Вопросы здоровья, питания и населения

  • Published on
    30-Mar-2016

  • View
    220

  • Download
    2

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Стратегия отраслевого развития

Transcript

  • 17092

    Publ

    ic Di

    sclo

    sure

    Aut

    horiz

    edPu

    blic

    Disc

    losu

    re A

    utho

    rized

    Publ

    ic Di

    sclo

    sure

    Aut

    horiz

    edPu

    blic

    Disc

    losu

    re A

    utho

    rized

  • CTpaTerUH oTpacneBoro pa3BUTUH

    BonpOChI 3,lJ.OPOBh}), nDTAHD}) D HAPO,lJ.OHACEnEHD})

    OE'hEAHHEHHE CnEUHAflHCTOB EAHKA B OEflACTH PA3BHTWI COUHAflhHhlX PECYPCOB

    BCeMHpHhlH J)aHK

  • aBTopCKoe npaBo, 1997 r.

    Me)l(nYHaponHhlH EaHK PeKoHcTpYKUHH H Pa3BHTHw

    BCEMHPHbIH EAHK

    1818 H Street, NW

    Washington, DC 20433, USA

    Bce npaBa oxpaH~IOTc~ 3aKOHOM

    H3naHo B CoenHHeHHhlx lllTaTax AMepHKH

    TIepBhlH THpa)l( - ceHT~6ph 1997 r.

    UenhIO pa3pa60TKH cTpaTerHH oTpacneBoro pa3BHTH~ ~Bn~eTC~ nononHeHHe cTpaTerHH nOMOlllH cTpaHaM B l.faCTH Bhl~BneHH~ rIpeHMYlllecTBa BceMHpHoro EaHKa B cpaBHeHHH C npyrHMH opraHH3aUH~MH,

    onpeneneHH~ 3!}>!}>eKTHBHoCTH ero pa60Thl H npHopHTeTHhlx HanpaBneHHH B Ka)l(nOH oTnenhHoH oTpacnH.

    B CTpaTerHH oTpacneBoro pa3BHTH~ OCBelllaIOTC~ Bonpochl CTpaTerHH BceMHpHoro EaHKa no OTnenhHhlM ceKTopaM; OCMhlcn~eTC~ OrIhlT npenhlnYllleH ne~enhHOCTH EaHKa B naHHoH OTpacnH Ha OCHOBe aHanH3a pe3ynhTaToB, rIpOBeneHHoro CrIeUHanHCTaMH KaK caMoro EaHKa, TaK H BHe ero; onpenen~IOTC~ npHOpHTeThl HccnenOBaTenhCKOH pa60Thl, KanpOBoro 06eCnel.feHH~, H Bhlpa60TKH COOTBeTCTBYIOllleH nonHTHKH; a TaK)I(e onpenen~IOTC~ CTpaHhl, HMeIOlllHe cephe3Hhle np06neMhl B pa3BHTHH TOH HnH HHOH OTpacnH, 'ITO Hcnonh3yeTc~ npH COCTaBneHHH CTpaTerHH rIOMOlllH CTpaHe. 3TH cTpaTerHH nOn)l(Hhl cnoc06cTBoBaTh nHanory Me)l(ny cTopoHaMH, 3aHHTepeCOBaHHhlMH B pa3BHTHH TOH HnH HHOH OTpacnH.

    CTpaTerHH OTpacneBoro pa3BHTH~ 6ynYT nonroToBneHhl B 06nenHHeHH~x cneUHanHcToB EaHKa B 06nacTH pa3BHTH~ COUHanhHhlX pecypcoB, 3KOHOMHl.feCKOrO ynpaBneHH~ H CHH)I(eHH~ ypOBH~ 6enHOCTH, 3alllHThl OKpY)l(aIOllleH cpenhl H COUHanhHO-YCTOHl.fHBOrO pa3BHTH~, !}>HHaHCHpOBaHH~, l.faCTHOro ceKTopa H HH!}>paCTPYKTyphl. ABTOphl Bhlpa)l(aIOT Hane)l(ny Ha TO, 'ITO HH!}>opMaUH~, conep)l(allla~c~ B rIpennaraeMOM H nocnenYIOlllHX TOMax 3TOH cepHH, OKa)l(eTC~ none3HOH He TonhKO nn~ cneUHanHCTOB EaHKa, HO H nn~ Me)l(nYHapOJlHhlX opraHH3aUHH, 3aHHMaIOlllHXC~ BonpocaMH pa3BHTH~, a TaK)I(e H nn~ lllHpOKoro Kpyra l.fHTaTeneH B CTpaHaX-l.fneHaX EaHKa. CTpaTerHH OTpacneBoro pa3BHTHR- nOn)l(Hhl paCCMaTpHBaThC~ KaK OTpa)l(eHHe cerOnH~lllHero BHneHH~ COOTBeTCTBYIOllleH OTpacnH H KaK BKnan B nHHaMHl.fHhIH nHaflOr npaKTHKOB, a TaK)I(e npH3BaHhl crIoc06cTBoBaTh KOHCTPYKTHBHhlM nHCKYCCH~M, KOTophle CO BpeMeHeM npHBenyT K cOBepllleHCTBOBaHHIO nocnenYIOlllHX CTpaTerHH pa3BHTH~ ceKTopOB.

