Достоевский и литература путешествий

  • Published on
    17-Sep-2016

  • View
    224

  • Download
    1

Transcript

Russian Literature XL VII (2000) 93-109 North-Holland www. elsevier.nl/locate/mslit )~OCTOEBCKIdffI I4 JIHTEPATYPA 1TYTEH_IECTBIdffI H3-IbH IIOMEPAEn W,B )~OCToeac~m~ noanaKoMnnCa C EBpOHO~ neToM 1862 roRa, ~o Bpeun rtepBo~ cBoe~ Hoe3~K~t 3a rpaHmay. Ero BneqaTnenna n neran B OCHOBy co3~IariHO~ HM nocne ao3Bpamenua Ha po~nuy, 3nMO~ 1862-1863 rosa , Knnrn oneproB, KOTOpylo OH Ha3BaJI 31ZMHl.te 3amemtcu o aemnux ene~tam~enunx. ~ To, qTO ~OCTOeBCKH~ He 6Stn B E~pone ao 1862 roaa, coaceM He 3rIaqHT, qTO OH He 3nan EBpom, I. ABTOp cnpamHBaeT B Haqa~e oqepKoB: KoMy ri3 Bcex nac pyccKrlx (TO eCTh qnTaromnx XOTb mypnam, l) EBpo- na ne rt3BeeTna BjIBoe 6ore, rue, qeM Poccna? BnBoe ~ 3necb rlocTa~n~i n3 yqTnBOCTn, a HaaepHoe, ~ ~eCaTL pa3. (V, 46) 2 1-Io~[o~Ha.q HO3HIIHII OTHIO)IB He HOBa. OHa 6LIna xapaKTepHa H ~IYlH I(apaM3HHa, HyTelIIeCTBOBaBUleFO C KHHFOH B pyKax H Ha6J~o)IaBmero B 3ana~Ho~ EBpone TO, qTO yxe 3HaKOMO eMy riO OHHCaHHaM nyreBo21HTeae~, H3 nHTepaTypnsrx HCTOqHHKOB H TeaTpa~BHBIX HOCTaHOBOK. I'IyTetIIeCT- BeHHHK y KapaM3HHa nepecTaeT 6BITb HeocBe~OMJmHHbIM H BceMy H3- yMnammnMCa HpOCTaXOM, ~Ia nero POCCHa - 3TO EBpona, a pyccKne -- eBpone~ttbI, HO3TOMy nyTemecTBae, cKo~ee, CTaHOBHTCZ BO3MO)I(HOCTBIO yBH~leTI, TO, qTO xopomo 3Haemb 3apaitee. BOT noqeMy BoHpoc, Kar MOrJIO CnOXHTLCa MnenHe 0 TOM, r)Ie qeaoBeK HnKOr~a He 6~a, He ) IonxeH Hac nn y~mBnaTL, HH o3a~aqnBaTL: BneqaT~eana H BblBO~I ~OCTOeBCKOrO 06 Oco6eHHOCTaX 3aHa~Hofi aHBnSm3atmH cKna~BiBanHcB He TOnSKO HO~ Bo3~efiCTBrleM o6me~ aTMocdt3ep~,I eBponen3HpOBaHHO~ pOCCH~CKOfi atrIanU, B 3HaqHTeYlBHOH Mepe OHH omIpaaHc~, Ha yxe cnoxuBmymca r TOMy Bpe- MeHH AOBOJI~,HO 3HaqHTeJIr~HylO rto 06~,eMy nuTepaTypy pyCCKHX 3arpaHaq- 0304-3479/00/$ - see front matter ~ 2000 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PIE S0304-3479(00)00035-1 94 ttm, a IIo~epam4ea HbIX nyTemeCTBIfi, rIpeRcTaBzIenayto HMeHaMH Kar JIHTepaTOpOB Ipe~mecT- By~omero noKoaeIna - KapaM3HHa, qb FJIIHKH, qbOHBI3IHa, TaK H CoBpe- MeHHIKOB nlcaTe~n - B. ]30TrIna, E. Typ, H. HOBIUKOrO, M. MIxa~noBa, H. ILIearynoBa, An. Fplrop~eBa, 17. AtHeHKoBa, Fepueta i ~pyr lx . 4 Korea ~OCTOeBCKH~ c03~aBaJ/ CBOI oqepKH, OH, HeCOMHeHHO, yqHTr~IBa.rt y~re c~o- g iBmyrocn Ao Hero Tpa~I]~IIO, qTO caeAyeT 13 npaMb~x yHOMIHaHH~ B TeK- CTe rtpOI3Be~eHH~ KapaM3HHa H t~)OHBIBIHa. OnepKn ~OCTOeBCKOrO B ~raHpOBOM OTtOmeHrm npIMI, ma~OT r nITe- paType IyTemecTBn~ co CBO~CTBeHHbBJI e~ aTpI6yTaMI. 3~ecb MLI Haxo- )IIM ~IanornalpoaaHHbI~ MOHO~Or aBTopa-nyTemeCTBeHHIKa, o6pamaro- meroc~ K ~pyBI, nM I naMeKaJomero Ha KaKIe-TO 13aeCTHbIe TOn~KO eMy I y3KOMy rpyry nocBnmeHH~rX nponcmecTBan i nltta. Hp l 3TOM I;IJiJIIO31n HHTHMHOCTI II03BOJIneT aBTopy noaHee H CBO6OAHee BBIpa3HTB CBOI qyBCTBa I/I, NTO HeMaJIOBaTKHO, CIOCOgCTByeT nocTenenHofi TpaIcqbopMaJ_IIH peanL- HOFO IyTeIJ/eCTBeHHIKa B repon JiiTepaTypHoro ipoi3Be~eHin, ~HBy~ero H ~e~CTBylOIl~ero HO 3aKOHaM 3TOFO IIpOII3Be~eHIn. Tar co3~aeTcn 06pa3 aB- Topa-nyTemecT~eHngra, cKpeHznmmI~ O6BIqHO necTp~ I ~IOBOZ~HO pa3- HopoaH~ MaTepnaa ~ cBoeo6paanym ClCTe~y nnTepaTypnoro nyTemecT- BIn, r~e co~era~oTcn aneMenT~ pean~aoro nyTemecTBnn c nyTemecTBneM Boo6pa~KeHIZ, T. e. c BOCIIOMHHaHInMI, paccy~eHIZMi , ~gplqeCKnMI OTCTylIJIeHInMI I T. A.5 I COBMeii~aeTcn "B CaMO~ JIerKO~ qbopMe caMoe 6oraToe n 3aMaHqIBOe cozepgaHIe" (qepH~imeBcrI~ 1948: 222): ICTOp~n qblaocoqbI~, o6mecT~o~e~eHie i nOagTara, napo)lln I qben~eTOH. B 33 eCT~ I Tpa~uttnOnHOe Ipe~llcao~ne, coaepxcamee or~eT aBTopa Ha HaCTO~HHBBIe HpOC~,6bI ~pyBe~ nocropee OHICaTB CBOr~ 3arpaHiqHr~ie BI eqaTJieHIn, I CeTOBaHIn Ha TO, qTO IyTeLUeCTBeHHIKy "oco~eltto Heqero paccKaB~maT~" (V, 46) no nplnnHe KpaTKocpoqHOCTH I 6ecnop~oq~OCTI MapmpyTa noe3)~rl, ~t B~ipa~reHie 6onBal