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. In his pioneer experience, Dr David Gow created the first bionic arm in 1998 called the Edinburgh Modular Arm System.  Robots posterior use was in helping individuals with severe disabilities to perform independent activities of daily living (The Winsford feeder) or integrate them into the workplace (RAID, Robot for assisting the integration of the disabled).  first 1998 .  ( Winsford) (RAID ).  The first robotic system applied in a surgical procedure was the PUMA 560, used to orient a needle for a brain biopsy under computerised tomography guidance.  However, its use was discontinued because of safety issues. 560 PUMA .  . Later, a London group presented a robotic system called the PROBOT, used to aid in transurethral resection of the prostate.  Following the same tendency, in 1992, International Business Machines (IBM) and associates developed a prototype for orthopaedic surgery. PROBOT .  1992 (IBM) . The ROBODOC was used to assist surgeons in milling out a hole in the femur for total hip replacements.  ROBODOC .
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. The surgeon's ability to control the mechanism is enhanced by providing force feedback to the controls, allowing the operator to have a sense of touch to help control the robot. . This type of robot isn't completely independent, and is more properly called a teleoperated device, but uses much of the same technology an independant robot would employ for motion control, imaging and tactile/force feedback. teleoperated / . The fully autonomous surgical robot that is a feature of science fiction literature and screen entertainment is unlikely to appear in the near future, and even if technically possible, would be viewed with great skepticism by patients (and their lawyers). ().