Вклад Бахтина/Волошинова в теорию текстовой интерференции

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  • Russian Literature XXVI (1989) 219-236 North-Holland

    BFJIA~ EAXTHHA/BO~O~HHOBA B TEOPHD TEKCTOBOH HHTEP~EPEH~HH ~

    WOLF SCHMID

    ECTb Xy~o~eeTBeHHS~e npHeM~ e KOTOpMe ~ce BaHOBO npH-- BneKa~T MHTepec TeopeTHKOB. TaKHe npHe24~ oSna~a~T cnc~- HOR cTpyKTypoR, TpeSy~T paCCMOTpeHHS C paSH~X ~yHKUHO-- Ha~bH~DC CTOpOH H HPpaIOT ~eHTpa~bHy~ po~5 B CN~C~OBOM ~OCTpOeHHH npOHSBe~eHHH. He no~aBasc~ OKOH~aTe~bHOMy t BCeX y~oB~eTBopH~e~4y OS~HCHeHH~t OHM HaTa~KHBa~T yqe- HMX Ha oSpasOBaHHe BCe HOBMX Mo~eneR H HB~R~TCH KaTa-- ~HSaTopaMH ~eecnocoSHOCTH CMeHH~HX ~pyr ~py~a TeopHR. 0~HH H3 9THX MpHeMOB -- MeTa~opa. MeCTO, saHHMaeMoe MS- Ta~opoR B nOSSHH, B nOBeCTBOBaTenbHOR npose npe~ocTaB- ~eHO ToMy ~pHeMy w KOTOpMR yC~OBHO HagbESaeTCH "HeCOeCT-- BeHHO- -npHMaH pe~5" (B ~anbHeRmeM: Hap) , "e r lebte Rede" , "s ty le ind i rec t l ib re" , " repor ted speech" .

    MeTa~Opy H H~p coe~HHH~T oS~He CTpyKTypHMe CBORCTBa. 05OHM npHeMaM npHcyma ~BORCTBeHHOCTb. TaK~e B 050HX HMeeT MeCTO HsTep~epeH~H~. B TO BpeMH KaK B MeTa~ope COBMe/~ad0TCS ABe npe~MeTH~e c~epM, B Hap HHTep~epHpy~T ~Ba TeKCTa: TeKCT Hso~pa~a~e~o paccKasqHKa HaK~R~Ba- - eTCH Ha TeKCT HsO~paoKae/MO~O ~epcoHa~Ka. H~p ~a~eKo He e~HHCTBeHHOe~ HO caMoe Ba~Hoe H caMoe xapaKTepHoe ~pO-- HB~eHHe TO~O ~eHOMeHa~ KOTOpMR H npe~na~am HRSBaT5 TeKCTOBOR MHTep~epeHuHeR (Schmid 1973:39-66) .

    Y~e s~ec~ MO~eT BOSHHKHyT5 BonpOC: ~pH qe2~ TyT nOH-- HTHe TeKCTa~ a He peqH~ He C~OBa H~H He ~o~oca? HHTep-- ~epHpy~T B Hap He OT~e~bH~e C~OBa H~H ~McKasMBaHHH, a ~e/~de TeKCTM~ KOHTeKCTM C HX cBoeo~paSH~H MHpoBosspe- - HHPAMH. TeKCT B TOM CN~C~e~ B KOTOpOM OH 3~ecb nOHHMa-- eTCH~ oXBaTMBaeT He TO~bKO BO~O~eHH~e y~Ke B ggb~e ~e- HOTHGHMe peqH~ BHe~HHe H~H BHyTpeHHHe~ HO H TaK~e He- HOTHnHMe~ ~y~MHH~e cy~eKTHMe n~aH~, I~OTOpMe ~pOHB~H-- ~TCH B MMC~HX~ B BOCnpHHTHHX H~]! ~e TO~bKO B H~eo~orH-- qeCKOR ToqKe 3peHHH. ~OSTOMy MM Modem MMeT5 ~e~o c HH-- Tep~epeH~H~R TeKCTOB H TaM, ~e nepcoHaE He ~OBOpNT H

  • 220 WoZf Schm4d

    ~au~,e He ~y~laeTe a TO~SKO Boc~pHHHMaeT M O~eHMSaeT OT-- ~enbH~e acneKT~ ~eRCTBMTeabHOCTM (mo~po6Hee cp. Schmid 1986:39-66) .