te onpaaaaT~ O~I~aHI~ ~pyBe~- qiTaTene~, nMe~omHx IpnB~,IqnyIo Ann ~iHTepaTypr~i lyTemeCTBIff qbyHK~/H~O a~pecawoB, CKpt,ITb~X nepcoHa~efi, ~ KOTOpBN o6pameta peq~, asTopa. O)~HaKO "3aMeTKH" f~OCTOeBCKOFO BO MttOFOM OTJIIIqaK)TCR OT yTBep- )IIBIIIHXCSI qbOpM "ImCeM" ii "3anlcoK" pycc~ix IIyTemeCTBeHHIKOB 3a FpaHILIe~. )~lpy3bn-qHTaTeJII B HHX He HBJIHtOTCH JIIIIIB IIaCCHBHBIMH cny- iIiaTeIinMi, OHH MOFNT FOBOpHTB, OCTaHaBJIHBaTB, iiepe6nBaTB paccra~mra, Ha qTO yI~ocmoeac~u~ u numepamypa nymeutecmauft 95 ~rlCJlOBrlg' MbI Haxo~rlM cTpeMJIeHHHe OTOfTH OT qyBCTBrlTeYI1,HIOCTH nyre- meCTBeHHHKa I(apaM3rlHa. B Heft ~OCTOeBCKH~ Ilapo~rlpyeT clIeHy r13 17uce.~ pyccnoeo nymeutecmeenHutca, r~e I(apaM3HH BIIOJIrle cep1,e3rlo FOBOpHT O CBOe~ FOTOBrlOCTrl BCTaT1, Ha KoJIeHH nepe~ pe~rlCKrlM BO~OIIa~OM rl H3- BrlHt~CIT1,Cg 3a TO, qTO "iia~eHHe PeilHa HHe c~eJIaJIo" B HeM "CrlJII~HOFO BiieqaT- nerlrla": 5I HaeylaaCjia.ltc~l - 14 FOTOB ~blJI Ha KoJIeH~X H3B14H~ITbC~:I rlepe~ Pe14HOM B TOM~ qTO Bqepa FOBOpHJI g 0 rla~eH1414 ero C TaKHM HeyBa~KeHHeM. (1984: 113) )I(e3iaHrle iiy'remecTBeHHrlKa 113 33 ripocHTb IIpOIIIeHHHa nO TO~ me CaMO~ IIpI, IqI, IHe y KeJIt, HCKOFO co6opa HHqTO 6onee, qeM IlapO~H~I, 061,1- i'p1,iBatOlIIa.q C.rlOBa KapaM3rlI-Ia. B OCHOBe 3TO~ IlapO~HI.,I .lle~rlT H3Haqa.ri1,Ha.q 3a,/IaI-IrlOCT1, Ha B1,Ipa;~KeHrle CO6CTBeHHOFO MHeHrlJ~, Ha IIOrlCK co(ScTBeI-IHOFO HyTH, He 3aBI.ICRIIIeFo Hrl OT KaKHX, ~Iaxe CaMI~IX HeHpepeKaeMl:,IX, aBTO- prlTeTOB: [...] ~I 6blJlO XOTeJI "Ha KOJIerlJlX npocHTb y Hero [KeSlbHCKOrO c060pa] HporaleHH,q" 3a TO, qTO He HOCTHF B I~epBbIfi pa3 ero KpaCOTy, TOqb-B- TOqb KaK KapaM3HH, C TaKOIO ~Ke lAeJIblO CTaHOBHBI/JHHCg Ha KoJIeHH nepe~ peHHCKHM BOjIOFIa]IOM. no TeM He MeHee B 3TOT NepBl, I~ pas co 'op MHe BOBCe He noHpaB14JICg: MHe IIOKa3aJIOCb, 3TO TOJIbKO Kpy- ~KeBO, Kpy~KeBO H O~IHO TOJIbKO Kpy~KeBO, ra~aHTepe~Hag Bemmm BpO- ~e rlpecc-nanbe Ha IIHCbMeHI-IhII4 CTOJI~ ca,'KeH B CeMbJleCgT BblGOTOIO. (v, 48) ~OCTOeBCKHfi IIpH 3TOM He TOJIBKO C03HaTeYiBHO HCKa>KaeT (~aKT, KO- TOp1,II~ Haxo~HT y KapaM3HHa -- nyTelIIeCTBeHHHK KapaM3rlHa He CTaHOBHJICR Ha KoJIeHH, HO "FOTOB 6BLrl" c~eJIaTI, 3TO, -- HO H HaMepeHHO BbI6ttpacT dpopMy coc~araTe~bHoro HaKnOHeHHa: "a 6bi2IO XOTeSI', TeM CaMBIM IIO~- qO.pKrlBaJ{ Hepea.rlbHOCTB OCylIIeCTB.IIeHH.q ,2IeHCTBHR. H eczlrI 33 rl He aapymaioT Tpa~mmlrl xaHpa pyCCKOf nrlTepaTyp1,i IIyTemeCTBrlf, TO, rl 3TO BIIOJIHe ClIpaBe~I)-IrlBO, 3HaMeHylOT CO60f OTXO~ OT ee xapaKTepH1,IX OC06erlHOCTe~, IlprlqrlHO~ qeMy cBoeo6pasrle nrl~mOCTrl ~OCTOeBCKOrO, KOTOp1,Ifi 6I, I21 ~OBOa1,HO neo61,Inr11,IM ~na pyccKoro nyTe- IIIeCTBeHHrlKOM, Ilpe3rlpaBIIIrlM "O61,IKHOBerlHylO, Ka3eHHylO MaHepy OCMa- TprlBaT1, no nyTeBO~mTemo pa3HLie 3rlaMeHIrlTLIe MecTa" (CTpaxoB 1964: 299). 6 CTpaXOB )lanee BCnOMrlHaeT: Ero [~OCTOeBCKOrO] He 3aHrlMaJIH Oco6eHHO H14 npHpo~a, HH 14CTO- pHqecKrte IIaM~ITHHKH, H14 npori3Be~eHHa 14CKyCCTBa, 3a HCK.rIIOqeHHeM pa3Be CaMblX Be~I14I~IX; Bce ero BH14MaH14e 6bmo ycTpeMneHO Ha mo~Iefi, 96 PI:tba l-Io~epam4ee H OH CXBaTBIBayl TOYlBKO HX npnpo~y n xapaxTepbi, za pa3Be o6mee srmqaTyleHrte ynnqHOfi mrt3nrt. (1964: 299) BOT noqeMy MBI He Haxo~HM B 33 HH onncanrm pa3Ba.rIHH pO~OBOrO 3aMKa OCHOBaTe~Iel~ HMIIepaTopCKOFO ~OMa aBCTpH~cKHx Fa6c6yproB HYlH npeKpacHr, rx nyroB ]3epHCKOrO raHToaa B IIIBe~aapHH, ra~ y KapaM3Hna, HH Kpaco~IrIO~ 3K3OTHqecKo~ KoppH~BI, KaK B l IucbMax U3 Hcnanuu BOTKHHa. C~e~yeT OTMeTHT~, ~TO ~n~ )20CTOeBC~OrO BOO6me 6~o xapa~TepHo non- ne~mee 6e3pa3nHqrte r KapTHHaM npnpo;au, roTopsie He Tpora~H n He BOJIHOB82IH ero. B 9TOM OTHOmeHHH HHTepecHO Ha6J~io~eHHe BpaHreY~: OH BecB 6MYl norylo~eH I43yqeHHeM qeyloBeKa, co BCeMH ero )IO- CTOHHCTBaMH, cyla~OCT~IMH H cTpaCT~IMH. Bce ocTaylsHoe ~BIYlO ~YI$I nero BropocTeneunb~M. OH C ncsyCCTBOM ~eylnsoro aHaroMa oTMeqan Mane~mne n~rn6~ ~ytun ~enoBeqecsofi [...]