ეთიკური პრობლემები ონლაინ მედიაში სოციალური ქსელების გამოყენებისას

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  • :

    :

    , 2015

  • 2

    , ,

    .

    .

    , ,

    .

    :

    ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    . ,

    , -

    .

    - (Liberali.ge,

    Netgazeti.ge, News.ge, Droni.ge Tavisupleba.org) .

    ,

    .

  • 3

    ABSTRACT

    Ethical Issues While Using Social Networks in Online Media

    Author: Nata Dzvelisvili

    In young democracies like Georgia the self-regulation system of online media is still fragile. Due

    to development of online media, this system has new trends and challenges.

    The Goal of the Research is to analyze problems of Georgian online media concerning ethical

    standards. The research examined following questions: Whose responsibility is when readers

    publish hate speech comments below the online articles? Do the editors and journalists violate

    the self-regulations standards using other peoples personal posts (in social networks) as official

    comments in news? Do journalists violate the self-regulations standards when they post at the

    social networks their personal opinions about the issues they are covering?

    For analyzing these topics, qualitative (in-depth interviews) and quantitative (content analyzes)

    has been used. In depth interviews has been conducted with seven experts and six editors of online

    news portals covering social-political issues in Georgia (Liberali.ge, Tabula.ge, Netgazeti.ge,

    News.ge, Droni.ge and Tavisupleba.org).

  • 4

    ............................................................................................................................................. 2

    ..................................................................................................................... 5

    ............................................................................................................................................. 6

    .......................................................................................................... 10

    1. ......................................................................................................... 15

    1.1. .................................................................... 15

    1.2. ................................................... 19

    2. ............................................................................. 22

    3. ................................................................................................................... 28

    3.1. ......................................................................................................... 28

    3.2. .......................................................................................................... 28

    3.3. ................................................................................................ 29

    3.4. ............................................................................................................................... 29

    4. ........................................................................................... 32

    4.1. ................................................... 32

    4.2. - ................................................................. 42

    4.3. ............................ 57

    .............................................................................................................................................. 61

    ............................................................................... 63

    ............................................................................................................................ 65

    ...................................................................................................... 67

    ....................................................................................................................................... 73

  • 5

    (account) - , ,

    ,

    (Oxford dictionaries, online).

    (wall) - Facebook- ,

    .

    (webopedia, online)

    (moderation) -

    ,

    (webopedia, online)

    (online media) - , , ,

    , (Business Dictionary, online)

    (plugin)- ,

    (Oxford dictionaries, online)

    (status)- ,

    ,

    . (Oxford dictionaries, online)

    (social networks) - ,

    , , , . (Oxford dictionaries,

    online) ,

    ,

    (Boyd&B. Ellison,2007).

  • 6

    ,

    , 1990- . ,

    ,

    .

    . 2012

    , 100- -

    (Media.Ge, 2012), 76 42

    (GNCC, 2015).

    -

    , ,

    .

    ,

    , 2009 .

    ,

    ,

    ( , 2009).

    -

    , 11 .

    . ,

    ( , 2009).

    .

    -

  • 7

    2013 5 , 2014 17-

    ( , 2009).

    ,

    , , 2013

    5

    . , 2014

    24 7 .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    , .

    . ,

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    , .

    ,

    .

  • 8

    -

    . ,

    ,

    .

    2013 17

    . , ,

    ,

    .

    , netgazeti.ge-, liberali.ge-, 17

    , , ,

    News.ge- , Facebook-

    , .

    ( ., 2014)

    , , ,

    . ,

    , , ,

    .

    ,

    Facebook- (.. ) .

    ,

    .

    .

  • 9

    , , ,

    .

    Facebook- .

    Facebook- (2015) ,

    500 ,

    40 ( , 2015)

    CRRC- (2013) , 72% ,

    , 55

    , Facebook-.

    (IDFI) , ,

    , 19%- .

    Facebook- (74%) , (42%).

    ,

    ,

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    ,

    , ,

    .

  • 10

    . ,

    - .

    (Rice, 2006)

    . ,

    . (Kavanaugh & Patterson, 2001) 2001

    , .

    ,

    ,

    .

    , Facebook-

    Twitter-, ,

    (Greer & Ferguson, 2011).

    , , Facebook- Twitter- . ,

    ,

    .

    (Alejandro, 2010).

    (Newman, 2011) ,

    . Facebook- ,

    Twitter-

    , Twitter-

    Facebook- .

  • 11

    , (White,

    2012) , ,

    .

    (2013), ,

    ,

    Facebook-

    .

    , ,

    (Shook, Larson&Tarsio, 2013),

    (Alejandro, 2010).

    ,

    , (Newman, 2011)

    ( ,

    )

    , .

    , .

    ,

    .

