!A small part of the spectrum of the distant quasar PKS 1232+0815 , as obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at Paranal. Some carbon absorption lines from an intervening cloud are identified, that are sensitive to the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation "
10 , , , () " " , " " () Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
One second after the big bang, the temperature of the universe is about 10 billion degrees (Kelvin), too hot for atomic nuclei to exist. The universe is filled with photons, electrons, protons, and neutrons. Two minutes after the big bang, the temperature has dropped to about one billion degrees, cool enough for deuterium nuclei (pn) to survive. High density -> protons and neutrons collide frequently -> all free neutrons fuse into deuterium High density and temperature -> almost all deuterium fuses into helium nuclei (ppnn). By this time, the temperature is not hot enough for helium to fuse into heavier elements. The remaining free protons are hydrogen nuclei, so the ratio of helium/hydrogen just depends on the ratio of neutrons/protons ~ 2 minutes after the big bang. Putting in the known properties of protons and neutrons yields the prediction of the big bang theory: 25% helium!
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The Anthropic PrincipleR. Dicke (1961): carbon-based life can only arise when the Dirac large numbers hypothesis is true because this is when burning stars existB. Carter (Early 1970s): what we can expect to observe must be restricted by the conditions necessary for our presence as observers (Leslie ed. 1990). The word "anthropic" was intended as applying to intelligent beings.A possible argument for preferring the God hypothesis: think in terms of many possible fundamental theories, God selecting a theory which permitted life's requirements to be fulfilled without contradictions.