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5. . 1. . . - , , , . 2. .: Reinert, 1996.

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    5.

    , XX . ( ), - 1 , - . (Brian Arthur 1990) . , , (Krugman 1986) 1980- . ( 1990- .), (Grossman 1992), (Helpmann, Krugman 1985), - (Krugman 1986) , , - .

    , , , , , , , - - - . 1613 . , , 1840- . 1950- . , , , -

    1. .

  • 90 . 91

    . - , , , .

    , - , , , . , - , - . . , - - (.: De Long, Summers 1991).

    , , , , , , , . - , , , , - ( ), , - . , , , , - , , , - , -. , , , . . - , - . - - 1988 1993 . (Lucas 1988; 1993).

    , , ( ) - ( .: Bijker 1995) . (- ) , . - , -

    , - , . . , , -. , , - , , - , , ( : Reinert 1980). - -, , . 1721 . (King 1721) , - , , .

    , , , , - , - - , , . , , , (Hirschman 1958), , (Porter 1990), . . , . , - .

    , , , - - , . , , , , , , 1480- ., 1980- . 1738 . , :

    (sic!), , .

  • 92 . 93

    , , , , 200-- .

    , , - - , , , . , , - , - . - ( ) , - , - . , - - , , - . - . - - , .

    - ( - )2, , - : , -, , , , . , , - , . XIX ., , (Carey 1851), , .

    , , - , . , - 1485 . 1980- . ,

    2. .: Reinert, 1996.

    , (Bijker 1995: 266).

    , , . - - (Bijker et al. 1989) , , - (Bijker et al. 1989: 4). , - - , - , , .

    , , VII 1485 ., , -, , 1980- . , . - , , - . . , - , - , , -, . . - : , , , , , - , , , , - .

    , - XV . -, - XIX ., , - 500- . -

  • 94 . 95

    , - , : , , - . , - - . -, - (Krugman 1990). - , . , , . , , , , - , , , .

    , : - - 30 . -, , -. , , , . , , , , - - . - , , , , .

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    , XIX . , , - , . - , , (Logan 1886; Curtis 1904). - , . . , (Gootenberg 1989; McEvoy 1994).

    VII -, 500- , , : , - , , (Marshall 1890). , , - , - . , - , , (Graham 1923: 199 227). , - -, (Viner 1937). , - , , . , - , , - , , , -. , - . - -, , 3.

    3. , , , - XIX ., - , - , - .

  • 96 . 97

    , : , -, . , , . -.

    - . - . - , . , -, , (Misselden 1623: 102).

    XVIII . , - . . , , - . - , - . : - , , ordre naturel . -, (Logos) werden (), , sein (). - , , , ( .: Viner 1972) ordre naturel. , , - , (Sombart 1928: 919).

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    6.

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    , - . - - 1622 1623 ., (Malynes 1622, 1623) (Misselden 1622, 1623) , , , . 4. , , -, - , . -, , , , (Misselden 1623: 8). -

    4. - (Schumpeter J. History of Economic Analysis. Oxford; New York, 1954. P. 344 345). . The New Palgrave. - .

  • 98 . 99

    , , , -, . - :

    - - , , , , - - , (Smith A. The Wealth of Nations. Chicago, 1976. P. 17).

    :

    ; , , - , , , , - . ( . - 1860 .).

    , , - . -, - , . 500 . 3.

    XIX . ? - , ? , , ? - , - , .

    laissez-faire - . , , , . , . - . - 5, 1680 . - , - . : laissez-

    5. : Roscher 1882 Section X (10): 36.

    ( ), -. . - . , , - , . . ; .

    , . - 1671 . -: Nam Mercator transfert tantum, Manufactura gignit , . -- . , - , ? , , (Leibniz 1992).

    , - . - XVIII . , -. , - das Ganze . , 1950 . - , . - , Homo Oeconomicus, . , Homo Faber - .

    , -, , . , - . , , , , . - - ( - : Nelson 1995). , , -, . - , - , - .

