCO3)2, [Al(OH)2]2SO4, [Cr(OH)2]2SO4, FeOHSO4, (BiOH)SO4.

    100. ClNO3, KNa2PO4, Pb(CH3COO)2, (BiO)2SO4, Fe(OH)2NO3 H2SO4 NaOH+ ' !--

    101. ! ) Pb(NO3)2 5-4, ) CuCl2 2-4, ) Fe2(SO4)3 ./'3, !) K2CrO4 0"4, ) NaAlO2 &'2(SO4)3, ) BaCO3 0'2?

    102. './-'22CO32SO4, Ca(HCO3)2NaHSO43, Al(H2PO4)32.

    103. (!!+

    104. ' 2 2; NH3 SO2; CaCl22HPO4; H2SO4 ./-4; CaHAsO3 02; Mg(HCO3)22; KAl(SO4)2#4Cr(SO4)20'2.

    105. *'!! ) KAl(SO4)2 &''3 &'2O3; ) Fe2(SO4)3 ./3SO4 ./'3 ./2O3; ) Fe2(SO4)3 ./2O3 ./4)2Fe(SO4)2 ./'3; !) Fe ./'2 ./'3 ./-4 ./'-4 ./2O3 ./ ) Zn 9%-9%9%2SO4 9%'2 9%

  • 39

    564

    (!

    !'

    )

    " !!!!*

    " - ""

    -#

    . %

    . . ,

    /Vm'' (

    , V.,!-'*

    '

    -'

    U

    ! /

    S G !3! $ " U !

    '!'

    *

    !!U1!U2): U = U2 U1.

    6'

    ( ! -:!-

    !

    U = Q + A .

  • 40

    A = p(V2 V1) = pV. %

    :

    A = pV. * = const):

    U = Qp pV

    U2 U1= Q p(V2 V1),

    Qp = (U2+ pV2) (U1+ pV1). 0' U + pV / %.

    &-'!2

    Qp = H2 H1 = H. (--'

    '#

    !-!

    ., '

    '

    #

    : *. $ $'!

    -

    !

    f H 0298 (CO2) = 2f H 0298 (HgO) = 90,9 20

    .

    .

    --'

    :

    $

    #

    $#

    ; / 0298 = 2

    $

    #

    $#

    2

    %'Q > H < ('-

  • 41

    "' ! Q < -H > .

    '0#!%$&"&&0#!#

    .

    "+00#!##

    / 0298 -'f / 0298 f / 0298 *

    '$8

    + CO

    = 2MgO

    + C

    / ' ' ,2

    $8 '

    / 0298 =2f /0298 (MgO) f / 0298 (CO2) =

    = 601,8 .2 + 393,5 = 2 , !!

    !2) = 2!$

    + 2N2O $# + 2N; / 0298 = 22O.

    "

    / 0298 -'f /0298 (CO2) + 0) (2f/ 0298 (N2O) + 0),

    2f/ 0298 (N2O) = f / 0298 (CO2) / 0298 -' 393,5 (2

    $f / 0298 (N22

    '-

  • 42

    )''

    ''

    /

    )

    S ' !-

    S = k . ln W. %'2K. &!

    ! !

    !

    '!'!

    '

    ' '

    '

    '

    NH4NO = N2O2#; (1)

    #

    2#; (2)

    #

    2#. (3) '

    '

    ! S1 > ' !

    S2 < S3 < *S3'S2S(H2O) < S(H2O).

    2 !

    /:

    --'

    (-

  • 43

    0'

    '

    ' - (

    G = H TS, !.

    !3

    22

    2-'

    !

    3

    G =H TS. HS, - G

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