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.. . - , 2002

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  • ..

    2.

  • 2.1. (Atanasoff, John; 1903-1995). 1939 . (Berry, Clifford Edward; 1918-1963) , 30 (ABC Atanasoff-Berry Calculator).

  • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) 1945 . . 26 , 6 , 30 . 18 000 , 1500 , 150 .2.2. ENIAC

  • ENIAC. 2.2. ENIAC

  • ENIAC2.2. ENIAC , (Mouchly, John William; 1907-1980) (Goldstine, Herman Heine; . 1913) (Eckert, John Presper; 1919-1995)

  • XX (Neumann, John von; 1903-1957) 2.3.

  • 2.3. ( )

  • 2.3. - : , , , , , ; , , . , .. ; .

  • EDSAC. 3000 , 512 2.3. - . EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) 1949 . (Wilkes, Maurice; . 1913).

  • - (Bletchley Park) , Enigma. 2.3.

  • Colossus. 2000 25000 ./ 2.3. (Turing, Alan Mathison; 1912-1954)

  • EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer 1950 . 3500 , 1024 44 2.3.

  • UNIVAC-1 Remington Rand (1951 .). 2000 ./, 1000 12 . 46 1 . . .2.4. .

  • SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Enviroment), 1951-1958 2.4. .

  • SAGE Whirlwind . (AN/FSQ-7) IBM. 24 50 000 , 250 2.4. .

  • 1953 . IBM, IBM-701. 10000 ./, 2 36- . 19 . : IBM-7012.4. .

  • 2.4. .

    1

    1951-19601960-1965

    (/)1000 - 10 00010 000 - 1 000 000

    () , - , 1000 - 10 000 , 10 000 - 1 000 000

    -, , - ()

    > 5000 . (1960 .)>30 000 . (1965 .)

  • 1- .2.4. . ,

  • - (, )2.4. . 2-

  • 70- , Whirlwind (), 1951 .2.4. .

  • . 2.4. .

  • 80- 8- 2.4. .

  • , 2.4. .

  • 2 IBM-7030 Stretch (1959 .), - 2.4. . 1 . ./, 256 64- . 10 . .

  • 2.5. IBM S/360 IBM System/360 ( 7 1964 .)

  • 2.5. IBM S/360 360:

    ; ; ; ;

    360 3- .

  • 2.5. IBM S/360 3- () () . 2- .

  • 2.5. IBM S/360 - 3- . 7,25 29 .

  • 2.5. IBM S/360 360

  • 2.5. IBM S/360

    1

    1965 -19751975 -1980

    ,

    (/)10 5 - 10 710 6 - 10 8

    () , 10 5 - 10 7 , 10 7- 10 8

    -- ,

    > 300 000 . (1975 .)>1 000 000 . (1980 .)

  • 2.5. IBM S/360

    - SSI Small Scale Integration 64 MSI Middle Scale Integration 1024 LSI Large Scale Integration 65 000- VLSI Very LargeScale Integration 500 000SVLI Super Very Large 500 000

  • 2.5. IBM S/360 4- (). ,

  • 2.5. IBM S/360 360 70- System/370, 360

  • 2.6. . - - - CDC-6600 Control Data Corporation (1963 .) 64 , 3 . ./. 10 . .

  • - PDP-8 Digital Equipment (1965 .) 12 . 4 . 500 . ./. 20 000 .2.6. . - -

  • - PDP-11/70 VAX-11/780 Digital Equipment 2.6. . - -

  • 2.7. : (1948 - 1952 ); (1950- 1960- ); (1970- 1980- ); (1990- )

  • 2.7. (1902-1974)

  • (1951 ., ). . .. 6000 , 50 ./, 94 16- , 15 , - 60 . 2.7.

  • (1952 ., , ). . ... 5000 , 8000 ./, 1 39- , 1 , 30 , 100 . 2.7.

  • (1953 .). . .. , . . .. 6200 , 60000 . 2000 ./, (43- ), 150 , 300 . . 1953 1956 . 7 .2.7.

  • -20 (1958 .). . .. 2600 , 4 45- , 20 000 ./, 2.7.

  • 1965 . -20, . , .2.7.

  • -6 (1968 .) 2- . . .. 60 . , 180 . , 1 ./, 32 128 48- . 1987 , 355 .2.7.

  • (1902-1974)2.7.

  • -1 (1951 ., , ) 750 , 15-20 ./. . .. 2.7. -2 -3, .. , . -3

  • 2.7. . -13 (1984 .) 48 . ./. . ..

  • (1918-1994)2.7.

  • -1 (1957 ., , . ). . .. . 700 . (1024 36- ). 100 ./. , 1958 . 183 .2.7.

  • 2.7. -11,- 14, -16 (1964-1969 ) , 45 100 . ./. . ..

  • (1923-1982) 2.7.

  • .. i2.7. .. i

  • -1 (1966 ., , . ) . , IBM (1967 .). . .. 2.7. -2 (1969 .)

