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  • & InternetOSI & Internet layer models TCP/IP IP addressing DNS, URLsHTTPHTMLTroubleshooting

  • , (), ().

    : (, ). Internet ( ). (, CD, DVD).

  • & Internet / /

    & (backbone)

  • WWW & Internet Web Internet

    Internet : (TCP/IP)

    World Wide Web : Internet & (HTTP)

    To Internet hardware Web software

    Internetemail, ftp, telnet, chat, news, ..

  • Internet, Intranet & ExtranetIntranet : TCP/IP Internet Extranet : / Internet , .. E- commerce

  • Internet forces Internet :

    WWW ( ) Hypertext ( )

    2 :

    Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) ( HTTP client (web browser) (download)

    Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) ( (hyperlinks) )

  • Hypertext

  • Internet 40 (Lincoln lab) & RAND Semi-Automated Ground Environment 1958 ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) (DoD) 1962 Licklider MIT (Bush, Turing) interactive computing, 1966 ARPA (ARPANET) (56Kb/sec) - UCLA, UCSB, SRI & Utah

  • 1957 Sputnik ARPA Sputnik, . , ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency). .

  • 1960 - Ted H. Nelson "hypertext" "hypermedia" Ted H. Nelson hypertext. Nelson hypertext . hypertext .Ted H. Nelson

  • 1961 Packet-Switching (packet-switching) Leonard Kleinrock, MIT.

  • 1964 1964, RAND Corporation , . Paul Baran RAND "On Distributed Communication Networks." .

  • 1969 ARPANET 4 (host) ARPANET (Network Measurement Center UCLA). 1969, ARPANET. UCLA - Univ. of Calif. at Los Angeles UCSB - Univ. of Calif. at Santa Barbara UTAH - Utah University SRI - Stanford Research Institute

  • 1971 E-Mail Ray Tomlinson email . 1971, ARPANET 15 23 hosts.

  • 1973 - Ethernet TCP/IP Vinton Cerf Stanford Bob Metcalfe.

    Bob Metcalfe Ethernet

  • 1975 - The First Mailing List Is Started internet Vinton Cerf Bob Kahn (TCP). Vinton G. Cerf Internet"

  • 1979 - BITNET USENET Steve Bellovin , Tom Truscott Jim Ellis USENET. H IBM BITNET.

  • 1983 - Internet ARPANET (Defence Data Networks) TCP/IP : Internet 1 1983. ARPANET ARPANET MILNET, (Defence Data Network).

  • 1984 - 19911984 : 1,000 Internet. voice mail ( ).1989 : 100,000 Internet. (CREN) . 1991: Gopher burrows into the Internet . The National Science Foundation (NSF) lifts the ban on commerce on the Internet. 1991: Gopher Internet . (NSF) Internet.

  • 1992 Tim Berners-Lee WWW1,000,000 Internet. World Wide Web (WWW) Tim-Berners Lee, CERN. Tim Berners-Lee

  • 1993 browser MOSAIC browser Marc Andreesen. WEB 341.000%

  • 1994Pizza Hut Pizza Hut online 1994.

    Yahoo Yahoo, 1994 David Filo Jerry Yang Stanford. Yahoo 167 .

  • 1995Domain Fee 1995, $50 domains, .edu .gov.

    Netscape Marc Andreessen, Mosaic, Mosaic Communications Corporation Netscape.

    Amazon Amazon, Seattle Jeffrey Bezos.

  • 1996Internet ExplorerH Microsoft Internet Explorer

    JavaTo 1996 Java Sun Microsystems.

    Flash 1996, FutureWave Software Macromedia, FutureSplash Animator Macromedia Flash 1.0.

  • 1997Winamp Winamp, MP3 music player.

    business.com domain name business.com, $50 1995, $150,000 1997. 1999 $7,500,000.

    Blog "weblog" 97 Jorn Barger . , "blog," Peter Merholz 1999.

  • 1998

    PayPal PayPal, 1998 Peter Thiel Max Levchin. Paypal eBay.

    Google Larry Page Sergey Brin, Google 1998 10,000 . 1999 500,000 , 2000 100 . Google 4.28 web pages 250 search results .

  • 2006 - Web 2.0Web 2.0

  • Internet 80 /

  • Internet Internet traffic Moore ? (Larry Roberts, 2003)

  • Internet

  • client-server Web server Web pages Web Browsers server .. URL Web server server Browser HTML / /.. HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) browser & Web server HyperText Markup Language (HTML) tags

    WWW(server) WWW(client)

  • - -

  • OSI & Internet modelOSI - Open Systems Interconnect - Reference Model Physical: .. serial & parallel cables, Ethernet & Token Ring cabling, telephone wiring, ..Data Link: & Network: & . & . , .. , .Transport: . Network layer .Session: , Presentation: interface & , .. data-compressionApplication: interface , HTTP & POP3.