    rpaHHUhl TeppHTopHH, Hcnonh30BaHHhle UBeTa, neHe)l(Hhle enHHHUhl H npOl.fa~ HH!}>opMaUH~, yKa3aHHa~ Ha KapTax, He 1l0n)l(Hhl nOHHMaThC~ KaK OTpa)l(eHHe KaKOH-nH60 n03HUHH BceMHpHoro EaHKa B OTHOllleHHH IOpHllHl.feCKOrO cTaTyca Kal(OH 6hl TO HH 6hlno TeppHTopHH HnH nOnllep)l(Ka, HnH npH3HaHHe KaKHX 6hl TO HH 6hlno rpaHHU.

    o!}>opMneHHe 06nmKKH: rpynna CynoH nH3aHH, BalllHHrTOH, oKpyr KonYM6H~

  • COJ(EP)KAHME

    BCTynlleHHe

    nllarOnapHOCTh 3a YlJaCTHe

    KpaTKOe COnep)l(aHHe

    COKpallleHHjI

    rRABA 1 JJ;IIHAMHt.IHbIH MHP: llPOEnEMbI H HAllPABnEHH.H PA3BHTH.H

    BnelJaTlljlIOlllHe nOCTH)I(eHHjI H pe3YllhTaThI

    np0611eMhlpa3BHTHjI

    OCHoBHhle HanpaBlleHHjI nOllHTHKH

    rRABA2 Ponb BCEMHPHOrO EAHKA: PACllHPEHHE yt.IACTH.H H OCMbICnEHHE OllbITA

    060CHOBaHHe YlJaCTHjI naHKa B 0611aCTH 3nH (3nopoBhe, nHTaHHe H HaponoHacelleHHe) YlJaCTHe naHKa B 0611aCTH 3nH OCMhIClleHHe OnhITa

    rRABA3 B 21-M BEK: HOBbiE OE5I3ATERbCTBA EAHKA

    YTOlJHeHHe cTpaTerHlJeCKHX npHopHTeToB

    nOBhIlIIeHHe pe3yllhTaTHBHOCTH

    KanpoBoe 06eCnelJeHHe pa60ThI

    YKpenlleHHe napTHepcTB

    Or BHneHHjI npo611eM K neHcTBHIO

    npl1flO)KEHI151 (HMeIOTCjI TOllhKO Ha aHfllHHCKOM jl3hIKe)

    111

  • BCTYTIJIEHHE

    MaHllaTOM BCeMHpHOrO EaHKa jlBnjleTCjI COlleHCTBHe npaBHTenbCTBaM pa3BHBaIOll.lHXCjI CTpaH B llOCTH)KeHHH YCTOHlJHBOrO nporpecca B CHH)KeHHH ypOBHjI 6ellHOCTH, B 06eCnelJeHHH 3KOHOMHlJeCKOrO pOCTa H ynYlJIlleHHH ycnoBHH )KH3HH HaCeneHHjI. Pa3pa6oTaHHbie B HaCTOjllllee BpeMjI CTpaTerHH nOMOlllH 6ellHbiM CTpaHaM OCHOBblBaIOTCjI Ha Tpex B3aHMOCBjl3aHHbiX CPYHllaMeHTanbHblX npHHUHnax nonHTHKH pa3BHTHjI:

    PaCllIHpeHHe B03MO)KHOCTeH nocpellCTBOM IllHpoKoMacurra6Horo YCTOHlJHBOrO 3KOHOMHlJeCKOrO pOCTa, HaueneHHoro, B lJaCTHOCTH, Ha nOBblIlleHHe npOH3BOllHTenbHOCTH TPYlla H C03llaHHe pa60lJHX MeCT MjI 6ellHOH lJaCTH HaCeneHHjI

    PaCIllHpeHHe 6ellHbiX cnoeB HaCeneHHjI K COUHanbHblM ycnyraM, cnoco6HbiM nOBblCHTb ypoBeHb 06pa30BaHHjI, y nylJIllHTb 3ll0pOBbe, nHTaHHe, a TaK)Ke CHH3HTb ypOBeHb pO)KllaeMOCTH

    npHeMneMble nporpaMMbl COUHanbHOH 3all.lHTbl HaH60nee y jl3BHMbiX rpynn HaCeneHHjI.