    MeTa~opa H Hnp HMe/0T e~e O~SO CXO~CTBO -- ~yHKUHO-- Ha/tSHy~ SKBMBaneHTHOCTb. O6a npHeMa BOH~O~a/0T B ce6e CTpyK~ypHyD xapaKTepHCTMKy TOrO ~aHpOBO~O ~o~ymapMH, K KOTOpOMy OHM OTHOC~TCSo A HaSnm~aeMa~ B HHX ~HTep~epeH-- ~HR HBnHeTCH Mo~e~5~ TOR CM~Cno-nopo~a~eR cTpy~Typ~, KOTOpaH xapaKTepHsyeT HOSBHI0 H~H ~ee COOTBeTCTBeHHo, nposy.

    PaB~H~HaeT MeTa~Opy M Hnp, O~HRKO, MCTOpHH HX cy~e- CTBOBaHHH H Hcc~e~oBaHHH. Me l~y TeM KaK MeTa~opa SaHM- Maria UeHTpansHoe MeCTO yxe B aHTH~HOR nOSTHKe, HCTOpHH pa~HTHH H HByqeHH~ H~p ~OBO~bHO KOpOTKa. AHa~l~Sy ~o~- Bep~aeTcH Hnp TO~KO C KOH~a npomnoro BeKa. Ha 3ana l , B~epB~e O~HCa~ STO HB~eHHe ( "CBOeO~pasHOe CMe/~eHHe npR-- MOR H KOCBeHHOR peqH") Ado l f Tob le r ( ]887:437) , a B POCC.H nepBoe onHcasHe ~aHO BeposTHO H.KoSnoBCKHM (1890) . *

    qeM OS~CH~eTCS cpaBHHTenbHO nos~Hee OT~p~THe Hnp? KaK TaKOBaH OHa OTHm~b He Mo~epHHCTCKOe ~BneHMe. YnOT-- peSn~BmHcb KaM xy~o~ecTBeHHMR npMeM y~e Bo ~paH~yScKoR nHTepaType XV I I I BeEa (cp. G .Lerch 1922, L ips 1926, Verschoor 1959) H B aHPnHRCKOM pOMaHe Haqana X IX BeKa (cp. B~hler 1937, G lauser 1948, Neuber t 1957), Hnp KaK B sana~soR, TaM H B pyecKoR npose peanHsMa mMpOKO pac - npocTpaHHaacb ~ npoHMMana Bce ~yS~e B TKaH5 noBecTBO-- BaHMH. HO TO~SKO ~O~ KoHe~ BeKa OHa HaqHHaeT B~O~HRT~ CO~CTBeHHO ~osecTBOBaTe~bHy~ ~yHK~H~, B~TeCH~H H saMeH-- HH CO~OR HeCMemaHHy~0, ayKTOpHa~bHy~ peqb paccKasqHMa.

    Msy~eHMe smp Ha 3ana l . ~OCTM~aeT cBoePo nepBoPo pac - ~BeTa B 1910-e H 1920-e ro~. ~HBym ~McKycc~u0 STMX MeT OTEp~na CTaTbH Char les Ba l ly (1912), y~esM~a de Saus - sure, B G~mu,~sc~-romun~sohe Monu~sso~. ~aaBH~M o~pasoM Ha CTpaHMLU~X ~TO~O ~e ~ypHa~a pasBM~aCb M BnO-- c~e~CTBHM no~eMMI(~ ~oKpy~ CTpyKTyp~ M ~yHK~HH Hnp, B KOTOpOR y~aCTBO~a~ C O~HOR CTOpOH~, ~pe~CTaBMTe~H ~eseBcKoR mKon~, Sa l ly H Marguer i te L ips (1926), a, e ~py~oR, npHBep~es~ Kar l Voss le r , npe~j~e BcePo Theodor Ka lepky (1899, 1913)~ Eugen Lerch (1914, 1928), Ger - t raud Lerch (1922), ~t ienne Lorck (1921), 0skar Wa lze l (1924) H Leo Sp i tzer (1922, 1923a, 1923b, 1928). (~HC-

    KyCCH~ STy peS~MMpy~T Do le~e l 1958, 1960, Pasca l 1977) . BTOpa~ SO,Ha cnopoB O Cy~HOCTH M sa~aqax Hnp Ha~/~0-

    ~aeTcs Ha Bana~e B 1950-e ro~. BMsBaHa OHa 6Mna HB-- BeCTHSL~ TesHCOM K~te Hamburger (1951, 1953,1957) o H~p, KaK O ~aBHOM ~pMsHaKe ~HKTMBHOCTM ~oBecTBOBaHHH OT TpeT~eFo ~H~a, M o BHe--BpeMeHHOR Ba~eHTHOCTH "S~Hqec- KO~O ~peTepHTa" .

