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. ; ; . . B e i 10 100 keV m(N,Z) = A*1000 MeV. 10 -6. / . . . B/A . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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11

; ; ./2014 10 (#)

Bei 10 100 keVm(N,Z) = A*1000 MeV10-6

/ /2014 10 (#) /2014 10 (#)

B/A const = =8.0(8) MeV B A(A-1)B A - B/A /2014 10 (#)

- 1930 Von Weizscker -

B/A (MeV/nucleon)A15.5 MeV16.8 MeVSR2A2/30.72 MeV

23 MeVZNBvol+BsurfBvol+Bsurf+BcBvol+Bsurf+Bc+Bsym

ap= 34 MeV 4 -:2H, 6Li, 10B, 14N/2014 10 (#)

pn:1, 1, 3, 3, 5, 5, 7... : 1, 2, 5, 8, 13, 18, 25, 32N-Z=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 (A=const).. sym ~ [(N-Z)2 /8]* ; ~A1

/2014 10 (#) /2014 10 (#)

- , , : , , - Brckner (G-) N-N , ; ( ) (- ) /, - , ;

/2014 10 (#)

( ) , ,

: .

/2014 10 (#) (2.2 MeV 2H) R=1.2A1/3fm RN=1 fm (A.VN)/V 60% 40 % , .. / ; : X1020 /s

V(r)-V0r0.4 fm2 fm

V(r)-V0rHartry-Fok/2014 10 (#) : - ;

(r=R0) :

:

V(r)R04a-V0V0 -50 MeV, R0=1.2A1/3, a0.5 fm

/2014 10 (#)

; ; , . ( ) . , , ;/2014 10 (#)

2028 ?1) - N,Z = 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126285082W.D. Mayers, W.J. Swiatecki, Nucl. Phys. 81(1966)1./2014 10 (#) 2)

N,Z = 50, 82, 126/2014 10 (#) 3) N,Z = 28, 50, 82, 126

N (Z-)/2014 10 (#) 4) N,Z = 8,20,28, 50, 82, 126

N (Z-)/2014 10 (#) 5) 2+ - N,Z = 2, 8,20,28, 50, 82, 126

S. Raman et al., Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 78, (2001)1: , 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 (Z?). . . /2014 10 (#) ( )

V(r)-V0 Woods-Saxon

:n l j1s1/2 ,1p3/2,1p1/2, 1d5/2 , 1d3/2, 2s1/2, 1f7/2, 1f5/2, 2p3/2, 2p1/2, 1g9/2, 2d5/2 :

/2014 10 (#) D(N)(n+1,l)N, E/01s20, 3/21p61, 5/22s, 1d 122, 7/2202p, 1f 3, 9/24, 11/23s, 2d,1g 30D(l)(n,l)E/E01s121p 2.05610 3.371d2 4.002s14 4.961f10 8.382d6 6.042p18 6.781g

D(l)=2(2l+1)8182034

8204070/2014 10 (#) l2 D(N)(n+1,l)N, E/01s20, 3/21p61, 5/22s, 1d 122, 7/2202p, 1f 3, 9/24, 11/23s, 2d,1g 30D(l)(n,l)E/E01s121p 2.05610 3.371d2 4.002s14 4.961f10 8.382d6 6.042p18 6.781g - + l2 NN . lD(l)=2(2l+1)1s21p61d102s22p61f143s22d101g1870282040/2014 10 (#)-

1949 - Maria Goeppert MayerHaxel, Jensen,Suess1963

+/2014 10 (#)-

1d (l=2)(n,l)D(l)=2(2l+1)10j = l-1/2(l+1)1d3/2(n,l,j)D(j)=(2j+1)4j = l+1/2-l1d5/2(n,l,j)6D(j)=(2j+1)2l+1

/2014 10 (#)

++++---

j 2j + 1 j , j-

, j- , , j , -:

/2014 10 (#) - : j- J=0+ , nj J=j =(-1)

- J = j + j + j J12=0 J=j3=j - J = j + j + j + j + j J=jlast - 0+ /2014 10 (#)

208Pb + 1p/2014 10 (#) jz=j

jz=j , 1 !/2014 10 (#) /2014 10 (#)

130Sn (Z=50, N=80)2p3/21f5/22p1/21g9/21g7/21g7/22d5/22d3/23s1/21h9/21h11/25082: s1/2 h11/2: |j1-j2| j j1+j25 j 6I = 5 -, 6 - I = 0 + : d3/2 h11/2: I = 4-, 5 -, 6 - , 7- : h11/2 h11/2: I = 0+, 2+, 4+, 6+,8+,10+ Epair= 2 MeV???

- 2+ ( ) , .. !/2014 10 (#)

R

R(t)

00 1 < 1/3, =2, 3,( 4)

Y20 - Y22 - Y30

Y31

Y32

Y33 /2014 10 (#)

a : , N Z ,

{,} Hill-Wheeler

/2014 10 (#)a

Prolate Oblate

PROLATE

OBLATE

R /2014 10 (#)

= 0, > 0 prolate , Z = 180, < 0 oblate , Z = 120, > 0 prolate , X = -60, < 0 oblate , X = 60, < 0 oblate , Y =-120, > 0 prolate , Y

03060180Rx-1/20+1/2+1/2Ry-1/2-0.866-1+1/2Rz1+0.866+1/2-1

> 0, 0 (prolate) 60(oblate) = 30 - 0 (. ) 30 (.) > 0 - prolate < 0 - oblate

/2014 10 (#)

Q0 < 0 oblate Q0 > 0 prolate/2014 10 (#)

/2014 10 (#)

- 0+ I = 0+, 2+, 4+, .

164Er0+02+91.44+299.56+614.48+1024.610+1518.112+2082.7(0+) = 0(2+) = 91.4 keV = 6(2/2) (2/2) = 15.2 keV (4+) = 299.4 KeV(4+) = 20(2/2) =305 KeV(6+) = 614.4 KeV(6+) = 42(2/2) =640 KeV(8+) = 1024.6 KeV(8+) = 72(2/2) =1097 KeV

/2014 10 (#)

+ +

/2014 10 (#)

( ). , .

E0 -

/2014 10 (#)- -

K=2K=0

/2014 10 (#) 164Er (Z=68, N=96)GS

- - /2014 10 (#)- -

/2014 10 (#)