Родительские галактики гамма-всплесков и космология

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  • The first afterglow spectral obs for long GRB 970508

  • astro-ph/1212.0144 S. Savaglio

  • A&A, 337, 356 (1998)BVRcIc light curves of GRB970508 optical remnant and colors of underlying host galaxyS.Zharikov, V. Sokolov, and Yu.Baryshev

    A&A, 372, 438 (2001)Properties of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst 970508 and local star-forming galaxiesV.Sokolov, S.Zharikov, Yu.Baryshev, M.O. Hanski, K. Nilsson, P. Teerikorpi, L. Nicastro, and E. Palazzi

    The Rc band field near GRB 970508 optical source. The image size is 33 33. N -top, E-right. The G1, G2, G3 are nearby galaxies. The arrow denotes an optical remnant of GRB970508.

  • Multi-color photometry and the Rc image of the GRB980703 host galaxy field from BTA observations in July 1998. The comparison of energy distribution obtained from BVRcIc fluxes (with consideration for the shift in the ultra-violet part of spectrum for z=0.966) of this galaxy with energy distribution in spectra of galaxies of different Hubble types is shown. (The FWHM of each filter for its eff with consideration for its left shift for z=0.966 are denoted by dotted horizontal segments with bars.)The massive SFR is seen in rest frame UV part spectra of star-forming galaxies. It is just a light of massive stars in the GRB hosts

  • The population synthesis modeling: Comparison of modeled and observed fluxes in the filters B, V, Rc, Ic, J, H, K for the GRB 980703 host galaxy (z=0.9662). If GRBs are associated with an active star formation, then we might expect the light of their host galaxies to be affected by internal extinction.

  • The population synthesis modeling: A&A, 2001, 372, 438, by V.Sokolov, T.Fatkhullin, A.J.Castro-Tirado, A.S.Fruchter et al. (z=0.9662)

  • A&A, 2001, 372, 438, by V.Sokolov et al.Extinction curves for the reddening laws. Cardelli extinction law represents the reddening in Milky Way, while Calzetti law was derived empiracally from a sample of integrated spectra of starburst galaxies

  • Astro-ph/1102.1469, Fig.A.2 from Tayyaba Zafar, Darach Watson1, Johan P. U. Fynbo, Daniele Malesani, Pall Jakobsson , and Antonio de Ugarte Postigo

    The optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB080607 (z =3.0368) was obtained with the Keck.

  • Bull. Spec. Astrophys. Obs., 2001, 51, 48-50 GRB 970508 host, MB rest = 18.62 GRB 980703 host, MB rest = 21.27

  • Bull. Spec. Astrophys. Obs., 2001, 51, 48-60 and 38-47 (astro-ph/0107399)

    The observed R-band magnitude vs. spectroscopic redshift for the first 12 GRB host galaxies. The BTA R-band magnitudes (from Sokolov et al, 2001, A&A 372, 438 ) are marked with circles, while asterisks refer to the results of other authors. Also the HDF F606W magnitude vs.photometrical redshift distribution is plotted. Catalog of the F606W magnitudes and photometrical redshifts was used from Fernndez-Soto et al., 1999

  • 2001 2006-2009

  • !

  • The simple (but brawl) conclusion:It is shown that these galaxies are usual ones with a high star formation rate, they are mainly observed in optical at redshifts about 1 and higher.V. V. Sokolov, T. A. Fatkhullin, A. J. Castro-Tirado, A. S. Fruchter et al., 2001 GRB hosts should not to be special, but normal star-forming galaxies (the most abundant), detected at any z just because a GRB event has occurred see S.Savaglio et al., 2006-2009

  • The monitoring of GRB afterglows and the study of their host galaxies with the SAO RAS 6-m telescope from 1997 V. Sokolov et al.

    The first result of the GRB optical identification (with objects already known before): GRBs are identified with ordinary (or the most numerous in the Universe) galaxies up to 28 st. magnitudes and more. The GRB hosts should not be special, but normal field star forming galaxies at comparable redshifts and magnitudes.

  • Astronomy of GRBs with the 6-m telescope from 1998

  • SN 1998bw and Astronomy of -ray bursts with the 6-m telescope--------------------------------

  • GRBs and SNe with spectroscopically confirmed connection: GRB 980425/SN 1998bw (z=0.0085), GRB 030329/SN 2003dh (z=0.1687), GRB 031203/SN 2003lw (z=0.1055), GRB/XRF 060218/SN2006aj (z=0.0335)XRF 080109/SN2008D (z=0.0065) GRB 100316D/SN2010bh (z=0.059) + the numerous phot. confirmationsSearching for more Sp. confirmed pairs of GRBs (XRFs) and SNe in future observations is very important for understanding the nature of the GRB-SN connection, the nature of GRBs, and the mechanism of core-collapse SNe explosion (see more in the posters)

  • GRB 030329/SN 2003dh

  • SN 2006aj/ GRB 060218, t = 2.55 d. v = 33,000 km s-1TiII, CaIIFeIII, FeIIFeIII, FeIIHeISiIIOIv ~ rCIIH

  • XRF080109/SN 2008D, 6.48 days after the trigger

  • Velocity at the photosphere, as inferred from Fe II lines, is plotted against time after maximum light. The line is a power-law fit to the data, with SN 1998dt at 32 days (open circle) excluded (Figure 22 from Branch, D. et al. 2002, ApJ, 566, 1005). Squares (SN 2008D) and Diamonds (SN 2006aj) are photosphere velocities, inferred from our spectra.

