Переходные элементы

  • Published on
    24-Jan-2016

  • View
    51

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

. d- . d Orbitals. . . 1 =100pm ( ). . . . MnO .. 1785 C. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript

  • d Orbitalsd-

  • 1 =100pm()

  • .MnO .. 1785 C.Mn2O7 . .VO2+, MnO4-, Cr2O72- .

  • (). .. .. - ..

  • .Fe(CrO2)2 ( ). V2O5 MnO2. - , .

  • Fe2O3() + 3 CO()2 Fe() + 3 CO2()

  • -

  • . C.2,14-4% 0-1.5% . ( ):Si, Mn, P ( 1% ) . , .Cr, Ni, Mn, V, Mo, W.

  • TiCl4 - . .

    TiCl4() + H2O() TiO2 + 4 HCl

    TiO2 .

  • 3Pb3(VO4)2PbCl2 35-95% V Fe .. () 700-1000 C. . +5 +4 +3 +2

  • Cr2+: Cr + 2 HCl = CrCl2 + H2 : 2 CrCl2 + 2 H2O = 2 Cr(OH)Cl2 + H2 +3 : Cr(OH)3 + 3 H3O+ [Cr(H2O)6]3+ Cr(OH)3 + 3 OH [Cr(OH)6]3 +6 : (NH4)2Cr2O7 = Cr2O3 + 4 H2O + N2

  • 1% . MnO2.MnO2 + Fe2O3 + 5 C Mn + 2 Fe + 5 CO +2 +7 +2 : 2 Mn(OH)2 + O2 = 2 MnO2*H2O 2 MnO2 + O2 + 4 KOH = 2 K2MnO4 + 2 H2O : 3 K2MnO4 + 2 H2O = 2 KMnO4 + MnO2 + 4 KOH +4 +7 : MnO2 + 4 HCl = MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2 H2O

  • Fe Co NiFe 500 . .4.7% ( )Co 0.002% ., Co5Sm .Ni , .

  • 4Fe + 3O2 + 6H2 O 4Fe(OH)3 () 3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 ( ) 3Fe + 4H2O t Fe3O4 + 4H2 (700900C) 2Fe + 3Br2 t 2FeBr3 Fe + S t FeS Fe + H2SO4(.) FeSO4 + H2 2Fe + 6H2SO4(.) t Fe2(SO4)3 + 3SO2 + 6H2O Fe + 6HNO3(.) t Fe(NO3)3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O FeCl2 + 2KOH 2KCl + F(OH)2 Fe(OH)2 + H2SO4 FeSO4 + 2H2O Fe(OH)2 t FeO + H2O ( ) 4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O 4Fe(OH)3

  • (+3)4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 ( ) Fe2O3 + 6HCl t 2FeCl3 + 3H2O Fe2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O t 2Na[Fe(OH)4] Fe3+ + H2O [Fe(OH)]2+ + H+ [Fe(OH)]2+ + H2O [Fe(OH)2]+ + H+ [Fe(OH)2]+ + H2O Fe(OH)3 + H+ Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl FeCl3 + 3H2O Fe(OH)3 + NaOH Na[Fe(OH)4] 2Fe+3Cl3 + H2S-2 S0 + 2Fe+2Cl2 + 2HCl2Fe+3Cl3 + Cu0 2Fe+2Cl2 +Cu2+Cl2

  • (+6) (+6) : Fe2O3 + 3 KNO3 + 4 KOH = 2 K2FeO4 + 3 KNO2 + 2 H2O +6 : 2 FeO42 + 2 Cr3+ + 2 H+ = 2 Fe3+ + Cr2O72 + H2O : Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+

  • Fe2O3 + Al = Al2O3 + Fe

  • 12 (Zn Cd Hg)40% Zn + 2 HCl = ZnCl2 + H2 Zn + 2 NaOH + 2 H2O = Na2[Zn(OH)4] + H2 .

  • Hg , . Cd Hg Hg2+ CH3Hg+. .Cd ,

  • Cu + 4HNO3() = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 +2 H2O3Cu + 8HNO3() = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO +4 H2O : 4 Cu + 8 NH3 + O2 + 2 H2O = 4 [Cu(NH3)2] OHCu2+ - : 2 [CuI2] = 2 CuI + I2 2 CuCl2 + 4 KI = 2 CuI + I2 + 4 KCl +2 () -[Cu(OH)2] + 2MOH = M2[Cu(OH)4].Cu + 2AgNO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag

  • 2CuO + C = 2Cu + CO2

  • AgBr + 2 Na2S2O3 = Na3[Ag(S2O3)2] + NaBr Au + HNO3 + 4 HCl = H[AuCl4] + NO + 2H2O 4 Au + 8 NaCN + O2 + 2 H2O = 4 Na[Au(CN)2] + 4 NaOH ( ), :Ag + 2HNO3 = AgNO3 + NO2 + H2O 2Ag + 2H2SO4 = Ag2SO4 + SO2 + 2H2O

    AgNO3 + NaHal = AgHal + NaNO3 Hal = Cl, Br, It

  • Cu + AgNO3 = Cu(NO3)2+2Ag

  • , , - () - 1913 .

  • .CoCl3 NH3.CoCl3 (NH3)6 CoCl3 (NH3)5.- AgNO3.CoCl3 (NH3)6 CoCl3 (NH3)5

  • . . , , . . .[Co(NH3)6]Cl3 [Co(NH3)6]3+ + 3 Cl-[CoCl(NH3)5]Cl2 [CoCl(NH3)5]3+ + 2 Cl-

  • [CoCl(NO2)(NH3)4]+?: 1Cl, 1NO2, 4NH3 . .. = 6..= +3

  • - . ( ). . .

  • . ., ..

  • , - - -, - .-, -, -, - - : , , ....

  • , ,

  • . . . .. . .

  • [CrSO4(NH3)5]Cl[CrCl(NH3)5]SO4 (III) (III) [Co(NH3)6][CrCN6] (III) [Cr(NH3)6][CoCN6](III) (III)

  • - -

  • [Co(H2NCH2CH2NH2)3]+

  • d- .

    d- . d- .

  • d- -

  • > P d4 < P d4P

  • CN- > NO2- > en > NH3 > EDTA4- > SCN- > H2O >ONO- > C2O42- > OH- > F- > SCN- > Cl- > Br- > I- - - en - H2NCH2CH2NH2 EDTA4-

  • d6:

  • NiCl42- , CoCl42- d-

  • Ni(CN)42- Pt(NH3)42+ AuCl4- -

  • : ,

  • [Fe(CN)6]3-?Fe [Ar]3d64s2Fe3+ [Ar]3d5

  • ::Ni(CN)42-