    Pa3YMH~ nonHTHKa B 06naCTH YKpenneHHjI 3ll0POBbjl, nHTaHHjI H BocrrpOH3BOllCTBa HaCeneHHjI H 3cpcpeKTHBHoe MellHUHHCKoe 06cnY)KHBaHHe jlBnjlIOTCjI Ba)KHeHIllHMH 3BeHbjlMH nporpaMMbl MepOnpHKrHH, KOTopble n03BOnjlIOT CTpaHaM pa30pBaTb nOpOlJHblH Kpyr 6ellHOCTH, BblCOKOH pO)KllaeMOCTH, HealleKBaTHblX MellHUHHCKHX ycnyr H HH3KHX TeMnOB 3KOHOMHlJeCKOrO pOCTa H BOHTH B "n03HTHBHblH Kpyr" pa3BHTHjI, KOTOPblH

    BblCOKOH rrpOH3BOllHTenbHOCTbIO Tpylla, HH3KOH pO)KllaeMOCTbIO, XOpOIllHMH nOKa3aTenjlMH 3ll0POBbjl H POCTOM llOXOllOB.

    B HaCTOjlllleH ny6nHKauHH H3naraeTCjI

    CTpaTerHjI BceMHpHoro EaHKa B 06naCTH 3llpaBooxpaHeHHjI, nHTaHHjI H HapOllOHaCeneHHjI (3nH). B 3allalJH aBTopOB BXOllHno cnellYIOlllee:

    llaTb 0630p OCHOBHblX TeHlleHUHH H KnIOlJeBblX npo6neM pa3BHTHjI OTpacnH 3nH, a TaK)Ke CTpaTerHH ee pecpopMHpOBaHHjI, nonYlJHBIllH:X HaH6onbIllYIO nOllJlep)KKY

    oueHHTb onblT pa60Tbi EaHKa B 06naCTH 3nH B CTpaHax C HH3KHM H cpellHHM ypOBHeM llOXOlla

    onpellenHTb lJeTKYIO CTpaTerHIO llanbHeHilleH lle~enbHOCTH EaHKa B 06naCTH 3nH.

    Ha nOKa3aTenH B 06naCTH 3ll0pOBbjl, nHTaHHjI H HapOllOHaCeneHHjI BnHjlIOT MHorHe acneKTbl nonHTHKH pa3BHTHjI, HanpjlMYIO He CBjl3aHHbie C ceKTopOM 3llpaBooxpaHeHHjI HnH MellHUHHCKHM 06cnY)KHBaHHeM HaCeneHHjI. HarrpHMep, 06pa30BaHHe, BOllOCHa6)KeHHe, KaHanH3aUHjI, TpaHcnOpTHajl nonHTHKa H KOHTponb 3a npOlla)KeH 0PY)KHjI OKa3blBaIOT BnHjlHHe Ha 3ll0pOBbe HaCeneHHjI, nonHTHKa B 06naCTH cenbCKoro X03j1HCTBa H npOH3BOllCTBa nHllleBblX npOllYKTOB BnHjleT Ha nHTaHHe, a pa3nHlJHbie COUHanbHo-KynbTypHble cpaKTopbl B03lleHCTBYIOT Ha POCT HaCeneHHjI. CTpaTerHjI no OTHOIlleHHIO K Me)KOTpaCneBbiM lleTepMHHaHTaM nOKa3aTeneH B 06naCTH 3llpasooxpaHeHHjI, nHTaHHjI H HapOllOHaCeneHHjI 6ylleT H3nO)KeHa B nocnellYIOlllHX aHanorHlJHblX ny6nHKaUHjlX EaHKa.

    npH pa3pa6oTKe CTpaTerHH EaHKa B 06naCTH 3nH HaH60nee 3HalJHMblMH jlBn5lJlHCb cnellYIOlllHe npHHUHnbl:

    BHHMaHHe K COUHanbHblM cpaKTopaM pa3BHTHjI

    PearHpOBaHHe Ha 3anpOCbl KnHeHTOB, oco6eHHO 6ellHeHIllHX CTpaH

    fny60KHH aHaJIH3 H ynop Ha pe3ynbTaT

    npH3HaHHe nOnHTHlJeCKOrO acneKTa pecpopM

    YBa)KeHHe K oco6eHHOCTjlM pa3nHlJHbiX CTpaH H HapOllOB H HX COUHanbHOMY BbI60py

    Heo6xOllHMOCTb YlJaCTHjI MecTHoro HaCeneHHjI

    v

  • H YCTaHOBneHHe napTHepCKHX OTHoweHHH. DOKYMeHT no CTpaTerHH pa3BHTHjI B 06naCTH

