Языки представления онтологий

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  • , () , , , .

  • OKBC , , KR CyclOntolinguaLOOMOCMLFlogic OKBC KIFOKBC -

  • Ontology markup languages(, Web Web-based ontology languages)XMLHTMLSHOE(HTML)SHOE(XML)XOLRDFRDFSOILDAML+OILOWLRDF(S)

  • - UML, , DL

  • . , , . , (, ..) . , Gene. . : , , , . ( ). ( - ).

  • 1 ( ) 2 3 n 32 31 321

    , , , , 1 : n :

  • : : :: 0 - 120: \: 20 - 220: 0 - 200: , : : : 30.09.2011: 90 . 55

  • , . , ( ). , . , , .

  • DL , DL TBox ABox. . , , subclass-of ( ), DL- ( ). , , . , .

  • - , , , . ( ) ( ). - . - , . - . , . . , . .

  • + - , - , W , (, DL- , owl:Class, , Class .

    OntolinguaLOOMOKBCOCMLFLogicSHOEXOLRDF(S)OILDAML+OILOWL +++++++++++ +-+++-+W-WW +++++++++++ ++++W-+-+++ -+-+------- Subclass-Of+++++++++++ ++-+W---++W +--WW---WWWPartition++-+W---++W

  • OntolinguaLOOMOKBCOCMLFLogicSHOEXOLRDF(S)OILDAML+OILOWL+++++++++++N-++W+W+WWWWW ++-+W--++++ ++-++------ ++W++-W-+++N- ++-++------ ++-++------+++++++++++++-+--------+-+-+-----+ - , - , W , (, DL- , owl:Class, , Class .

  • Handbook on Ontologies - 2nd Edition(Steffen Staab Rudi Studer (Eds.))Description Logics (Franz Baader, Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler)Ontologies in F-Logic (Jurgen Angele, Michael Kifer and Georg Lausen)Resource Description Framework (Jeff Z. Pan)Web Ontology Language: OWL (Grigoris Antoniou and Frank van Harmelen)Ontologies and Rules (Pascal Hitzler and Bijan Parsia)

  • F- ( )

  • , - . , - , , , , , . F- , .

  • F- , -, , , , , , , , .

  • FLORA-2FLORID OntoBrokerTM F- , F-, ,

  • F-F- - - - : , , , .

  • , / ontology consisting of a class hierarchy and signatures /woman::person.man::person.person[father{0:1} => man].person[mother{0:1} => woman].person[daughter => woman].person[son => man]./ rules consisting of a rule head and a rule body /?X[son -> ?Y] :- ?Y:man[father -> ?X].?X[son -> ?Y] :- ?Y:man[mother -> ?X].?X[daughter -> ?Y] :- ?Y:woman[father -> ?X].?X[daughter -> ?Y] :- ?Y:woman[mother -> ?X]./ facts /Abraham:man.Sarah:woman.Isaac:man[father -> Abraham, mother -> Sarah].Ishmael:man[father -> Abraham, mother -> Hagar:woman].Jacob:man[father -> Isaac, mother -> Rebekah:woman].Esau:man[father -> Isaac, mother -> Rebekah]./ query /?- X:woman[son -> ?Y[father -> Abraham]].PersonManWoman

  • F-: , , , .

  • - ( id-terms). ? (Abraham, man, daughter,?X, ?method). :. , ("ab*-@c"). , (abc123, parent). . , "..."^^typename ("12:22:33"^^ time, "123"^^ integer). . , . , "123"^^ integer - 123, "123.45"^^ decimal - 123.45, "123.45E-1"^^ float -123.45E-1. id-terms id-terms : couple(Abraham, Sarah), f(?X). id-term, . (ground id-term).

  • data-F-atoms. . ( father son . , Isaac Abraham) : ?- Abraham[?X -> ?].: ?X = son : ?- Abraham[?X => ?].: ?X = son, daughter, father, mother , . id-terms. Jacob[son(Leah) -> {Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun},son(Rachel) -> {Joseph, Benjamin},son(Zilpah) -> {Gad, Asher},son(Bilhah) -> {Dan, Naphtali}].2 Jacob[son(Leah,1) -> Reuben, son(Leah,2) -> Simeon,son(Leah,3) -> Levi, son(Leah,4) -> Judah,son(Bilhah,5) -> Dan, son(Bilhah,6) -> Naphtali,son(Zilpah,7) -> Gad, son(Zilpah,8) -> Asher,son(Leah,9) -> Issachar, son(Leah,10) -> Zebulun,son(Rachel,11) -> Joseph, son(Rachel,12) -> Benjamin]. . Jacob[married]

  • isa-F-atoms subclass-F-atoms. isa-F-atom o:c , o c (. ). subclass-F-atom sc::cl - sc cl. Abraham:man.Isaac:man.Sarah:woman.woman::person.man::person.. id-terms. .., , , . isa- subclass-F-atoms, , (queried) , (facility). - , , F-logic , , . , . .., - .