  • astro-ph/1301.0840

  • The first result of the GRB optical identification (with objects already known before): GRBs are identified with ordinary (or the most numerous in the Universe) galaxies up to 28 st. magnitudes and more. The GRB hosts should not be special, but normal field star-forming galaxies at comparable redshifts and magnitudes. The second result of the GRB identification: now the long-duration GRBs are identified with (may be) ordinary (massive) core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe, see in the poster report). So, we have the massive star-forming in GRB hosts and massive star explosions CC-SN/GRB

  • Shematic model of asymmetric explosion of a GRB/SN progenitora strongly non-spherical explosion may be a generic feature of core-collapse supernovae of all types. Though while it is not clear that the same mechanism that generates the GRB is also responsible for exploding the star.astro-ph/0603297Leonard, Filippenko et al. Though the phenomenon (GRB) is unusual, but the object-source (SN) is not too unique.The closer a GRB is, the more features of a SN. The shock breaks out through the windThe windenvelopeof size ~1013 cm The popular conception of the relation between long-duration GRBs and core-collapse SNe (the picture from Woosley and Heger , 2006)

  • The search for differences between nearby SNe identified with GRBs and distant SNe which are to be identified with GRBs can be an additional observational cosmological test. We can ask a question analogous to that on GRB hosts: Do GRB SNe differ from usual (e.g. local) SNe? What are redshifts at which CC-SNe are quite different from local CC-SNe? It could be the third important result of the GRB identification.

  • Astronomy of GRBs with the 6-m telescope from 1998

  • GRB 090429B z = 9.4 (Cucchiara et al. 2011) GRB 090423 z = 8.26 (Salvaterra et al. 2009; Tanvir et al. 2009), GRB 080913 z = 6.7 (Greiner et al. 2009), GRB 050904 z = 6.3 (Kawai et al. 2006; Totani et al. 2006) ( z = 7.085 (Mortlock et al.2011) z = 6.41 (Willott et al. 2003).)

    Chandra et al. (2010) (SNe?) GRB 090423 (z=8.26), Frail et al. (2006) GRB 050904 (z = 6.3). . GRB .

  • astro-ph/1301.0840

  • astro-ph/1301.4908

  • arXiv:astro-ph/0309217, Yonetoku et al.The distribution of luminosity vs. redshift derived from the Epluminosity relation. The truncation() of the lower end of the luminosity is caused by the flux limit of Flimit = 1 10^7 erg cm^2s^1. The inserted figure is the cumulative luminosity function in the several redshift ranges. The luminosity evolution exists because the break-luminosity increase toward the higher redshift.

  • astro-ph/1201.6383

  • The monitoring of GRB afterglows and the study of their host galaxies with the SAO RAS 6-m telescope from 1997 V. Sokolov et al.

    The first result of the GRB optical identification (with objects already known before): GRBs are identified with ordinary (or the most numerous in the Universe) galaxies up to 28 st. magnitudes and more. The GRB hosts should not be special, but normal field star forming galaxies at comparable redshifts and magnitudes.

  • (2011) arXiv:astro-ph/1011.4506F. Mannucci, R. Salvaterra, M. A. CampisiWe have compared the metallicity properties of a sample of 18 GRB host galaxies with those of the local field population. In particular, we have found that GRB hosts do follow the Fundamental Metallicity Relation (FMR) recently found by Mannucci et al. (2010). This fact implies that GRB hosts do not differ substantially from the typical galaxy population. The typical low, sub-solar metallicity found in many recent studies (e.g., Savaglio et al. 2009; Levesque et al. 2010b and references therein) does not necessary mean that GRBs occur in special, low metallicity galaxies, as the exception of GRB 020819 (with 12 + log(O/H) = 8.9) clearly shows , and that a direct link between low metallicity and GRB production exists.

  • arXiv:astro-ph/1011.4506

  • GRB-:

    GRBs , GRB-hosts

  • arXiv:0911.1356, by Labbe et al. (2009)Broadband SEDs of the z ~ 7 z850dropout galaxies from our NICMOS, WFC3/UDF and WFC3/ERS samples, averaged in 1mag bins centered on H160 26, 27 and 28. The data include HST ACS, NICMOS, and FC3/IR, groundbased K, and IRAC [3.6] and [4.5]. The best-fit BC03 stellar population models at z = 6.9 are shown. The overall SED shapes are remarkably similar, with a Balmer break between H160 and [3.6], indicative of evolved stellar populations (> 100Myr). The farUV slope (traced by 125 H160) bluens significantly towards fainter H160 magnitude (as found Bouwens et al. 2009b). Upper limits are 2. ACS optical measurements are non-detections fainter than 29.4 mag.