. (1964: 259) ]~a~c onHcaHne HpaBOB, ~yXOBHOfi )KH3HH 3ana~a 6bmo nO~IqnHeHO y ~OCTOeBCKOrO He CTOnbKO 3THOrpaqbrIqCCKOfi, CKOnbKO HHO~, HO6OqHO~, Ka3a:Iocs 6sI, 2[:Lq nywemecwBenrlrlI/5(ocmoe,c~uft u aumepamypa nymeu~ecmeuft 97 KJItOqeHH~I, XOT~I gbl OHO H He ]IOCTaB.rI~IJIO eMy 6OJ~bmO~ cJIanbl, H He cnpaBaanca 6~i c H3BeCTHblMrI aaTopnTeTaMn, UT06 npoBepaT~ CBOn aOBO)I~I. (V, 49) TaKrlM o6paBoM, 33 - aTO "TOaLKO co6cTBeHrll~ie, HO rlcKpeHHrle rla- 6mo~IeHHa" (V, 49; B qeM, BIIpOqeM, MI, I HMeeM IIO3IHOe IlpaBo yCOMHHTBC$I, qTO H 6y~eT noKaBaHo ~Imlee) ~OCTOeBCKOFO, Ilprtqei 3TO He cKpylIyne3Hl~Ifi OTqeT 0 BH)~eHHOM~ a IIOCTaHOBKa BoIIpOCOB H IIOHCK OTBeTOB I-Ia HHX B cTpeMIleHtttt COCTaBHTI, H3 Bcero BHjIeHHOFO e~IHHOe ttenoe, HeKylO 06IKylO, CHHTeTHHeCKylO nanopaMy 3aiIa/IHO~ XZI,I3HH, 3a KOTOpO~ IIpoCMaTpHBaJIaCB 6BI )KH3HB POCCHH. OTClO~a MblCJIH 0 IlepcneKTHBe BIIeqaTJIeHn~, O TOM 6y~ymeM, qTO oxrI~aeT Poccmo, 06ycJIoarlBUlrle Kax98 Haba 17o~tepamtee 0 TOM, qTO Poccn~ ~IOYI>KHa Ha~TH CBOe MeCTO B ~IBH)KeHHH EBponr,I no HyTH KyYlbTypHorO nporpecca, TO B 33 MBI Haxo)IHM pa3BHTHe Ur,ICyie~ 0 pa3yinqnH EBpOIIr,I H POCCHH, CB~t3aHHOe C "IIOtlBeHHHqeCKO~" TeopHe~ ~OCTOeBCKOFO, BO3HHKme~ ~0 ero IIOe3)IKH 3a rpaHHIIy n He~ByCMr,ICYIeHHO Br,Ipa~KeHHO~ B 'O6~aByieHnrI 0 IIO~nHcre Ha xypHa2I "BpeMz" Ha 1861 ro~' rI 'PaRe CTaTe~ O pyCCKO~ yinTepaType'. r io Mr,ICYIH ~OCTOeBCKOFO, eBpolie~eKa~ I~HBHYIH3alIH~I CoBeplIIHYIa B PoccmI "BeC~ CBO~ Kpyr" (xv ln , 49), PoccHa rlepexHyia ee, nprmzB OT Hee Bee TO, qTO cyie~OBa.IIO, H TeHepb Mo~KeT CBO60~HO o6paTHTI~C~I K pO)IHOI~ HoqBe: 3 r Hac CO3Ha.riH, qTO I~HBHJIH3aI~H~ TOJIIaKO HpHBHOCHT HOBbI~I 3fleMeHT B HapO~HylO HaIIIy )KH3HIa, HHCKO.IIIaKO He IIOBpe~HB e~, HHCKOJIIaKO He yr~IOHrtB ee c Hopma.rIbHO~ ~OpOFH, a, HanpOTnB, pacmrlprm Ham Kpy- ro3op, yaCS~B HaM a~e CaMHM rtamn ttean rt aaBa~ SaM noBoe opyxne ~ 6y~ymnx rlO;IBrtroB. (XVIII, 49) O6pa3 aBwopa-IIyTemecTBeHHHKa B 33 U B yiHTepaType IIyTemeCTBH~I B ILeJIOM JtBJDIeTCJt 3epKaYlr,HMM oTpa)KeHHeM 06IIIeCTBeHHOH CHTyalIHII, cy- meCTBylOIIie~ Ha MOMeHT na lmcamla HpOH3Be)IeHH~, onpe~eyieHHoro HCTO- pnqecroro ypoBna B xa3aa napo~a. B TO Bpeua raK o6pa3 aBTopa y Ka- paM3rlna pa3~lBOen, on O~rtoBpeMeHno H pyccrrt~, n eBponeelI, caoeo6pa3- Hr,I~ rpax~aHHu Mrtpa: "Bce napo~)noe UnqTO nepe~ ~eaoee~tecKum. FYIaBHoe ~leyio 6r,ITS a~9~)b~U, a He CYIaBaHaMH" (1984: 254), HyTemecTBeHHHK ~O- CTOeBCKOrO TOYILKO H TOYIr,KO pyccKH~. 9TO 6r,Iyi0 CBa3aHO C oco3namteu HCra~qHTeyiLHOCTH TO~ anoxH, B ~OTOpy~ ~KHYI aBTOp 33: C npo6yx~IeHneu HaIIItOHa.rlr,HO~ :~KH3HH H HatIayiOM pemerma KpecTr,aHCKOrO Borlpoca. OTUeHa KpeiiocTnoro npaBa, no MblCYIn iirlcaTeyia, 6y~ew CHOCO6CTBOBaTr, iipHo6meHmo "Bcero Beyirlroro pyccroro Hapo~a Ko BCeM 3YIeMeHTaM [...] Teryme~ XrI3HH" (XVIII, 35). ~OeTOeBCKH~ npe~yra~iBayi Heroe rlCKmO~rt- Teyir, Hoe ilpe~Ha3HaqeHHe pyccKofi HalIrm, oco6Ia~ "o6II~eqenoBeqecKrI~" rlprlMlapHTeyir,Hr,I~ xapaKTep ee )Ie~Teyir,HOCTH B EBpone. ~yi~ Hero PoccrI~ - 9TO He EBpona, a pyccKrle He MOFyT 6r,ITl~ espone~ilauu, IIOTOMy qTO pyccrHe y6e~HyiHcr, HaKOHeI~, qTO ~IBYIJIIOTCJ{ OT~eyir,HOH CaMO6I~ITHO~ Ha- I~HOHflJ-Ir,HOCTBIO H "He B COCTOJ:IHHH BTHCHyTr, ce6a B O~Hy I, I3 3ana~Inr,IX ~opM ~H31-1H, BI~DKHTr,IX H Bl, lpa6oTaHI-Ir,IX EBpOHOIO H3 CO6CTBeHHr,IX CBOHX HaI~HOHa.rlI~Hr,IX HaqaJI, HaM qy~K~r,IX 14 IIpOTHBOIIOYIO)KHI,IX" (XVl I I , 36). 