  • : F-Molecules .F-molecule: Isaac:man[father ->Abraham, son-> {Jacob,Esau}]. F-molecule ( )

    :Isaac:man.Isaac[father -> Abraham].Isaac[son -> Jacob].Isaac[son -> Esau].Nested F-molecule: Isaac[father -> Abraham:man[son(Hagar:woman) -> Ishmael],mother -> Sarah:woman].Jacob:(man::person).Jacob[(father:method) -> Isaac].Isaac[father -> Abraham]. Abraham:man.Abraham[son(Hagar) -> Ishmael].Hagar:woman.Isaac[mother -> Sarah].Sarah:woman.man::person.Jacob:man.Jacob[father -> Isaac].father:method.Unnested

  • Signature-F-atoms : ; , , , , ( ) , . . - , ,

    :(person[father{0:1} => man]person[daughter => woman] man[son(woman) => man]

    course[teachingAssistant => (student and employee)]course[instructor => (professor or lecturer)]person[father{0:1} => man[son(woman) => man, son(woman,integer) => man]]

  • (=>) , , . . ,

    (=>) man[father{0:1}=>man, mother{0:1}=>woman, daughter => woman, son => man].Isaac[father{0:1}=>man, mother{0:1} => woman, daughter => woman, son => man].:

  • (P-atom) , , . married(Isaac,Rebekah).male(Jacob).sonof(Isaac,Rebekah,Jacob).0- , , - P-atoms F-atomsIsaac[marriedto -> Rebekah].Jacob:man.Isaac[son(Rebekah) -> Jacob]. F-molecules P-molecules F-moleculesmarried(Isaac[father -> Abraham], Rebekah:woman)F-

    married(Isaac,Rebekah).Isaac[father -> Abraham].Rebekah:woman.

  • Path

    (obj.expr) - {a1,a2,...}, obj[expr-> {a1,a2,...}] - . . , : obj.expr1.expr2.expr3.Isaac.son {Jacob, Esau}Jacob.son(Rachel,11) {Joseph} Esau.father.father.son {Isaac, Ishmael} obj.expr , ?X obj[expr -> ?X], ?- Abraham.son.son=?X .?- Abraham.son[son -> ?X].?- Abraham[son -> ?Y] and ?Y[son -> ?X].

  • XML Schema . : string, integer, decimal, iri, time, dateTime duration. - "..."^^ type?- "file:///abc/cde/efg"^^_iri[ scheme -> ?P]. // ?P = file?- "mailto:me@foo.com"^^_iri[ user -> ?U, host -> ?H]. // ?U = me, ?H = foo.com?- "2007-11-22T23:33:55.234"^^_dateTime[ hour -> ?Hr]. // ?Hr = 23?- "P21Y11M12DT11M55S"^^_duration[ year -> ?Yr1]. // ?Yr = 21?- "21:22:55"^^_time[ add("PT2H1M1S"^^_duration) -> ?X]. // ?X = "23:23:56"^^ time

  • , . F- .head :- bodyF- F- AND (,)OR (;):?X[son -> ?Y] :- ?Y:man[father -> ?X]:

    Isaac:man[father -> Abraham] Ishmael:man[father -> Abraham] Jacob: man[father -> Isaac]Esau:man[father -> Isaac]

    Abraham[son -> Isaac], Abraham[son -> Ishmael]Isaac[son -> Jacob], Isaac[son -> Esau]

    Abraham[son -> {Isaac,Ishmael}] and Isaac[son -> {Jacob,Esau}]

  • - . - . : pred-ormolecule@module-name. Head :- Body, M, Head . L@N Body N, , L , N. Gendata : mygenealogy:

    ?X[ancestor -> ?Y] :- ?X[parent -> ?Y]@gendata.?X[ancestor -> ?Y] :- ?X[parent -> ?Z]@gendata, ?Z[ancestor -> ?Y]. , , , . , , , .

    :- importmodule myupperlevelontology

    , , , , . .( )

  • (* ->)person[father{0:1} => man].person[daughter => woman].:man[father{0:1} .=> man].man[daughter .=> woman].man::person , , , , :person[heartPosition * -> left]dextrocardiac[heartPosition * -> right].dextrocardiac :: person.Abraham[heartPosition -> left].Abraham:personAbraham:dextrocardiacAbraham[heartPosition -> right] New fact:

  • , , , , . . , - , . . . . Web- - (Attributive Language with Complement), () - , ( ) ( ), , DL - , - ( ) ,

  • DLTBOX , . , ABOX (assertional) - ,

  • , DL

  • DL Human Female married.Doctor (5 hasChild) hasChild.ProfessorhasChild.Human Human HappyMan(BOB), hasChild(BOB,MARY)Bob HappyMan Mary Bob-

  • DL , . subconcept.superconcept: C D, C D, .. : i C, i C. , ( ) . DL, , , DL, , , , .

  • DL 1 (19801990) , (Klone, K-Rep, Back, Loom): , 2 (19901995) - ( Kris Crack) DL.3 (19952000) - DL, , (FaCT, Race, Dlp) 4 (2000 - )- DL, DL , , , Semantic Web

  • , . .

    () ()() () () ( ) ( - ), ( - ) :: - , , 5 , :Human Female married.Doctor (5 hasChild) hasChild.Professor ,

  • DL (), (), , .. (), ., () , , . , (,) , , - . . , . . .

  • TBox , . , TBox. TBox , .. .

    Woman Person Female - : , , , , , ( . .

  • TBox (, subsumption): : C D, C D - : R S, R S ():: C D, C D - : R S

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