    3nH jlBnjleTCjI nepBhIM KpynHhIM pe3ynhTaToM pa60ThI rpynnhI 3nH, KOTOpaji BxonHT B COCTaB HenaBHO C03naHHoro 06'benHHeHHjI CneUHaflHCTOB EaHKa B 06nacTH COUHaflhHOrO pa3BHTHjI. 06mee pYKOBonCTBO nonrOTOBKOH naHHOH CTpaTerHH ocymecTBnjlnOCh OTpacneBhIM COBeTOM no BonpocaM 3nH (CM. npHnO)KeHHe .0., PHCYHOK .0.). Ero peKOMeHnaUHH TeCHO CBjl3aHhI C npyrHMH MepOnpHjlTHjlMH EaHKa, HaueneHHhIMH Ha nOBhlweHHe 3cpcpeKTHBHOCTH pa60ThI H OKa3hIBaIOmHMH ConeHCTBHe Ha Bcex njiTH HanpaBneHHjlX pa60ThI OTpacneBoro COBeTa 3nH: pa3pa60TKa CTpaTerHH, HHcpopMaUHOHHoe 06eCnelJeHHe, npocpeCCHOHaflhHOe pa3BHTHe KanpOB, KOHTpOnh 3a KalJeCTBOM H cOTpynHHlJeCTBO C npyrHMH opraHH3aUH5IMH.

    nO)lrOTOBKe naHHOrO nOKYMeHTa COnYTCTBOBafl npouecc MHOrOCTOpOHHHX KOHcynhTaUHl1: co CneUHaflHCTaMH H3 pa3nHlJHhIX nenapTaMeHTOB EaHKa H rpynnhI 3nH, a TaK)Ke H3 npyrHx opraHH3aUHl1:. CTpaTerHjI 6hlna on06peHa pYKOBonCTBOM BceMHpHoro naHKa H COBeTOM DHpeKTopoB. DOKYMeHT no CTpaTerHH B OTpacnH

    3nH He jlBnjleTC5I OKOHlJaTenhHhIM H3nO)KeHHeM nejlTenhHOCTH EaHKa B 3TOH 06naCTH. 3Ta CTpaTerHjI 6yneT npOnOn)KaTh pa3BHBaThC5I H nOnOnHjlThCjI.

    D3BHn De eppaHTH, n pencenaTenh 06'benHHeHHjI

    CneUHaflHCTOB naHKa B 06naCTH pa3BHTHjI COUHaflhHhIX pecypcoB

    PHlJapn D)K.A. HlJeM, npencenaTenh ceKUHH

    no np06neMaM 3nOpOBh5l, nHTaHHjI H HaCeneHHjI

    Vl

  • EJIAfOLJ,APHOCTb 3A YQACTI1E

    ,QaHHbIH nOKYMeHT 6bln nOnrOTOBneH CneUHanHCTaMH ceKUHH no np06nCMaM 3nopOBMI, nHTaHH5I H HaponOHaCeneHH5I (3nH), 51Bn5lIOLUeHC5I 4aCTbIO 06"benHHCHH5I cnCUHanHCTOB naHKa B 06naCTH pa3BHTH5I COUHanbHbIX pecypCOB non PYKOBonCTBOM OTpacneBoro COBeTa 3nH. MHorHe cOTpynHHKH H pYKOBonHTenH npyrHx OTnenOB BceMHpHoro naHKa 6blnH BOBne4eHbI B npouecc nonrOTOBKH nOKYMeHTa. Pa60TY B03rnaBHnH AneKcaHnp C. npeKep, rnaBHbIH 3KOHOMHCT; PH4apn ,Q)f(.A. H4eM, npencenaTenb ceKUHH 3nH; H ,Q3BHn ,Qe eppaHTH, npencenaTenb 06"benHHeHH5I cneUHanHCTOB naHKa B 06nacTH cOUHanbHbIX pecypcOB. ,QOKYMeHT 6bln OTpenaKTHpOBaH MenenHH Pocc H nonrOTOBneH K ne4aTH CaHKTOH E.M. YOTnH.

    Vll

  • KPATKOE CO)1,EP)KAHME

    HaCT05lIUa51 CTpaTerH5IOTpaCneBOro pa3BHTH5I B 06naCTH 3nH COCTOHT H3 TpeX OCHOBHhIX pa3nenOB, nOnOnHeHHhIX CTaTHCTHlJeCKHMH npHnO)t{eHH5IMH.

    IIpooJIeMhI H HanpaBJIeHHSI pa3BHTHSI

    KaK OTMelJaeTC5I B rnaBe 1, 20-H BeK SlBn5leTC5I CBHJleTeneM HaH60nee KpynHhIx ycnexoB B HCTOPHH lJenOBelJeCTBa B 06nacTH 3npaBooxpaHeHH5I, nHTaHH5I H HapOJlOHaCeneHH5I.

    3TH ycnexH lJaCTHlJHO 6hInH Bh13BaHhl POCTOM ypOB

Recommended

View more >