17o ineHnlO ~OCTOeBCKOrO, 3a~aqa pyCCKHX -- CosseTS, ce6e HOBylO qbopMy )KH3HH, B3~tTylO H3 pyccro~ nOqBSL "n3 napo~Horo ~yxa H Hapo~Inl, IX HatlarI ' ' (XVIII, 36). Toyisro OCO3HaB ce6a ~ar OT~le~r,Hy~O HalmonaJIr,HOCT~, pyc- CKHe CMOFyT OCMr,ICYlHTb CBOe 6yaymee 3HaqeHHe "B BeyiHKO~ ceMr,e Bcex Hapo~os" (XVIII, 37). f(ocmoeac~:uft u numepamypa nymeutecmeu~ 99 Tax, OCHOBBIBarlcB Ha CBOHX MHOFOJIeTHttX Ha6~IIO~IeHItRX HapO~IHO~ ~KrI3arI, pyccKoro HalIHOHaJIBHOFO xapaKTepa 14 pa3)~CMb~X 06 rlCTOprlqecK~ix 3aKOItOMepHocT~tX pa3BHTH~I qe~ioBeqecKoro o6mecTBa, IlttcaTeab npItXO)IItT K y6e~KaeHrlIO o ry6~ITeJII~HOCT~I 14 6eclIepClIeKTrlBHOCTtt ~ pyccKoro Ha- podia 3a!IajIHOH ILHBHIIH3alLHH H K Bepe B TO, qTO POCCHa CMOXCeT yKa3aTB qei ioBeqecTBy e~HHCTBeHHO BO3MOX~HBIH BBIXO)I I43 TylIitKa Hepa3pemHMBiX COIIHaJIBHBIX H HalIHOHaYIBHBIX IIpOTHBopeqtl~I, B KOTOpOM OKa3aJICR ~yp- mya3H~i~ Map. K Haqany 1860-x ro~IOB )IOCTOeBC~n~, n ne TO~O OH o~nn, c~mTan, qTO o6a ImKna o6noBaeHrla qe~oBeqecTBa - B nepB~Ie Bera xpacTnaHCTBOM, CMeHtIBIIIItM pyxHyBmrI~ aHTHHttbI~ PriM, a 3aTeM -- BenrlKO~ rI )IByMR c~Ie~IylomrlirI 3a oe~ ~paHIIy3CKrlMH peBo~IIOllrI.qMrI, KOTOpl~Ie Ilpom~Ia B CBOeM HCTOpItqeCKOM pa3BttTItH 3alia~Ha~l EBpona, Hn K qeMy He IIpHBeJIIt. TaKoao 6~IO o6mee BneqaTaenne, cKna~iBaBmeeca y pyCCKO~ M~ICaame~ HHTe3IJIHFeHIItlH B pe3y~I~TaTe Ha6Iito)IeHtt~l 3a pa3BIITHeM 06IKeCTBeHHO- IIO3IHTHqeCKO~ CttTyaKHH B POCCnH H Ha 3ana~Ie: 3anaaHaa EBporIa H Pocc14a B 3T14 ~leC~Tb neT Kam 6y~lTO noMelaan14cb poJI~iM14: TaM pa3JieTeJIHCb B npax yBJ1eKaBtu14e Hac npemae I'yMaHHbIe ywonH14, 14 peaKtU~ BO BCeM TOp)KeCTBOBaYla, a 32~eCb Haq14HaJIO ocy- 1J_~eCTBJI~ITbCR M14OFOe, O qeM MbI MeqTaJIH, H FOTOBHJI14gb peqbopMbi, 06HOBJIJtBIIIHe pyccKy~o )K143Hb H nopoxglaBmHe HOBble Ha~tem~I~,I. (M14atOKOB 1964: 196) 7 Ilprln~iTylO B HaqaJie oqepKOB no3y ]~0CTOeBCKOrO, ~IJI~ KOTOpO~I xa- paKTepHo HelIpe~B3~lTOe OTHOIIIeHtle K 3ana~y rlnrI, KaK Ha3BaJI ero A. Xo- M~IKOB, "gTpaHe CBJ/TI~IX qy~Iec", He cJIe~IyeT IlprlnrlMaTb 3a qHCTytO MOneTy. ~OCTOeBCKtt~ I lameT B rnaBe 'BMeCTO Ilpe~rlCnOBrla': [...] MapmpyT MO~ a COCTaBma ce6e 3apaHee ettte B FleTep6ypre. 3a rpannuefi a ne 6bin nn pa3y; pBaaca s Tyjla uyrb He C Moero nepBoro geTCTBa, e~e TOF~la, Korea B ~lOJIrne 314MHHe Beqepa, 3a HeyMenneM rpaMoTe, cJiymaJl, pa3HH~i pOT I4 3aM14pa.q OT BOCTOpra I4 y~Kaca, KaK po~mTea14 q14Tan14 Ha con rpa)a~cm14~ pOMaHbl PagKn14qb, OT KOTOphlx a nOTOM 6pearm Bo cne B a14xopaztKe. BbIpBanCa S HaKonett 3a rpaHmty copoKa JleT OT polly, H, yx pa3yMeeTcsi, MHe XOTeJIOCb He TO.rlbKO KaK MO)KHO 6oJiee OCMOTpeTb, HO game Bee OCMOTpeTb, Hel-lpeMel-IHO Bce, HeCMOTpS 14a cpoK. K TOMy xe xaa~14oKpOBHO Bbl6rtpaTb MeCTa a 6b~a pemuTenbHO He B COCTOIIH14H. FOCIIOj~14~ CKO.rII~KO ~I o)I~l~aJl OT 3TOFO nyTemecTB14al (V, 46) I-Io3a 9Ta neceT Ha ce6e rleqaTb oTpaxear i~ MJIa~eHHeCKHX qyBCTBOBaHHH i ir lcaTena no OTaOlilenrliO K 3anaay rI CTaltOBrlTC~ B 33 MeTadpopo~ MJIa- ~IelJqeCKrlX ~IeT Poccrm, caelIO npeKnOHaBme~ca I lepe~ TatlHCTBeItltO~ EBpO- 1 O0 Hm,a IIo~epamtea nofi, a IIOTOMy He ~IOJI)KHa BBO)~HTI~ Hac B 3a6~y~eHne. l-[o)io6noe cTpe- MaenHe Ha 3anaI, n B Oc06eHHOCTH BO ~paH~mo, 6s~o soo6nle xapaKT~pHO ~IYI~I pocckI~IH, IIOTOMy qTO EBpona npe)icTaBJi~JiacB HeKHM H~ea;IOM. C~IOBa CaJITt,IKOBa-H_~e~pHHa, BCnoMnna/onleFo CBOn ~OHOmec~ne ro~I~,~, no CBOeMy ~lyxy y)IHBIITeJIbHI~IM o6pa3oM nepeKJinKatOTC~l c rtpnBe2Iennofi ~,~me Im- TaTOfi ~OCTOeBCKOFO: C npe~cTaB;~eHrleM 0 ~paH~/rlH H 1-IapI~e ~Iafl MeH~ Hepa3pl, IBHO CB~IBblBaeTcJt BOCFIOMHHaHHe 0 MOeM IOHOIHeCTBe, TO eCTb O cOpOKOBblX FO,tlax. ~a H He TOJIbKO ~Jl~t MeH~I ~IHHHO, HO H ~UI~I Bcex HaC, CBepCTHHKOB, B 3THX )IByX C~IOBaX 3aKylloqa.rlOCb HeqTo llyqe3apHoe, CBeTOHOCHOe, qTO coFpeBa.rlO Hallly )KH3Hb I4 B H3BeCTHOM CMMCJIe )Ia3Ke onpejIen~no ee co~Iep~KaHrte. [...] OTTy)Ia nnaacs Ha Hac Bepa B qe.rlOBeHeCTBO, OTTy)Ia BOCCHJIYla HaM yBepeHHOCTb, qTO "3OJIOTOH BeK" HaXO~IHTC~I He llO3a)lH, a BHepe~IH Hac... CIIOBOM CKa3aTb, Bce )Io6poe, Bee ntenaHrlOe 14 nIO6Beo6rtar:,Hoe - Bce Ill.riO OTTy,~a. (XIV, 111-112) Oco6oe OTHOIIIeI-IIte J~OCTOeBCKOFO K Espone (on~ITI,-TaKH, He TOJIIaKO eFO O)IHOFO) BI~IpaBHJIOCB B TOM, qTO ti~ea.ri 9TOT ~bI3I pa3Be~II-i eme ~o IIOe3)~Ktt Ha 3ana)~, B ~bITHOCTB aBTOpa B PoccHrt, a nMeHno, B CHIIy "IIOq- BeHHHqecKnx" H~efi