Ο δρόμος προς την ελευθερία

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  • . 1

    .

    . .

    (18 1956)

    Irgendwann fllt jede Mauer2 1. Austin Powers 1960. Dr. Evil, . Austin Dr. Evil 30 . O Austin . 30 , 1997. , , . Austin 1967, : , ; , ;3 1967 - . F.A. Hayek (1944) 1984 George Orwell - . , - -

    1 . & -, & & . - & - 2011. , . - . / , Morgan Huston (Freedom House), Geane Karlsen (Vision of Humanity), Tom G. Palmer (At-las Economic Research Foundation), Ian Vasquez (Cato Institute) Antony Davies (Duquesne University) datasets . : ahatzis@phs.uoa.gr 2 . . 3 Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (1997). : Mike Myers. : Jay Roach.

  • 2

    ( ) - ( ) -. 1970 1930. - , , : , , . , - .4 1945 . . , , 1961 . - , - . - . Austin Powers 1967 . , 30, 18 - 1985, -, :

    , . [] , . [] , , .. , , . [] , , .

    , 1983 - , (1983: 82-83). Austin; 4 , . , , [ ] [] , [ ], , , . , , , , . , -, , . (, 1955, 2, . 182).

  • 3

    2. ; , 1988, - Allan Bloom Nathan Tarcov , ; - . - Saul Bellow, Bernard Lewis Walter Berns - 35 Rand, Francis Fukuyama. 9 1989, -5 Francis Fukuyama . - 1989 - National Interest : . , Fukuyama , . Fukuyama -, , . () . consensus - - (liberal democracy may constitute the end point of mankinds ideological evolution), (the final form of human government). : . . , . 1900 , 46% (. 1). 1980 , - .

    5 Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Failure: The Birth and Decay of Communism in the Twentieth Century (1989) (. . 105 Marxist-Leninism is an alien doctrine imposed on the region by an imperial power whose rule is culturally repugnant to the dominated peoples. As a result, a process of organic rejection of com-munism by Eastern European societies a phenomenon similar to the human body's rejection of a transplanted organ - is underway ).

  • 4

    1. 2013 : Freedom House (http://www.freedomhouse.org)

    Fukuyama . . ( ) : . . 2013 Fukyama 1988 . 1989 (. 2).

  • 5

    2. Internet 2012 : Freedom House (http://www.freedomhouse.org)

    , Orwell 1948 - , : -. , . - 2010 . - , Wikileaks Edward Snowden . . . , 24 Fukuyama 42 John Rawls, - .

  • 6

    , - . . . , ( ) - (libertarianism), . - , : () , - . () . , , . - consensus; 3. : , - . , corpus -, -. 1948 (2000), , , , - : , ( ), - . . 2.5 . - ; (. 1). - , , / .

  • 7

    1. 2012

    : Freedom House (http://www.freedomhouse.org) . - . , . -. 87 45% - . ; , ( ) . - . - (. 3 3).

  • 8

    3. 2013

    Economic Freedom and Political RightsEconomic Freedom and Political RightsLow scores indicate high level of rights Low scores indicate high level of rights

    0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.0

    Polit

    ical

    Rig

    hts

    (out

    of 7

    )

    Least FreeQuartile

    3rd Quartile2nd QuartileMost FreeQuartile

    Sources: The Fraser Institute; Freedom House, Freedom in the WoSources: The Fraser Institute; Freedom House, Freedom in the World Country Ratings, rld Country Ratings, 2011, available at http://2011, available at http://www.freedomhouse.orgwww.freedomhouse.org/./.

    Most Free Most Free . Least Free . Least Free

    3. ( ) , - 136 -

  • 9

    . ( ) . -: - (. 4), (. 5) (. 6). 2013 (. 2).

    Economic Freedom and CorruptionEconomic Freedom and CorruptionHigh scores indicate low corruptionHigh scores indicate low corruption

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    Cor

    rupt

    ion

    Rat

    ing

    (o

    ut o

    f 10)

    Least FreeQuartile

    3rd Quartile2nd QuartileMost FreeQuartile

    Sources: The Fraser Institute; Transparency International, CorrSources: The Fraser Institute; Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index, uption Perceptions Index, 2011 available at http://2011 available at http://www.transparency.orgwww.transparency.org..