    (Brighneti 2010) ,

    . ,

    (Weintraub & Kumareds, 1997). Facebook- ,

    , ,

  • 12

    , , ,

    ( ., 2013). ,

    , ,

    , (Das&

    Sahoo, 2011).

    ,

    , .

    (Rogstad, 2013) . ,

    . ,

    .

    (Rogstad, 2013) , ,

    ,

    , .

    .

    (Newman, 2011), ,

    , .

    (network nodes). ,

    , .

    , ,

    (Podger, 2009), ,

  • 13

    . , - ,

    .

    ,

    , ,

    , .

    ,

    (2013)

    , , ,

    , ,

    . ,

    .

    . .. user-generated

    content- ( )

    (Mller, 2013)

    -

    - . , (Laanpere, 2013) ,

  • 14

    ,

    .

    (Duffy, 2012)

    , ,

    ,

    . ,

    , .

    , (Duffy,

    2012)

    (Paulussen & Ugille, 2008) , ,

    user generated

    .

    . , .

    ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

  • 15

    .

    .

    1.

    ,

    , ,

    ,

    .

    1.1.

    (German

    Press Council). ,

    ,

    .

    (Croatian Journalists'

    Association), ,

    , -

    .

  • 16

    (Press Complaint Commission, 2014)

    , ,

    Facebook -. ,

    ,

    , ,

    . Facebook-

    . ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    (Press Complaint Commission, 2014)

    ,

    , .

    (The Canadian Association of Journalists, 2011),

    - ,

    , ,

    . , ,

    ,

    , , .

    . , BBC- (2011)

    , ,

  • 17

    BBC-. , BBC-

    (British Broadcasting Company, 2011).

    (NPR, 2012).

    . ,

    , NPR-.

    , ,

    .

    -

    , (NPR, 2012)

    2013

    - Associated Press- (2013),

    , ,

    . ,

    (AP, 2013).

    , - ,

    :

    ,

    .

    . ,

    ,

    (The Canadian Association of Journalists, 2011).

    ,

  • 18

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    , (, : we think,

    before we link.)

    - ,

    , ,

    .

    ,

    (The Canadian Association of Journalists, 2011).

    ,

    , The Guardian-

    . ,

    , . , , Guardian-

    ,

    .

    (German Press Council) 2013-2014

    ,

    ,

    , .

    - ,

    .

  • 19

    1.2.

    - -

    , 2009

    . (,

    ) .

    , 138-

    2009 . 11 ,

    . 260

    . 9

    , ,

    .

    .

    ,

    . ,

    , ,

    .

    . 11 , 139

    . 9 ,

    .

    250- ,

    ,

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    .

  • 20

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    -14 , ,

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  • 21

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  • 22

    2.

    . ,

    .

    (Delfi vs Estonia) - ,

    2013

    .

    Delfi ,

    330 .

    .

    . , ,

    .

    2006 SLK- ,

    185 . 20

    . SLK - ,

    500 000 (32 000 ) .

    , .

    , Delfi- .

    , . ,

    , ,

    .

    , ,

    .

  • 23

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    Article 19 - (2013)

    . Article 19 ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    -10 :

    .

    , ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

  • 24

    2014 9 -1559-

    1462-2012 , :

    ,

    ,

    , ,

    .

    ,

    , . . .

    - Facebook,

    .

    Facebook-

    , .

    ,

    , .

    , .

    .

    Facebook- ,

    (Fuentes Bobo v. Spain 2000),

    .

    ,

    ,

  • 25

    . ,

    , , ,

    .

    ,

    -10 .

    :

    -10

    .

    .

    , , ,

    , -10

    .

    ,

    . 1976

    (Handyside v United Kingdom)

    ,

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    , , ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • 26

    ,

    , . ,

    , , ,

    public ,

    (follower) .

    ,

    .

    ,

    -

    . ,

    (case study) .

    ,

    ,

    .

    2010 - 20 Twitter-

    , CCN-

    . 2010

    Twitter-

    , .

    , (The Guardian, 2010).

  • 27

    .

    ,

    .

    2011

    ,

    facebook- .

    (. 1)

    ,

    , , ,

    .

    , 2015 10 ,

    Facebook-

    . ,

    , ,

    .

    , ,

    , . ,

    .

    .

    . ,

    2010

    .

  • 28

    . , ,

    .

    3.

    -

    ,

    . , ,

    .

    3.1.

    RQ1: ,

    , ?

    RQ2:

    ?

    RQ 3:

    ?

    3.2.

    H1

    .

    H2

    .

  • 29

    H3

    .

    3.3.

    ,

    ,

    - ( . #3).

    -

    2014 1-14 ,

    2015 20-30 .

    ,

    ,

    .

    3.4.