  • 100 . 101

    - , .

    , la leyenda negra, - , - , - . ; - . -- , -. , , -, .

    , , , , ; ( ). , , , . - , , , . - - - . , , , . , - . - ( ), - ( ), , -, . .

    , - , . , - , - , - (Whatley 1774)7, , -

    7. 1774 . -

    nous faure, : Ne pas trop gouverner (Garnier, . : Cognelin, Guillaumin 1854 Vol. 2: 19). , , - , - , .

    7. .

    Es evidente que hay muchas maneras de hacer historia, casi tantas como de deshacerla

    Ortega y Gasset J. La Rebelin de las Masas (1937)6

    , , , - - (Deutsch 1969). , -, - . - , , .

    6. , - (Ortega y Gasset J. La Rebelin de las Masas. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1964. P. 163).

    1485.

    :

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    , , 1791

    , 1841

    , , 26 1854.

    , , 1820

    , 1860

    , , 1834

    ,

    1930- .

    , 1945

    , , 1613

    , , 1651

    , , 1684

    3.

    : Roscher W. Principles of Political Economy. Chicago IL: Callaghan, 1882.

  • 102 . 103

    - .

    , , , - . - (1840) : , , , , - , , . , , , , , , , (Hoffman J. G. Einfhrung // Lehre von den Steuern. . Cohn 1895: 60). , , , , - : , , - , - , , - (Cohn 1895: 60 61). 100 zeitgeist. , - , , . , - - . XVIII . XIX . fin de sicle , XX . , . fin de sicle XIX . Blut und Boden 1920- 1930- ., - .

    , - . , - , - , , , . - , , , -, .

    , , , , - , .

    , - ( ) , , , - , , . , - , - -, . , , . - , - . XIX . , - , - , . , - , - laissez-faire, : - 8.

    -, -, XIX .; . , XIX . , . , , die Karritierer des Merkantilismus , , , 9. -

    : , , - , , ( , - ), , , - . - , -.

    8. Economic Policy and Democratic Thought. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1948. - .

    9. Dhring E. Kritische Geschichte der Nationalkonomie (1879), . : Sombart 1928: 913.

  • 104 . 105

    , :

    , ( ) - , . , . , , . , - , , , 12.

    , - , , , . - - . - :

    . , - - -. , .

    . - . -, - , --, , . - - ,

    12. Fr die Entstehung der modernen Industrie kann man die Bedeutung dieser Grndungen nicht hoch genug einschtzen. Denn sie sind es, die vielfach als Muster, noch fter als Schrittmacher neuer Organisationen dienen. Sie sind es, die durch ihre Nachfrage oft genug als den Kristallisationspunkt fr die Entwicklung auch der kapitalistischen Industrie bilden. Ihre Erwhnung darf in einer Darstellung des Werdegangs des modernen Kapitalismus nicht fehlen, den sie aus den angegebenen Grnden in tausendfaltiger Weise gefrdet haben, trotzdem sie ihrem Geiste nach aus anderer Wurzel erwachsen sind (Sombart 1928: 847).

    , - , . , - . , - 1923 . , , laissez-faire. , , laissez-faire, , 10. , , .

    . , - - - , : Ich sage das auf die Gefahr hin, als Neo-Merkantilist abgestempelt und in das Rarittenkabinett unseres Faches bergefhrt zu werden (Sombart 1928: 925).

    8.

    , - - . - (Sombart 1928: 847 857). , - - 11. - , . , , -, . - - XIX ., , .

    10. . : Skidelsky, Keynes 1995: 152. 11. -

    (, ) - - , . , , (), , - (Backhaus 1996).

  • 106 . 107

    , . - , , - . - , . - , , , , -. , - - , -, , , - - ( ), .

    , , - , - , , -, . . : , - (.: Odigari, Gota 1993). . - , . - . . , .

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    , , - , , , .

    / . , , - , , , . . - - - . , , - . - , .

    . - - , . , - - . - Krieg und Kapitalismus, 3. , , , . - , - , , - , -. -, , - .