nHcaTeaa, 3aKJitoqaBnlIiXCli B npeJIyFa~IbIBaHIIleI BeJltttltI~I "pyccKo~ n)IeH", ee o6ttte~eJIoBeaecKoro xapaKTepa n na6moz~eHnfi 3a yrta3I- KOM 06~eCTBeHHO~ ~rn3nH na 3ana~le (npe~r~e Bcero, so q)pammH), rjIe noc~e npnxolla K B~aCTH B ~IeKa6pe 1848 r. Hano~eoHa III c "ma~Ko~ 6anRttTOB", cHaqaJIa "pacTonTaBlnero", a nOTOM "HaCKBO3b npocMepJIrtBIIIe- to" qbpaHIItlto, "JIto/IH cTpanHblM 06pa.3OM o6e3nHqHnnCb, H3MeJIBqaJII,I H nOTyCKHean H [...] BCaKn~ nHTepec, KpoMe qpeBHoro, 6~I~ o6~as:iea yrpo- ~rammnM" (Ca~TLmOB-IIIe~Ipnn 1973, XIV: 112). TaKI~M o6pa3oM, LIeJtbIO ]~OCTOeBCKOFO B ero nyTenIeCTBH~I IIO 3a- na~lno~ EBpone 6bIaO y6e~nT~Ca s TOM, qTO EBpona HaxonnTCZ B Tynr~Ke r~ 6y~Iymee eBpone~cKoro paBBUTaa npHnaaae~KnT PoccHH. IlncaTen~ cTpe- MItTC/I C03)IaT/~ CtlHTeTFIqecKylO KapTHny 3anajIHOFO anTrtO6ttIecTBa H 3a- aeqaTaeT~ o6pa3 3ana~Horo aHTa~eaoBe~a, HT06~ ~pqe OTTennT~ cya~6y, r~pe~inaqepTanHylo, cor~acno CBOe~ TeopnH, pyccro~ Ha~IHH. HMeHFIO C naMepenaeM npoBepnT~ CBOIO Teopmo H oTnpasJi~eTcz ~OCTOeBCKn~ B cBoe 3aFpaFiitqHoe IIyTeIIIeCTBHe, KOTOpOe B cnny 3TOFO ItMeeT npej!onpe~le- J~eHHOCTI, otIeFIOg. BOT noqeMy neyjI~IBHTeJIBHO TO, HTO y~e c ICpBblX cTpa- rmU 33 no TOny paB~acneHu~ H OrOBOpOK aBTOpa no rIoso~Iy ero qnCTO cy6z~erT~am, rx rt, rIOTOMy, nopo~ He~IOCTOBepm, IX csn)IeTem, cTa o B~t~IeH- HOM, ~nTaTemo CTaHOBnTCa ZCHO, qTO aOCTop~enHsrx Ha~e~ nyTemecT- aenHnKa "cTpaHa o6eToBannaz" (V, 46) He oi~paB)xa~a, ra t Kor~la-To He onpas~la~a qbpai~t~a Hajle~r2 qbOHBtI3HHa, C l~ucb.,vta.Mu u3 amopoeo ~a- epanu~noeo nymeutecmaua (1777-1778) roToporo y o~epKoB )IOCTOeBCXOrO MI-IOFO o6ulero HMeHHO TaM, r/Ie peqb ~IReT O OpaHtInH. ,l[ocmoeacnuft u :tumepamypa nymeutecm~uft 101 Tax y~ cnynunocs, qTO ae nncbMaM (~OHBH3HHa, a Hucb~tau pycctweo nymeutecmaenuutca KapaM3nna cy~r~aelno 6~ino 3ano~nT~ Tpa~narno pyc- CKo~ nnTepaTyp~,~ inyTetuecTan~. HaMepenne OOHBn3nna ony6anxoBaT~ CBOH nncBMa no BO3BpanlenHn Ha po~nny OCTaYtOCB J~i.iInr~ HaMepeHHeM. I-Lq- THTOMI-IOe co6paHne CBOnX coqnne!nn~, Ky~a nHCBMa ~OJI~lnBI 6BIJII.I BOOTh, no raxnM-TO inpn~ranaM HaneqaTaT~ ne y~aaocb, no no~roToBnennsI~ TeKCT nonynnn pacnpocTpaHenHe, n nBa lnr~c~Ma HeTpy l-lannny ~3 Ilapnma I.i Axena yBn;~ean cBeT ~ Camcm-Hemep6ypec~co~ atcypuane B 1798 rosy. B 1806 rosy Becmuun Eaponbt ony6nnXOBan Hapzzty C ;aByMa yme n3BecTnsI- MH lnncr~MaMtt qeTI, Ipe HOBr~rX. Tpa noc~e)Ini.ix no )laTnpoBre nno, Ma K Hannny ino3~aee noaBHnHCr~ B 06pa3t4oebtx co~tuneuunx u nepeeoc)ax (CaHKT-IIeTep6ypr, 1817). 8 HeCMOTpa na TO, nTO nncsMa qbOHBa3nna He noay~nnn B CBOe BpeMa 3axonneHnoro nnTepaTypnoro oqbopMaenna n no 9TO~ npnnnne ne ~o- noci.ian ao COBpeMenni.iKOB ueaocTno~ KapTnnSI nyTemecT~nz nncaTena no Opanrai.in, nx Bnna/nne na pa3BnTne pyccro~ nnTepaxyp~,~ nyTemecTBn~ n na pa3BnTne npo3~ B IlenoM nen~3a ne~ooi~enn~aT~. BnnaHHe 3TO HeO6~,rqHO n nMeno (~a n ce~qac HMeeT) ci,iny Hpe3BB1HaHI.IO npnTaraTenr, ay~o: ~OnBn3nn 3ano~,nn )IOaOnr~HO CBOeO6pa3ny~o nnTepaTypHylo Tpa~nt~n~o pyraTr~ nno- cTpaI-n~eB, KOTOpa.~ npe~cTaBylJteT ~ pyccrnx, roaopa cno~aMn ~OCTOe~- cKoro, "~TO-TO I.ieoTpa~nMO npn~rri.ioe" (V, 50). Bo Opant~n~ OOHBH3HH npi,iexan nenpe)Iy6em~eni.i~ qe~IOaeKoM: YI ~2Man cnepBa, HTO dPpaHttna, no paccxa3aM, 3eMHON paN, HO OUIH6G~I meCTOKO. (423) 9 IIponacTL Me~y oxn~aHaaun n ~e~CTBHTeJIBHOCTBtO oKa3anacb cnamroM BeytnKa. Boo6pa~reHne ae Bbtaep~rano HCHBITaHHSI peaJIbHOCTbtO. OOHBH3HH CTpeMrlJIC~I "X nprIo6peTeamo TOqHe~i/iero nOH~ITH~I 0 xapaKTepe qbpani~y3oB n o HaCToameM nx nono~xennn oTnocnTensno pa3nsix qacTefi npaBn- TeJIBCTBa" (480) n, npHCTaYIBHO BrJI~t~blBa~Cb B ~I.I3HB ~paHtmn, npnmen K cnea3aomeMy OKOHqaTea~HOMy B~moay: Yl OCTaBHn ~paHI~rtlo. 1-Ipe6biBaHrte Moe a CeM rocy~apcTBe y6aBnno CI, IJIbHO ~eHy ero B MOeM MHeHHI, I. J;[ HameJ~ no6poe ropa3no a Menb- mefi CTeneHn, He~ReJ~H Boo6pa~a~, a xy~oe B TaKO~ 6oJ~bmoN