    , :

    (Netgazeti.ge), (Liberali.ge),

    (Tavisupleba.org), (droni.ge) (News.Ge).

    ,

    .

    -

    .

  • 30

    (2014 ) TOP.GE-

    , Droni.ge News.ge -

    .

    2013 ,

    Netgazeti.ge. , ,

    Liberali.ge- Tavisupleba.org-

    , .

    ,

    .

    2014 1-10 .

    ,

    .

    2015 20-30

    . News.ge- ,

    ,

    .

    - (

    ), (

    ),

    ( ),

    ( , ),

    ( ),

    ( )

    ( ).

  • 31

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    , .

    , , ,

    ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    2015 1 10

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    ,

    (. 2).

    :

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    2015 1-31

  • 32

    . -

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    .

    , , , .

    4.

    -

    , ,

    Facebook

    .

    4.1.

    , ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 33

    ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    5 ,

    .

    Tavisupleba.org-.

    , ,

    ,

    - , ,

    . (. , , 3 , 2014)

    Tavisupleba.org- - ( , 3

    , 2014) ,

    . Tavisupleba.org-

    ,

    (. , , 21 , 2015).

    Netgazeti.ge-. ,

    , (. ,

    , 24 , 2015).

    liberali.ge-. (

    , 5 , 2014) ,

  • 34

    ,

    , .

    , [] ,

    ,

    , - 2014 ( , 5 ,

    2014). 2015

    .

    ,

    , ,

    , , , ,

    .

    , .

    (. , , 26 , 2015).

    news.ge-, (

    , 20 , 2015) , ,

    . news.ge-

    ( , 9 , 2014).

    Droni.ge-

    . , Facebook-

    (. , , 23 , 2014), ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    (15- 14) ,

    ,

    , .

  • 35

    ,

    ,

    , (. , , 5 , 2015).

    ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    , , ,

    ,

    (. , , 1 , 2015).

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    . (. ,

    , 1 , 2015).

    (. , , 3 , 2015).

    ,

    .

    .

    , , ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 36

    , ,

    , .

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    , 3 , 2015).

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  • 37

    ( , 5 , 2015) ,

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    2015).

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    , , 2 , 2015).

    , ,

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  • 38

    , ( , 9 ,

    2015) .

    ,

    , (.

    , , 24 , 2015), ,

    .

    ,

    , (.

    , , 9 , 2015).

    ,

    . ,

    , - ( , 24 , 2015).

    Netgazeti.ge

    , ,

    , . (.

    , , 24 , 2015).

    , ,

    ,

    , (. ,

    , 7 , 2015).

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 39

    ,

    , . ,

    ,

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    .

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    ( , 5 , 2015),

    ,

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  • 40

    ( , 1 , 2015) ,

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    ( , 9 , 2015) ,

    ,

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  • 41

    , ,

    , - ( , 9 , 2015).

    , ,

    ,

    .

    . ,

    - ,

    .

    Netgazeti.ge- ( , 7 ,2014)

    2014 ,

    ,

    . 2015 (. , 24

    , 2015).

    ,

    , , ,

    - (

    , 24 , 2015)

    ( , 26

    , 2015) , ,

    , .

    ,

    , ,

    .

  • 42

    2015

    , 2014 .

    , ,

    , 2015

    , 2014 .

    (. , , 26

    , 2015).

    (news.ge) ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    ? - ,

    , .

    , -

    .

    4.2. -

    ,

    ,

    (netgazeti.ge, liberali,ge, tavisupleba.ge, news.ge, droni.ge) .

    2015 1-31 .

  • 43

    ,

    4772 , 345 (7%)

    , ( 1).

    , , ,

    droni.ge.

    14

    . , 253 news.ge

    , droni.ge- ,

    9%- .

    liberali.ge. 693

    , 4772,

    93%

    , 345, 7%

  • 44

    6 (0.86%) ,

    (. 2)

    (87%) Facebook-

    , Twitter- (5%).

    .

    - .

    News.ge- (13%) droni.ge- (33%) ,

    (N/M),

    , ,

  • 45

    . News.ge- 13 , Droni.ge-

    - 33 .

    , Instagram-

    . news.ge tavisupleba.org-

    (. 3).

    (80%) ( ) , (35%)

    (. 4).

  • 46

    News.ge Droni.ge ,

    .

    (. 5).

    - . Netgazeti.ge

    ,

    Vox Pop- (

    ) .

  • 47

    ,

    , , ,

    .

    , 2015 21 droni.ge

    (droni.ge, 2015).

    , Facebook-

    . , 2012 , -

    .

  • 48

    , , .

    ,

    .

    news.ge-. 24

    : (news.ge,

    2015). , Facebook-

    , .

    .

    , news.ge- 18

    Facebook- , ,

    , .

    - ,

    (news.ge, 2015).