    Most Free Most Free . Least Free . Least Free

    4.

  • 10

    5. : Institute for Economics and Pease (http://economicsandpeace.org)

  • 11

    6.

    : White (2007)

    Economic Freedom and Economic Freedom and Life SatisfactionLife Satisfaction

    0.0

    50.0

    100.0

    150.0

    200.0

    250.0

    Life

    Sat

    isfa

    ctio

    n (o

    ut o

    f 10)

    Least FreeQuartile

    3rd Quartile2nd QuartileMost FreeQuartile

    Sources: The Fraser Institute; White, A. (2007). A Global ProjecSources: The Fraser Institute; White, A. (2007). A Global Projection of Subjective tion of Subjective WellWell--being:being:

    Most Free Most Free . Least Free . Least Free

    6.

    : White (2007)

  • 12

    2. 2013;

    : Economist (21 2012) . (. 7).

    7.

  • 13

    (. 8).

    Per Capita Income and Economic Per Capita Income and Economic Freedom QuartileFreedom Quartile

    $0$5,000

    $10,000$15,000$20,000$25,000$30,000$35,000$40,000

    GD

    P Pe

    r Cap

    ita

    (ppp

    ), 20

    10

    Least FreeQuartile

    3rd Quartile2nd QuartileMost FreeQuartile

    Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World DevelopmenSources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators, t Indicators, 2012.2012.

    Most Free Most Free . Least Free . Least Free

    8. - (. 9), (. 9) (. 10).

  • 14

    9.

    9.

    0

    0,1

    0,2

    0,3

    0,4

    0,5

    0,6

    0,7

    0,8

    0,9

    4 5 6 7 8 9

    EconomicFreedomIndex(19952011)

    Gen

    derIneq

    uality(19952011)

    Datasource:InternationalHumanDevelopmentIndicators,UNDevelopmentProgramme;CIAWorldFactbook,CentralIntelligenceAgency;EconomicFreedomoftheWorld,FraserInstitute.

  • 15

    Economic Freedom and Civil RightsEconomic Freedom and Civil RightsLow scores indicate high level of rights Low scores indicate high level of rights

    0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.0C

    ivil

    Libe

    rtie

    s (o

    ut o

    f 7)

    Least FreeQuartile

    3rd Quartile2nd QuartileMost FreeQuartile

    Sources: The Fraser Institute; Freedom House, Freedom in the WoSources: The Fraser Institute; Freedom House, Freedom in the World Country Ratings, rld Country Ratings, 2011, available at http://2011, available at http://www.freedomhouse.orgwww.freedomhouse.org/./.

    Most Free Most Free . Least Free . Least Free

    10. (. 11, 11, 11). - Economist (2013) 20 1 . 1990 2010 - 43% 21%. . - -. , - , -. , Economist 2/3 - 1/3 .

  • 16

    GiniIncomeInequalityIndex(19902009)

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50LeastEconomicallyFreeCountries 50MostEconomicallyFreeCountriesDatasource:InternationalHumanDevelopmentIndicators,UNDevelopmentProgramme;CIAWorldFactbook,CentralIntelligenceAgency;EconomicFreedomoftheWorld,FraserInstitute.

    11.

    Income Share of the Poorest 10% and Income Share of the Poorest 10% and Economic FreedomEconomic Freedom

    0.0%

    0.5%

    1.0%

    1.5%

    2.0%

    2.5%

    3.0%

    Inco

    me

    Shar

    e H

    eld

    by

    Low

    est 1

    0%, 1

    990-

    2010

    Least FreeQuartile

    3rdQuartile

    2ndQuartile

    Most FreeQuartile

    Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World DevelopmenSources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators, t Indicators, 2012.2012.

    Most Free Most Free . Least Free . Least Free

    11.

  • 17

    Income of the Poorest 10% and Income of the Poorest 10% and Economic FreedomEconomic Freedom

    $0

    $2,000

    $4,000

    $6,000

    $8,000

    $10,000

    $12,000In

    com

    e of

    the

    Low

    est

    10%

    , 199

    0-20

    10

    Least FreeQuartile

    3rdQuartile

    2ndQuartile

    Most FreeQuartile

    Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World DevelopmenSources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators, t Indicators, 2012.2012.