  • 2.7. -32 (1968 .) . . - .. 30-35 . ./, 64 38-- . 1975 . 2889 . -1 - (1960 .) . .. 800 , 2500 ./, 1 31- . 1964 . 220 .

  • 1960- - - ( ) IBM System/360, ( ) Hewlett Packard PDP-11. : (1979 .)2.7.

  • 2.7. -1036

  • -4 (, . , 1976 .) . .. 2.7. -1

  • -2 (1985 .). . .. 2.7.

  • , 1978-1980 , IBM , 2.8. . ..

  • 1948 . Bell Labs (Schockley, William; 1910-1989), (Bardeen, John; 1908-1991) (Brattain, Walter; 1902-1987) ( ). 1956 . 2.8.

  • 1955 . (Palo Alto) Shockley Labs Inc., . 1957 . (Eight Traitors) Fairchild Semiconductor. 2.8.

  • OracleHewlett PackardYahoo!Xerox PARCIntelSun3comSGINetscapeCiscoAppleAdobeIBM Research2.8. San Francisco Golden Gate , 50- 101 (San Jose) . , () .

  • 1958 . (. 1923) Texas Instruments , 5 . , . 2000 . 2.8.

  • 1959 (Noyce, Robert; 1908-1990) () 2.8.

  • 2.8. , (, , ). . 0,1-0,2

  • 2.8. . .

  • 2.8. . ,

  • 2.8.

  • 2.8. . 10-15 , . .

  • 2.8. . , .

  • 2.8. , , . , , . .

  • . .2.8.

  • Intel-4004 (1971 .). 4 , 108 . 2250 2.8.

  • 1972 : 8- - Intel 8008. 25002.8. 1974 : 8- Intel 8080. 5000 1978 : 16- Intel 8086-8088. 29000. IBM PC. x86 Intel

  • 2.8.

    1

    , (. )

    197620

    197750

    19825000

    198310000

  • 2.9. Altair-8800 MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) , (Roberts, Edward; . 1941). .

  • Altair-8800 MITS (1975 .). Intel 8008, 500 , 256 , 439 . 397 . 2.9.

  • Altair-8800 100- S-100, . 2.9.

  • 2.9. Altair-8800 (1975 .) Popular Electronics

  • 2.9. 8 Microsoft 1975 . , (Allen, Paul; . 1954) (Gates, William; . 1955) MITS Basic

  • PET CommodoreTRS-80 Tandy Radio Shack2.9. (1996-1980 ) 8- intel-8080 Zilog-80. Commodore Tandy Radio Shak.

  • 2.9. Sinclair 1980 . Spectrum,

  • (Jobs, Steve; . 1955) (Wozniak, Steve; . 1950) Apple Computer (1976 .)2.9. Apple

  • Apple-1 (1976 .) MC6502. 666,66 . 200 .2.9. Apple

  • Apple-2 (1977 .) MC6502, 4 , 16 , 1300 .2.9. 2.9. Apple

  • Apple . 1983 . 983 . 2.9. Apple. $ Apple (Sculley, John; . 1939)

  • 1981 . IBM , 16- IBM PC. Intel 8088 4,77 , 64 , 40 , - 5, 3000 .2.9. IBM Boca Raton, . 12 IBM () (Estridge, Philip D. (Don); 1937-1985) IBM PC

  • Compaq (1982 .) IBM PC. i8088 4.77MHz, 128KB RAM, 9, 14 , 3000 .2.9. . IBM- IBM

  • IBM PS/2 (1987 .) 2.9. . IBM- IBM PS/2: MCA (Micro Channel Architecture); 3,5; ;

  • 2.10. - - 1950- SRI (Stanford Research Institute) (Engelbart, Douglas, . 1925). 1964 . .

  • 2.10. - -90- - 1968 . . , 65 -.65 SRI

  • 1970 Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Centre), . , Ethernet, , , , - . 2.10. - Xerox

  • (Kay, Alan; . 1940) Alto Xerox Alto (1973 .) 2.10. - Xerox

  • Alto . 2.10. - Xerox

  • Alto Star-8010 , , , .. 16000 . Xerox 2.10. - Xerox

  • Apple Lisa (1983 .) , Xerox Star. 1 , 5 , $10000. 15000 .2.10. - Apple

  • Lisa , IBM PC. 1984 . Apple.45- 1,6 . ., 500 . . . . 1995 50 2.10. - Apple

  • 2.10. - Apple - (Orwell, George) 1984 . 1948 , . , . .

  • 2.10. - Apple . , . : A garden of ideology where each one can bloom, secure from the pests of contradictory forces , ,

  • 2.10. - Apple , , . - , :We are one people...with one will. One resolve. One cause... , . .

  • 2.10. - Apple . , Apple . .

  • 2.10. - Apple . ,

  • 2.10. - Apple , :but we will bury them with their own confusion We Shall Prevail! - . !,

  • 2.10. - Apple , . , . On January 24thApple Co