    ,

    ,

    . , ,

    ,

    (tzona.org, 2015),

    .

    droni.ge- 18

    ,

    (droni.ge, 2015). Facebook-

    ,

    .

  • 49

    , .

    ,

    .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    , . Droni.ge-

    , ,

    , -

    .

    , , .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    , ,

    , , (.

    , , 21 , 2015)

    Facebook- twitter- ,

    , - ,

    ( , 21

    , 2015) , ,

    .

  • 50

    Facebook- (.

    , , 5 , 2014).

    .

    (1%)

    .

    news.ge-,

    , ,

    . (., ,

    9 , 2014) , Facebook- ,

    .

    , . ,

    ,

    Facebook .

    , ,

    .

    (., , 9 , 2014).

    , 2015 News.ge-s .

    ( , 20 , 2015)

    . ,

    .

    , Facebook- Twitter-

    Youtube-,

    (., , 20 , 2015).

    , , News.ge-

    ,

  • 51

    , . ,

    , ,

    news.ge ,

    ,

    .

    Netgazeti.ge-

    ( , 7 , 2014). ,

    , Facebook- ,

    , , .

    , .

    Facebook- ,

    , - (.

    , , 7 , 2014).

    , Netgazeti.ge

    . ,

    Netgazeti.ge , ..

    (EMBED CODE), ,

    .

    ,

    , (., ,

    24 , 2015).

    Netgazeti.ge- ,

    (Vox Pop) .

    ,

    .

  • 52

    ,

    , Facebook- .

    . , ,

    , , . ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    , ,

    ,

    .

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    ,

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    , 2015 ).

    ( , 1 , 2015)

    - , , ,

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    ,

    .

    -

    (. , , 3 , 2015).

  • 53

    ,

    , ,

    , :

    -

    , , ,

    , ,

    . , -

    .

    (. , 7 , 2015).

    ( , 9 , 2015) ,

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    (. , , 9 , 2015).

    ,

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    - ,

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  • 54

    , .

    ,

    (. , , 5 , 2015).

    -

    , ,

    .

    ,

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    . , Facebook-

    , .

    , ,

    (. , , 5 , 2015).

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    , 3 , 2015).

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    (. ,

    , 7 , 2015).

    -

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    , , ,

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    ( ),

  • 55

    .

    (. , , 1 , 2015 ).

    -

    Facebook- ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    (. , , 7 , 2015).

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    (. , , 3 , 2015

    ).

    -

    ,

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    , (. ,

    , 5 , 2015).

  • 56

    , Facebook-,

    , ,

    , ,

    ,

    (. , , 7 , 2015).

    ( , 9 , 2015),

    ,

    -

    , .

    -

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    , , 1 , 2015).

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    (. ,

    , 2 , 2015).

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    ( , 2 , 2015).

    , -

    ? , ,

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    , , -

  • 57

    .

    ,

    ,

    (, ,

    ) .

    4.3.

    . tavisupleba.org-

    (. , , 3 , 2014). 2015

    Facebook-

    (. , , 21 , 2015).

    ,

    , .

    Tavisupleba.org-

    ,

    (. , , 21 ,

    2015).

    ,

    . , ,

  • 58

    .

    .

    Netgazeti.ge,

    (. , , 24 , 2015).

    Netgazeti.ge-

    . ,

    .

    , - , netgazeti.ge- (

    , 24 , 2015).

    Facebook

    -

    . Facebook

    (. , , 26 ,

    2015).

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    - liberali.ge- (. , , 5 ,

    2014).

  • 59

    Netgazeti.ge ,

    ,

    ,

    , (.

    , 24 , 2015).

    . ,

    , .

    ,

    , ,

    , (.

    , , 9 , 2015).

    -

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    , .

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    , 5 , 2015).

    ( , 1 , 2015) ,

    .

  • 60

    ,

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    , 2015).

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    .

    , ,

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    ?

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    . -

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  • 61

    -

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    .

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  • 62

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    .

  • 63

    ;

    .

    ,

    ;

    Droni.ge (14.7%), - Liberali.ge (0.87);

    (80%) ,

    (35%);

    Facebook-

    (87%) , Twitter (5%). Instagram-

    .

    (15%),

    ,

    . Facebook-

    ;

    , Vox pop- , ( )

    ;

    , ;

    , .

    ,

    .

  • 64

    , ,

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    , ;

    ,

    ;

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  • 66

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  • 67

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  • 73

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  • 80

    Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University

    Nata Dzvelishvili

    The Title: Ethical Issues While Using Social Networks in Online Media

    Mass Communication and Media Study

    The Thesis Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Master of Mass Communication and Media Study

    Under the direction of Mariam Gersamia

    Full Professor

    Tbilisi, 2015

    Nata Dzvelishvili

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