cTenenH, XOTOpO~ n Boo6pa3nTb He MOr. (480) OOnBn3nH, noacany~, Kar nnrTO ~Ipyrofi n3 pyecrnx nHcaTe~efi ora3an Bnn~nne na qbOpMapoBaHne MneHn~ ~OCTOeBCKOrO O Opanunn. CpaBnnBa~ I-IucbMa u3 8mopo2o sazpauu~tnozo nymeu~ecmeu~ n 33, MO)KHO o6napy~nT~ He TOnBKO CTaneBoe CXO~CTBO, npoaB~Lq~omeeca B ad~opncTnqaOCTn, n3o6n- nnrx OCTpOT n MeTKHX BLIpa)KeHHH, Heo~H~aHHOCTH cy~ZtCHn~ n CaTH- 102 Haba 17omepan~tee prtqeCrOM, ~I3BHTeJIIaHO-3JIOM H306paxeHnri yBH~eHHOFO 3a rpaHnI~e~, HO n B TOM, qTO Ha6JIK)~IeHHg (I)OHBH3HHa IlepeHocaTC~ ~OCTOeBCKHM B ero oqepKH H Haxo~IT B HHX CBOe pa3BHTHe. Ho~o6n~i~ no~xo~ )~OCTOeBCKOFO BI, I- TeKaeT H3 H~eH IlpeeMCTBeHHOCTH JIHTepaTypHl~IX ~IBYleHH~, H~eH O TOM, tlTO HOB0e -- 3TO xopomo 3a6~iToe cTapoe: Hoaaz MMCHb yx~(ocmoeocnu~ u numepamypa nymeu, tecm~uft 103 ~OHBH3HH: Hapy~KHOCTb 3~ecb ace 3aMeH~eT. ]~ygl~ yqTHB, TO eCTb HHKOMy HH B teM He ripoTnsopem,; 6ygl, sno6e3eH, TO eCTI, BpH, qTO Ha yM mt Ha6peno, - SOT ~sa npaBm-Ia, qro6 6bITS un homme charmant. [...] HyCTO~ 6necK, B36a.lIMOmHa~l HarnocT~, S My~KqHHaX, 6eCCTt,IgHOe HelIOTpe6CTBO S meHmrlHax, gpyroro, ripaBo, nHqero He SHiny. (444) CKOJIbKO ripOMI, ImJlaIOT CBOHMH cynpyraMri, cecTpaMrt, ~oqepbMHl CnOBOM, geH~rn CyTb nepsoe 6oxecTsO 3netune~ 3eMnn. (462) ~OCTOeBCKH~: Bce dppaHLIySU HMetOT y~HBHTeJIbHO 6naropo~Hbi~ BH~. Y caMoro nognoro qbpaHUy3HKa, KOTOpbl~ 3a qeTBepTaK ripogacT BaM pognoro OTt~a, ga eme CaM, 6e3 cripocy, ripH6aBrIT Bai trrO-Htt6y~b B riprtaaqy, B TO 2Ke BpeM.q, ga~e STy aMyIO MHHyTy, KaK OH BaM ripo~aeT csoero OTIm, TaKaa BrlymHTenbHaa ocaHKa, ~rro Ha BaC game Haria~aeT He- goyieoHe. (V, 76) (~OHBH3HH: 3gecJ, KO SceMy cosepmeHHO pasHo/Pymm, l, KpOMe BecTe~. HanpoTns TOFO, BC~IKHe BeCTH pacceHBalOTC31 rio ropo~y c BOCTOpFOM H COCTa- BII.qlOT nymeBnylo nnmy xnTene~ napmxcxnx. (468) ~OCTOeBCKrI~: H KaKoe KO SceMy pasno~ymHe, KaKrte MHMOJIeTHbIe, rlyCTble HHTe- pecsl. (V, 85) ~OHBH3HH: [...] .q Mopa.rlbH010 :aGt3HHIO rlaptDKCK14X qbpaHRy30B oqeHb HegOBO.rleH. CKOnbKO rtaeu oTeqecTBa ri Kopo.rt~ 3~ecb TBep~0 B cep~tta BKOpeHeHa, CTOnb MHoro H3rHaHO n3 cep~eu BCaKOe COcTpa~anrie K cBoeMy 6nnx- HeretO. Bcs l I~ xnaer ~nu o~noro ce6s. ~pyx6a, pO~CTBO, qeCTS, 6na- ro~aprlOCTi, - ace 3TO C~mTaeTca XHMepoIo. (444) ~OCTOeBCKrI~: A B npnpo~e qbpaHtty3CKOfi, ~a n BOO61Ile 3anaaHofi, ero [6paTCTBa] B HaJIHqHOCTH He OKa..qa.rlOCb, a OKa3aJIOCb HaqaJIo IIHHHOe, Haqa.rlO OCO(5- HaKa, ycHnermoro caiocoxPaneaHa, caioripoiblmnenHa, caioonpe- geneHrta B CBOeM CO6CTBeHnOM 5I [...]. (V, 79) 104 Haba IIo~tepam4ee [...] a 3ana~noM qeaoaeKe net 6paTcKoro naqaaa, a, HanpOTnB, Haqaao e~nHnqnoe, anqnoe, ocaa6nz~meec~, Tpe6y~mee c MeqOM B pyHe CBOnX npaB.(V, 80-81) (I)oHBH3HH: Hanayqmne 3aKOHbI He 3HaqaT Hnqero, ~or~Ia r~cqe~ ~ aro)lc~rx cep~uax nepB~,ifi 3a~on, I I epBb l f i Me~y YItO)IhUH COIO3 - ;Io6paa aepa. Y Hac ee neMHOFO, a 3~ecb neT I/I FOaOBOIO. BC~ qeCTHOCTB Ha CaOBRX, H qeM cK~a~lnee y KOrO qbpa3bI, TeU ~oablI/e ocTeperaTbc~ )IOa~KHO Haroro-rm6y~, o6uana. (462) )~OCTOeBCKItI~: [...] yTpaqeHHa~ CIIOCO~HOCTB nOHItMaI-Ib~ H qyTb~ IIacTolllIIe~ qeCTtt [...]. (V, 84) ~Ig0HBH3HH: [...] Hamea a [...] Mnoro B~,mO~oMepm~, a~rt, gopsICTOam6HZ n IIo~I- aefimefi aeerm KoneqHo, Htt O)~ttH H3 HHX He noKoae~.rleTC~i c)IeaaTb npe3prtTem, Hefimym I,Io)IaOCTI, )Ia~I HopBIcTn nan TmeeaaBI, Dl. (476; o qbpaHI.ly3CKrtX yqenr:,lX) flOCTOeBCKHfi: [...] ecaH 6 3TO 6blao He B jlyxe naunn, ecaH 6 TaKan nomaa~ aecTb ne CqHTaJIaCB COBepmeHHO BO3MO)KHOfi, O~BIHHOBeHHOH, coBepmeHno B nop~IKe Bemefi, H aa~e npnanqnof i [...]