  • arXiv:astro-ph/0309217, Yonetoku et al.The distribution of luminosity vs. redshift derived from the Epluminosity relation. The truncation() of the lower end of the luminosity is caused by the flux limit of Flimit = 1 10^7 erg cm^2s^1. The inserted figure is the cumulative luminosity function in the several redshift ranges. The luminosity evolution exists because the break-luminosity increase toward the higher redshift.

  • 1109.0990, : The connection between the rate of GRBs nGRB(z) and (z), nGRB(z) = (z) (z)

  • Robertson B. E. & Ellis R. C., ApJ 744, 95 (2012)

  • arXiv:1109.0990, Robertson & Ellisthe GRB-derived star formation rate, clearly exceed the stellar mass density star at all redshifts.

  • GRB 090429B z = 9.4 (Cucchiara et al. 2011) , GRB 090423 z = 8.26 (Salvaterra et al. 2009; Tanvir et al. 2009), GRB 080913 z = 6.7 (Greiner et al. 2009), GRB 050904 z = 6.3 (Kawai et al. 2006; Totani et al. 2006) ( z = 7.085 (Mortlock et al.2011) z = 6.41 (Willott et al. 2003).)

    Chandra et al. (2010) (SNe?) GRB 090423 (z=8.26), Frail et al. (2006) GRB 050904 (z = 6.3). . GRB .

  • astro-ph/1108_0674_!!!_

  • astro-ph/1303.0844 X-ray absorption evolution in Gamma-Ray Bursts: intergalactic medium or evolutionary signature of their host galaxies?

  • astro-ph/1303.0844

    This naturally led to the suggestion that excess X-ray absorption could be used as some kind of redshift indicator, at least in the sense that bursts with high excess would be expected to be at low redshift (Grupe et al. 2007). In practice, this indicator has proven of limited value, in part because in many cases the measurement uncertainties are quite high, but more pertinently() for this work, also because many higher redshift bursts exhibit surprisingly high excess absorption.

  • astro-ph/1303.0844 Figure 5

  • astro-ph/1303.0844Figure 1. Intrinsic X-ray column density, NH,intrinsic, as a function of redshift, z, as measured in absorbed power law fits to 198 Swift XRT-observed GRB afterglows up to 2012 September 1 with reported redshifts and PC mode spectra (see Footnote 1). Central values of the column density are represented by filled circles, and error bars are shown at the 90% confidence level. Measured intrinsic absorption is denoted by black data points while upper limits are shown in red. An indication of the minimum detectable NH,intrinsic with redshift is shown by the grey dashed line, for NH = 10^19 cm2.

  • GRB 090429B z = 9.4 (Cucchiara et al. 2011) , GRB 090423 z = 8.26 (Salvaterra et al. 2009; Tanvir et al. 2009),

    GRB 080913 z = 6.7 (Greiner et al. 2009),

    GRB 050904 z = 6.3 (Kawai et al. 2006; Totani et al. 2006)

  • astro-ph/1303.0844

  • astro-ph/1303.0844

  • astro-ph/1303.08447.2 A Population III star progenitor for z = 8 9 GRBs?

    The search for, and understanding of, the very first population of stars and galaxies is one of the central questions of astrophysics (e.g. Barkana & Loeb 2001; Bromm & Larson 2004; Ciardi & Ferrara 2005; Glover 2005). If found, these sources will indicate the time at/over which the Universe was reionised and provide a means of studying the conditions at that crucial epoch in its history. The epoch of reionisation is currently suggested to have occurred around z 10 as measured with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (Hinshaw et al. 2012; Dunkley et al. 2009; Komatsu et al. 2009), but this is subject to very large uncertainty and debate whilst observational signatures are lacking (e.g. Persson et al. 2010).

  • astro-ph/1303.0844The first stars are predicted to have been very massive: > 100 M (Population III, Abel et al. 2000; Bromm & Larson 2004; Bromm et al. 2009) and > 10 M (termed Population II.5 or III.2 e.g. Greif & Bromm 2006; Tan & McKee 2008), perhaps capable of producing a supernova and a GRB in their final demise [d'maz] (Heger & Woosley 2002; Heger et al. 2003; Greif et al. 2007; Meszaros & Rees 2010 considering z = 20). The immense() luminosities of most GRBs, of order 10^51 erg, mean that we are likely to be able to detect them beyond z = 11, perhaps to z 14 20 (e.g. Bloom et al. 2009).

  • astro-ph/1303.0844 zero metallicity !If we consider the case that all the excess X-ray column density we measure in our highest redshift GRBs, 090423 and 090429B, is intrinsic to the GRB host galaxy, then a number of arguments leads us to conclude that a Population III star (is) progenitor for each of these GRB events seems highly unlikely, although cannot be ruled out. The intrinsic column densities we measure in GRBs 090423 and 090429B become very large when zero metallicity is invoked (Section 3) suggesting that metals are likely to have been present at redshifts 89, and therefore the environment at the epoch of these bursts was not pristine.

  • astro-ph/1303.0844Certain formation scenarios for the first stars suggestthat it would be extremely difficult to o...

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