  • OSI & Internet modelInternet Model (TCP/IP) Application protocols: HTTP (Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol) Web browsers Web serversSMTP (Simple Message Transfer Protocol) e-mail, ..Transport Layer - TCP & UDP: TCP & , UDP . session layer /.Network Layer - IP: & (IP datagrams packets) / . / (IP address)

  • TCP/IP HeadersIP protocol packet routing info 20 bytes

    TCP protocol virtual circuit. message formatting, circuit management, flow control, error correction.

  • Routers - FirewallRouter (gateway)

    Firewall Internet.

  • Routing ProtocolsRouters ( Gateways) Internet router , routing table routing table, router ( )

    Routing Information Protocol (RIP) routers routing table informationOpen Shortest Path First Protocol (OSPF) robust & protocol RIP routing tables, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) IP, ( router) , .. unreachable host,

  • IP Address TCP/IP IP address:/ (Host) : IP address Routers : Printers IP Address : 147.102.1.1 TCP/IP

  • IP Address 32-bit (address)11000000101010000111000100010011 4 (8-bit)11000000.10101000.01110001.00010011 192.168.113.19 : [0-255] IP : (Network ID) - / (Host ID)

  • IPv4 32-bits IP

  • IPv6 128-bits (296 ) interfaces ( IPv4)

  • Network ID Host ID 192.168.0.13

    Network ID ( segment) Area code Host ID (segment) (segment) Phone Number

  • Network Segments

  • P Addresses - Classes IP ( 4) Network ID & Host IDClass A - N.H.H.H1 1 - 127Class B - N.N.H.H1 128 - 191Class C - N.N.N.H1 192 - 223Class D & Class D (1110) multicasting (single message sending to a subset of the network)Class E (11110)

  • P Addresses Class A address 0 bit 1 00000001.00000000.00000000.00000000 (1.0.0.0)01111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 (127.0.0.0) H 1 Network ID & Host ID0.0.0.0 ()1.0.0.02.0.0.0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 127.0.0.0 (Loop Back Address)126 Network IDs 256*256*256=16.772.216 Host IDs 2 Hosts Host IDs 1 bits ( broadcast address ( hosts )) Host IDs 0 bits ( This network only)

  • P Addresses Class B address 10 2 bits 1 10000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 (128.0.0.0)10111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 (191.255.0.0) 1 & 2 Network ID & Host ID128.0.0.0 128.1.0.0~ ~ ~ ~ 128.255.0.0129.0.0.0129.1.0.0~ ~ ~ ~ 191.255.0.0 128 191 = 64*256 = 16.384 Network IDs 256*256 (-2) Host IDs 2 Hosts Host IDs 1 bits ( broadcast address ( hosts )) Host IDs 0 bits ( This network only)

  • P Addresses Class C address 110 3 bits 1 11000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 (192.0.0.0)11011111.11111111.11111111.00000000 (223.255.255.0) 1 - 2 - 3 Network ID & Host ID192.0.0.0 192.0.255.0 192.1.0.0 192.1.255.0~ ~ ~ ~ 192.255.0.0 192.255.255.0193.0.0.0 193.255.255.0~ ~ ~ ~ 223.0.0.0 223.255.255.0 192~223=31*256*256=2.097.152 Network IDs 256 (-2) Host IDs 2 Hosts Host IDs 1 bits ( broadcast address ( hosts )) Host IDs 0 bits ( This network only)

  • Special P Addresses Host IDs 1 bitsBroadcast Address ( hosts ) 255.255.255.255 Host IDs 0 bitsThis network only 127Loopback Addresses ( TCP/IP software , 127.0.0.1) Private Networks ( )10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255

  • P Addressing Rules IP Address (Network Segment) Network ID (Subnet Mask) (Network Segment) Network ID (Subnet Mask)

    IP address : 192.168.0.13Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.0

  • Subnets & Subnet Masks

  • Subnets & Subnet Masks

  • subnet masks IP 201.222.5.0. 20 subnets 5 hosts . subnet mask ?201.222.5.0.11001001.11011110.00000101.00000000

  • subnet masks

    Required Number of Physical Segments:20Maximum Number of Hosts/Physical Segment:5Network Address:201.222.5.0. Proposed Custom Subnet Mask:255.255.255.248Number of Subnets Supported:32Maximum Number of Host ID per Subnet:6Subnet IDs:210.222.5.0210.222.5.8210.222.5.16210.222.5.24210.222.5.2481st Host L