. (V, 83; o qbpanuy3cKnx ra- 3eTHblX penopTepax) (IgoHBH3HH: Yioarnlrta napm~cHa.a caaBHa B EBpone. FOBOpnT, qTO IIoanttrffiuefi- cTep rrx BeeBe~TytU, ~TO OH, iaK neBmlrtUbIfi ~tyx, npncyTCTByeT ae3~e, CJIbIIIIHT Bcex 6ecejIbl, BII~nT Bcex )IellHttll I4, KpOMe O~IHtlX iio- Mumzennf i qezoBeqecKnx, nnUTO OT nero we cKpb~TO. (489) ]IOCTOeBCKHfi: [...] B 6ypmya MHOFO IIpnpo~eHIJOro IIIIIHOHCTBa. Moe MHeHtle I4MeH- HO B TOM COCTOnT, qTO Heo6btqafiHoe paaBnTne IBrlI4OHCTBa BO Opar~- IIHH, n rm npocToro, a MacrepcKoro mnHOHCTBa, mnHOHCTBa rio npn- 3Banl410, 21ome~Imero Jlo neKyccTBa, HMeromero eBorl IIaynm, m IIprm- MbI, npoHcxojIrrr y Hnx OT Bpo~el . inoro aamefieTma. (V, 82) ~ocmoeacnuft u aumepamypa nymetuecmauft 105 (I)OHBH3HH" 1-[epBoe npaBo Ka~F4Ioro qbpaHRyBa eCTb BOHbHOCTb, HO 14CTHHHOe Ha- CTO~l~ee ero COCTOflHHe eCTb pa6CTBO, H60 6e)IHSI~ qeJIOBeK He Mo)KeT CHHCKHBaTb cBoero IlpOH14TaH14fl HHaqe, KaK pa6cKO~O pa6oToro, a eCHH 3axoqeT IIOIIla3OBaTbC~l ~iparot~eHHO~O cBoero BOJIbHOCTHIO, TO )IOn,'KeH 6y)IeT yMepeTb C l~O$IO~y. CJIOBOM, BOHbHOCTb eCTb IlyCTOe HMn 14 npaBo cnn~Horo ocTaeTca npaBOM npeB~itue Bcex BaKOHOB. (460) [...] qbpaHtty3t, i, HMe~I npaBo BOJIbHOCTH, )KHByT B cymeM pa6cT~e. (486) ~OCTOeBCKH~: LIeHOBeK 6e3 MnnnHOHa eCTb He TOT, KOTOpr~I~ )Ie~IaeT Bce qTO yro)IHO, a TOT, C KOTOpblM )IeYlaa3T Bce qTO yrOjIHO. [...] KpOMe CBO60)IbI eCTb etue paBeHCTBO, H HMeHHO paBeHCTBO nepe~ 3aKOHOM. 1-Ipo 3TO paBeH- CTBO nepe~I 3aKOHOM MOW, HO TOHbKO O~HO CKa3aTb, qTO B TOM Btt)le, B KaKOM OHO Tenepb npHnaraeTca, Kam~r~ qbpaHtty3 MO)KeT H ~onmeH npnHaTS ero 3a nrlqHylO )ISI~I ce6a O6n~y. (V, 78) (I)0HBH3HH: Boo6me, Ha)IO6HO OT)IaTt, c14paBe)I;i14BOCTb 3~ienlHe~ HalIHH, HTO CJIOBa cnneTa~OTC~ MacTepcKH, H eCHH B TOM COCTOHT paByM, TO BC~]KH~ 3)IemHH~I ~?.paK HMeeT ero npeBenrtKyIO llOHtO. MI, ICnnT 3~Iecb Mano, ~Ia H HeKor)Ia, rIOTOMy qTO FOBOp~tT MHOFO H oqeHb CKOpO. O6blKHOBeHHO OTBOp.qlOT pOT, He 3Ha~l eme qTO CKaBaTb; a KaK 3aTBOpHT[, pOT, He CKa3aB HHqero, ~l, IYlO 6hi CTIaI~HO, TO I4 FOBOp~IT CHOBa, KOTOpbIe MaliIHHa.rlbHO Ha ~13bIK HoIIa~alOTC~I, He 3a~OT.qCb MHOFO~ eCTb YlH B HHX KaKO~-HH6y~I, CM~ICn. IlprtTOM Ka,~KaI, I~ 14MeeT B 3anace MHOYKeCTBO BblyqeHHbIX Han3ycTb qbpa3, npaB~y cKaaaTb, aecbMa O6mHX 14 Hnqero He 3Haqamnx, KOTOpbIM14, oanaKo ~, OT2IezbmaeTcn rip14 acs~ou cnyqae. (463) )~OCTOeBCKtI~: Boo6me 6yp~Kya OqeHb He rnyn, HO y Hero yM KaKO~-TO KOpOTeHbKH~, KaK 6y~TO OTpbIBKaMH. XJ nero y~Kacno MHOrO BanaceHo rOTOBblX no- H~TH~, TOqHO ;IpoB Ha 3nMy, n on cepbe3Ho HaMepeaaeTca npo~Tb C HHMH XOTr~ TUCaqy neT. [...] TyT npOCTO Bce pa3yqHJ]HCb O qeM-nH6y~b MUCnHTb 14 roBopnTb nocepbe3uee. (V, 85) CI~OHBH3HH" )KHTeHH I]apkDKCKHe I]OqHTaK)T CBO~[ ropo~ CTOHHt~eIO CBeTa, a CBeT -- CBOeIO HpOBHHIIHero. [...] HO HX _MHeHHtO, HMetOT OHH He TO.rlbKO Hall- 106 Hm, n IIomepan~ee ay~mue B CBeTe 06blqaH, HO Harmyqmrtfi Bn~ nmm, OCaHKy rl yXBaTKH [...]. Bosie~raHne HX O CBOeM pa3yie ~omno ~o TaKOfi raynocTn, ~TO pe~K~l~ qbpamty3 He cKameT CaM 0 ce6e, UTO OH npepa3yieo. (472) ~ocroeBcKrI~: (DpaHlly3a, TO eCTb rlapVDKaHHHa (rlOTOMy qTO Be~B, B cytlIHOCTH, Bce qbpaHIrySb~ napmKaHe), Hrmor~ta ne pasyBepmm, B TOM, qTO OH He nepBbI~ qe3IoBeK Ha BCeM 3CMHOM Illape. BnpoqeM, 0 BCeM 3eMHOM mape, ~poMe Ilaprtxa, OH aec~,Ma MaJIO 3HaeT. ~a rt 3HaTh-TO oqeHr~ He xoqer. (V, 85) O6a IIHCaTeYI~ BH~T Mopa3II~HOe pa~noxeHne qbpanlIy3cKo~ Ha~rlri B cTpaCTn ~ HaxnBe, norozme~ca Ha 06Marie, Ha rOTOBnOCTn pa~n ~eHer IIOCTylIHTBCSI CBOHMH 63IHXHFIMH. OTCyTCTBHe "ao6po~ Bep~I" ((I)oHBH3HH) i,uIri "qyT/,a: qecyrI" (~OCTOeBCKrI~), no fiX MHeHHIO, o6ectIearIBaeT mo6r~ie, ~axe caMhle ylytlmHe 3aKOHBI. LIecTHOCTB Ha CJIOBaX IIpHBO~HT K CK3Ia~HO~ IINCTOnOpO~KHe~ ~OJITOBHe HJIH KpacHopeHHIO, 3a KOTOpBIM CKpBIBaeTcSI OT- CNTCTBHe COCTpa~aHI4.q K CBOeMy 6JIH)KHeMy, paBHO2(yIIIHe K TaKHM MopaTIB- m, IM IIeHnOCTaM, ra~ ~pyx6a, pO~CTBO, ~eCT~, 6naro)IapnocT~. B CBOIO oaepe~, 06Mall rt ~pacHope~rle no~mTarOTCa ~a~ CBO~CTBa pa3yMa. Pa3yM ~KC oKa3~,iBaeTca HeCOCTO~ITeJIBHBIM ilepe~ ~e~CTBHTeJIBHOCTBIO, IIepe~ BYlac- TI, IO ~eHer, II03TOMy CBO60)Ia - IIyCTO~ 3BNK, a HaCTO~iliee, HCTHHHOe COCTO- aHrle qbpamly3a - pa6CTBO. IIapayl3ie~iH3M ~ByX IIpOH3Be~IeHH~ ~OCTaTOHHO narna~eH: OHBrI~rln CoBeplIIH~I CBOe IIyTelIIeCTBHe B npe)IpeBo~IIOI~HOHHylO ~paHIIHIO, ~OCTOeB- crn~ - BO OpaHIm~O, IIepexaBmylo TprI pesomolmrI, no o6rlapyxmI, ~rro xapa~TeprlcTm~ocmoeacnuf~ u numepamypa nymeutecmauft 107 MI~ICJIH 0 TOM, qTO nyTl~ aTOT ~OJDKeH 6I~ITI~ OTJIHqeH OT IIa~a~Bmero ce6a HyTH 3alIa~HOFO pa3BHTHJt: Ecan 3;aecb npemae Hac ~Krm, Haqa~H, TO 1IO Kpa~He~ Mepe Mlal, Haqrmaz ~KHT~, Mo>KeM ~IaTb ce6e TaKy~O qbopMy, Ka~yIO XOTHM, n na6ernyT~, Tex Hey;aO6CTB rl BOa, KOTOpble 3)Iecb BKOpeHrtnriC~,. Nous commen~ons et ils finissent. ~I /IyMatO, qTO TOT, KTO po~Im'ICa, no- cqacTanBee TOrO, ~TO yMripaeT. (493) FnaBHoe, qTO o6~,e)InHaeT aponaBe)IeHHHa ~OCTOeBCKOFO II OOHBnaiiHa -- 3TO FlttqeM He 3aBya.qHpOBaHiia~ cy6"beKTItBHHOCTt,, CTpaCTHOe )renam~e B~,ICKa3aTI, C06CTBeHI-IOe, IIyCTI, II He Bcer~Ia Bepnoe, ItO IIcKpeniiee HH He 3aBHHc~nlee OT aBTOpI, ITeTOB MHeHIIe. CpaBHIIBaYl CBOe tt qyT~oe, (~OttBtt3ttI-I npnOTKpbtn Ta~Hy HaI~IIOHaJII~HOCTII tI "HayqHHJTC~ 6I~ITI~ cI~r~cxo)Ir~Tem, Hee K TeM IIe)IOCTaTKaM, rOTOpSIe OCKOp6nanii" (449) ero B Pocci i i i , OC03HaB npn aTOM, qTO pyccKiie He xy~e ~pamIyaoB. )~n~ aToro noTpe6oBaaocr~ OT- KaaaTl~C~I OT cJIeIIO~ BOCTOp)KeiiHOCTII nepe~ yamlenHs~ Ha 3aflame II Ha- yq~tTr~C~i pyraTr~C~ HH KpiiTIIKOBaTI~ HIIOCTpaHHOe -- Hay~a, BIIpOqeM, BeCt,Ma cBoeo6paaHHa~I, HO )KIIaHHeHIIO Heo6xo)IHHuag a IIOCTII~eHIIHH IIalIItefi TOrO, qXO OT/IIIqaeT ee OT ~Ipyriix aapo~IoB. YCBOnB I Iaxo~i i ~OItBtt3ttHHa, ]~OCTOeB- errIf i B CBOIIX 33 C 6J~eCKOM pa~BHHn II 3a~peniin B pyccI108 Hm, n 17omepamtee 9 10 Cp. y ~OCTOeBcKoro: "~a rI xepnerb a He MOt, 3a rpaHmte~, OCMaTpHBaTb nO rH)ly, nO 3aKaay, nO o6a3anHocwn nyTemecTBeHHHra [...]" (V, 68). Mrm~OKOB HMeeT B Bl~y 50-e ro~I,I XIX B. 06 ncropnH ny6zn~auHn HHCeM qbOrtBH3rlrla CM. M~oroHe,~o (1961: 209- 211). B HaCToamee BpeMa 'YIHc~,Ma I~3 BToporo 3arpaHrIqHOrO llyTemecT~rla' IIOqTH B HOJIHOM CocTaBe BOmJIn B H3~IaHHe: ~. I/I. (I)OHBH3HH, Co6panue co- ,tunertu~ e Oeyx momax, m. 2, Mocasa-YleHHrtrpa~ 1959. Bce I~VlTaTbI I43 nrtcei 6_bOHBrlSHHa ~alOTCS ~ TeKCTe CTaTI,~I nO yxe yaa- 3aHHOiy rls~laHrtIO. B oprtrnaa~e qrtTaei: "Paccy)I~a qbpaHtW3 He HMeeT H rtMeTr~ ero no,~e~i 6hi HecqaCTI, eM CBOe~ ~KH3HH, H60 OHbIH 3aCTaBHJ/ 6hi ero pa3Mbll_tlJDITb, KOF~Ia OH MOXeT ~ecezHTr, cz" (480-481). .IIHTEPAqWPA BpaHreab, A. E. 1964 'Ha "BocrlOMI~HaHrI~ 0 qb. M. ~OCTOeBC~OM"'. B: q~. M./Iocmoee- c~cuft e eocnoMunanuax coape.,vtennuos, r. I. MOcKBa. B~3eMCKrt~, II. A. 1880 'Oom,-Brt3,H~'. B: 17onnoe co6panue co~tu~enuf~, r. 5. CaHKr-IIe- Tep6ypr. KapaM3nH, H. M. 1984 IIucbMa pyccnoeo nymeutecmeennuna. 3-Iemmrpa~I. J]OTMaH, IO. M., YcneHCKrifi, B. A. 1984 '"l'Iricr, Ma pyccKoro nyTemecTseHHrima" KapaM3rlna i~ VlX MecTo B pa3BriTrm pyccgo~ KynbTypbI'. B: H. M. KapaM3aa, Hucbma pyc- crcoeo nymeruecmeennu~ca. JIeHHHFpajI. MaKoroHermo, F. 17. 1961 /~euuc ~oneuaun. MOCKBa-JIeHHHrpa~. MrLrnOKOB, A. H. 1964 ' . M. ~OCTOOBCKHfi'. B: . M./~ocmoeeclcuf~ e eocnomunauuax coepe.~enuu~coe, T. I. Mocr, Ba. HeqaeBa, B. C. 1972 )Kypnaz M. M. u cI). M. ~ocmoeecKux "Bpe~a ". 1861-1863. Moc- KBa. Pacca~nH, CT. B. 1980 onau~un. Mocr, Ba. Po6oarI, T. 1926 '3"lrtTepaTypa "rlyTemecTBrt~"'. B: PyccKan npo3a. JIerlrlHrpa~ (Penpmrr The Hague 1963). ~ocmoeecnuf~ u ~umepamypa nymeutecmeuft 109 Canxui~oB-l_l_~eaprm, M. E. 1973 '3a py6emoM'. B: Hoanoe co6panue co~uuenuf~ a 20-mu momax, w. XVI. MOCKBa. CxpaxoB, H. H. 1964 'BocrIoMrmamta o ~. M. )~OCXOeBCKOM'. B: ~. M. ~ocmoeecnuf~ e eocnomunanunx coepemennuKoe, x. I. MOCRBa. qepiJbitueBcKH~, H. F. 1948 '"l-htcb~la 06 Hcnanmf' B. H. BoTmtaa' (1857). B: Ho~noe co6pa- hue co~unenuft a 15-mu moMax, T. IV. MOCKBa. Moser, C.A. 1979 Rogger, H. 1960 Denis Fonvizin. Boston. National Consciousness in Eighteenth-Century Russia. Harvard.

Recommended

View more >