    Most Free Most Free . Least Free . Least Free

    11.

    4. ( ) ; , - ; , . - - . - , ( 2012). - (Rational Choice Theory RCT).6 - () Ayn Rand. , - John Stuart Mill 20 ( John Rawls Robert Nozick David Gauthier James Buchanan). - , ,

    6 . - & (2012).

  • 18

    . - . ( ) . . - . -. , - . RCT . , . -, ( ) - : . , , , , , . , , . . - - (subjective well-being) . RCT , - , () - -. ; ; a priori - , - . - . . - ( ) , RCT - ( ) . , , , (Foka-Kavaleriaki & Hatzis 2011). - -, .

  • 19

    . , (Vernon Smith, Charles Plott), (John List) (Steven Levitt). - -, , . , - , - (Cosmides and Tooby, Gigerenzer, Buss). , Vernon Smith (2008): - ; -. , , homo sapiens - . , . , , - . - - , - . - - . - , . - ( Paul Zak) - . , , - , - . - , , , . , - , , . , , , , , , -

  • 20

    , . , , , - , - . , - . , - . , - - -, . : , - . . (Foka-Kavalieraki & Hatzis 2013) - . 5. : ; , , - . - ( ) - : , - . , , . , . - . -, , - , . . : - , , . ( ) . - , . , ,

  • 21

    . , , , . -, . . , . . , - , . . , ( 11, 11, 11) - - . 6. : , , ( ) , : () . . ( 2013). () - . ( 2006). , ( 2005). . . - : -. . () . Robert Nozick - .7 . F.A. Hayek - . , -

    7 -, 20 (1988-2008) Milanovic (2012) (the period might have witnessed the first decline in global inequality between world citi-zens since the Industrial Revolution).

  • 22

    . . : John Rawls , , . - . . - . -. 1/5 , ... Milton Friedman (1962) - , - . - John Kennedy 26 1963 :

    . , -.

  • 23

    Becker, Gary S. (1976). The Economic Approach to Human Behavior, Chicago, University of Chi-cago Press.

    Brzezinski, Zbigniew (1989). The Grand Failure: The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twenti-eth Century, New York, Charles Schribner's Sons.

    Buchanan, James M. (1975). The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan, Chicago, Uni-versity of Chicago Press.

    Dworkin, Ronald (1978). Taking Rights Seriously, Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press, 2nd ed.

    Economist (2013). Towards the end of poverty (June 1, 2013).

    Foka-Kavalieraki, Yulie and Aristides N. Hatzis (2009), The Foundations of a Market Economy: Contract, Consent, Coercion, European View, 9, pp. 29-37.

    Foka-Kavalieraki, Yulie and Aristides N. Hatzis (2011), Rational After All: Toward an Im-proved Theory of Rationality, Revue de Philosophie Economique, 12, pp. 3-51.

    Foka-Kavalieraki, Yulie and Aristides N. Hatzis (2013), Rationality and the Intellectual Attribu-tion Bias. Working Paper.

    Friedman, Milton (1962), Capitalism and Freedom, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

    Fukuyama, Francis (1989), The End of History?, National Interest 16 (Summer), pp. 3-18.

    Fukuyama, Francis (1992), The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press.

    Gauthier, David (1986), Morals by Agreement. New York, Oxford University Press.

    Gigerenzer, Gerd (2008). Rationality for Mortals: How People Cope with Uncertainty, New York, Oxford University Press.

    Gintis, Herbert (2009), The Bounds of Reason: Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

    Glimcher, Paul W., Colin F. Camerer, Ernst Fehr and Russell A. Poldrack, eds. (2009), Neu-roeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain, San Diego, Academic Press.

    Hayek, Friedrich A. (1944), The Road to Serfdom, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

    Hayek, Friedrich A. (1945), The Use of Knowledge in Society, American Economic Review, 35, pp. 519-530.

    Hayek, Friedrich A. (1960), The Constitution of Liberty, Chicago, Univer...

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