    , -, , - . - , . , - -. , -, -

  • 108 . 109

    , , . : - , , , , , , 13.

    , - , -, , - . - , , - - . , , , , - . , , . , - , : ?

    X I , . . -. 70 - ; , . , , - - . , - - . , , , - , (-), , .

    , - , . , -

    13. . : McCraw 1992: 362).

    , - , - - , , . -, - , .

    9. : ,

    1776 . - , , , , - , , - . , , . , -. , - :

    , , (. ). - , , , .

    . - , . , , (McGraw 1992: 364).

    , - - , .

    , ; (Serra 1613) - (Petty 1691). ,

  • 110 . 111

    , , , . , - - , - (Smith 1776: 116). , - .

    4) . , - (Smith 1776: 117). - , , , , . - , - . , - , , (Smith 1776: 118). , , , , - , , .

    5) . , , ; , , . , , -: , , , - . , , , - - , , , (Smith 1776: 118 119). , - .

    - - . , , , -. - ,

    , , , . - , , - , :

    1) , . - - , - (Smith 1776: 113). , - - , , , s .. -, , , , - . , - , , . (. . ), - (. . ). - - , (Smith 1776: 120). , , , -. , - - .

    2) -. , - - (Smith 1776: 114). ; , , -, . , , , , - , , , , . , -, .

    3) . , ,

  • 112 . 113

    , , . - , , ; -, (McCraw 1992).

    , - , . - - (Naples, Aslanbeigui 1996). - . , - , - , - . , - . - , -. - : , , , (Veblen 1919). . , - - , , , , (Sombart 1928).

    , - ? . , - . . , - , - : - - , . - , . - , . , , , (Smith 1812).

    , 1820 . (Raymond 1820): - (- - ) , . - , . - , - , , , . : , , ( - ).

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  • 114 . 115

    . - , , - . - , - . : - , . - 1 2 - , , - (Reinert 1980).

    . , , , -, . ( II IV) , - . , - , , . , , - . - , , -, , . , , - . , , - - .

    , , 2 -, . 1490- . - , , . XX . - : - , , . - . : , . -

    10.

    - , 1480- . - , - . : - . , , : - .

    -, , - . , - - (Hirschman 1977). - . - . . (1715 1787) : , . , . . , , (Staatskrper) (von Pfeiffer 1777).

    - . , , -, : . - , , - , - . - - , , - .

    , , - , , . , , - -, . , - , -

  • 116 . 117

    , . , - -, , - . , -, - , , - ? , . zeitgeist - , . - - ( ) , , , - . - , , - - .

    , -, : -, , - , - , , . , - , - , . , , , . , - , - -, .

    , , . , , , -, . - ( ). XIX . : -, -

    , , - . - - - .

    , , - . , - . - . , - , - , , . , . XIX .: - , - .

    , , , 1990- .: - - . - - , , -. ( - ) , . - - . - ; - , . , , , , .

    ! - . XIX . , , , -

  • 118 . 119

    , - , , , , . , - , . , -, , , , . , - , , - en bloc, , -, .

    , , - 1820 . : , , , -, . , - , . , -, (, - . .), -, - . , , , . - , , , - -, , .

    - , -. , , . , - . , - , -: , -

    , . -, .

    , -, , -, ( -). , - : , -, . - . , . , - , , , - - , . - . , . , - , - . , , - , - , , .

    , - , . , - -. , , . - , : , - .

    ? . - , - 14. , , -, , 15. -

    14. . : Skidelsky, Keynes 1995: 652. 15. . : Skidelsky, Keynes 1995: 21.

  • 120 . 121

    1, , . XIX . - : , , . , - -, , , .

    - - , - . , . , , , . - - - , - . , , , , , - . , - . - , 1830- ., - 30 , - . 30 , - , - . - . - -, , - , - , .

    ( )

    ( -, . .)

    -

    , ,

    , -

    1.

    : Reinert 1980: P39.

    . . : , , .

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