    Te~epb M~ CBH~eTe~H TpeTbeR BO~H~ ~Hc~yccMH, KOTO--

  • Te~cmo~ua u~mep~epe~ua 221

    paH, HaqaBmHCH no~ B~HHHH~M CTpyKTypa~bHHZX H ~HHHBHC-- THqeCHHX nO~XO~OB B 70--X ~o~ax, He .eTCH B NepBy~ oqep- e~H Ha CTpaHH~aX H3~aBaeAv~L~ B H3paHne ~ypHa/IOB P~L H Poet~us Today (cp. HanpHMep O003peHHe McHa le 1978a, CTaTHH Banf ie ld 1978, 1981, McHa le 1983, pe~eH3HH Gry - gar 1976, McHa le 1978b, 1981, H noneMHxy Ba l 1981a, Bronzwaer 1981, Ba l 1981b) .

    B POCCHH xe nepB~R CT6SmHR ynOMHHaHHH BFu '~B Teopm0 TeKCTOHOR HHTep~epeH~HH M~ Haxo~HM H pa6oTax BaXTHHa/ BonomHHoBa. (He pemaH s~ecb npo0neMy aBTOpCTHa, S nonH- 3y~cH 9THMH MMeHaMH BnOnHe yCnOBHO. ) .B nHTepaTypoBe~4e- CKOM ~eHHM BaXTHHa/Bo~omHHOHa Hnp, KOTOpaH y HHX ~O-- HO~HHO pe~Ko HOCHT TaKOe HasBasMe, HrpaeT ~opas~o 06nb- mylo por~,~eM Ka~eTC~ npH noHepxHOCTHOM HSH~H~e Ha HX TeKCTM. Bonee TOHO, OHM 0~H HepBI~MH TeOpeTHKaMH, KOTO-- pMe OOHapy~Kl~H OCHOBOHO~ara/a~yl0 po~5 DTOHO, Kasa~OCb ~, ~aCTHOHO, ~aKy~HTaTHHHOHO ~pHe_~4a ~H KOHCTHTyHpoBa- - HHH HappaTHBHOR npOS~ HOBOR DnoxM. ~OpMHpoBanacH HX TeO-- pHH ~O~ OqeBH~HHIM B~HHHHeM~HcKyccHH, KOTOpaR He~acH Ha CTpaHHUax Ge~man48~-~omun4~h~ Mona~ssu~f~. OT-- Ta~HHHeScH, O~HaHO, OT ~O3H~HR KaK ~eHeBCKOR ~KO~ TaM H ~OCC~epHaH~B~ OHM ~pe~O~H~H HOBy~ MO~e~5 HHp~ KOTOpaH H~OC~e~CTHHH oHasa~a HeKOTOpOe, HO H O0~eM~ He-- CMOTpH Ha ~HpoKoe HOCnpHHTHe 9THX aBTOpOB 3He POCCHH~ He OqeHH 6onhmoe BnHssHe Ha 3a~a~sy~ ~HCKyCCRU0 70-X -- 80--X tO .OH (Cp. sanpHMep McHa le 1978a) .

    B COBpeMeHHOR nHTepaTypoBe~qecKoR ~HC~yCCHH RhMe/0TCH qacT~e CC51~IKH Ha BaXTHHa/BonomHHoBa KaK Ha npe~Teq ~e- KOHCTpyHTHBHCTCKOHO MHm~leHHH nOCTCTpyHTypa~HBMa. COC- pe~OTOqHBa~c5 npH ~TOM Ha HX HOHHTHHX ~Ha~OHHqHOCTH H ~ByHO~OCOCTH~ KOTOp~e SaHHMaDT ~eHTpa~bHOe MeCTO H BOC-- ~pHHHMaeMOM o0pase TeOpHH, Mano BHHMaHHH ~OCBH~R~TCH~ KaK npaHHnO, TeKCTOHOR HHTep~epeH~HM -- cTpyKType, KOTO ~ paH ~e~HT B OCHOBe 9THX nOHSTHR. BHM~y 9TOHO HO~O~eH~S He 0eSMHT~pecHo o0cy~HTH HK~a~ BaXTMHa/Bo~O~HHOBa B TeopH~ TeKCTOBOR MHTep~epeH~HH, B qaCTHOCTH H .HarMs H~p. Ba2KHM TyT TpH BOnpoca:

    I. B KaKHX HaTeHopHHx H nOHHTHHX BaXTHH/BonOmHHOB MO~enHpy lOT HHp?

    2. KaKMe KaqecTHa HHp OHH OOHapy~HBamT? 3. K KaHMM pe~yK~HHM STOHO HBneHHH npHBO~HT HX MO-

    ~en~ ?

    PaSHHTHe TeopHH Hnp y HamHx aBTopoB MO~HO pas~enHTH Ha qeT~pe nepHo~a.

    ~epB~ MS HMX OTnHqaeTc~ -- Ka~ 9TO HH BByqHT napa- ~OKCa~HHO -- 0poca~HMCH B Hnasa omc~mcm~uea COOTBeTCT- - By~eR KaTeHOpHH. TaKoe OTCyTCTBHe oOHapy~HBaeTcH B 0OnbmOM ~paHMeHTe paHHMX 20--X HO~OH A~mop ~ 8epo~ e ~ememu~ec~o~ Oeamen~ocmu (~aXTHH 1979}. B eHO HnaHax

  • 222 Wol f Schmid

    n~po~eMa OTHO~eHMR aBTOpa K ~epo~" H "~po~eMa aBTOpa" BaXTMH oScy~J~aeT pasH~e c~yqaM HOTepH "BHeHaxO~HMOCTH aBTopa Pepom". BHeHaxo~HMOCT5 HMeeT ~R Hero 3~ec5 no- ~O~HTe~SHyI0 ~eHHOCT~. 0Ha ~B~eTC~ yC~OBHeM TOrO, ~TO BaXTHH Has~BaeT 9CTeTHqeCKMM COW,THeM. TO~bKO B nOBH~HH HaHpH~eHHOR BHeHaXO~HMOCTH, T .e . o~a~aR "HS6MTKOM B~- - eHHH H SHaHHH"~ aBTop B COCTOHHHH "3aBep~IHTb" cBoe~o ~epo~ B qeM H 3aK/~0q~eTCR Cy~HOCTb ~CTeTMqecKo~o TBOp-- qeCTBa. "3a~ep_--n4T5" ~e ~epoH -- SHaqHT:

    Co0paT~ BC~RO l'epOH~ KOTOph~ HSHyTpH ceOH CaMO~O pacce- RH 14 pas6pocaH ~ SR~RHHOM MI4158 ~OSHaHI~ H OTKpMTOM CO-- ~MTHH ~Th~eCKOl'O IIOCTy~Ka~ CO,paTh ero Hero ~4SH~ H ~ocno/II~Tb ~0 ~0~O Te~MH MOMSHTaMH~ KOTOpMe eMy caMoMy B HeM CaMOM He~OCTy,H~ (~aXTHH 1979:15)

    B npose Mo~epHHBMa ~e, T .eo B npose "OT ~OCTOeBCKO~O ~O B~OPO" , ~aXTHH Ha~0~aeT "KpHSHC aBTOpCTBa" :

    PacmaT~BaeTcH H npe~cTaBrmeTc~ Hecy~eCTBeHHOR caMaR nO- 3HI~IK BHeHaXO~HMOCTH~ y aBTOpa ocHapHBaeTCH ~paBo 6~Tb BHe ~SHH H saBepmaTb ee. HaqHHaeTCS pas~o~eHHe Bcex yCTO~HBbD~ TpaHc~pe~HeHT.~MX~OpM ~K~ISH~ CTaHOBHTC~ ~0HHTHOR H CO~TI41~HO B~COMO~ TO~KO H3HyTpH~ TO~SKO TaM, F~e H nepe~mBam ee KaK R~ B ~opM~ OTHO~eHHH K ceOe CaMOMy, B ~eHHOCTH~X KaTeFOpH~x a -d~-ceda (176)

    TaxHMH C~OBaMH ~RXTHH xapaHTepHsyeT TOT Hpo~eccr KO- TOpeR HpMHHTO MO~e~HpoBaTb HaK nepeMe~eHHe TOqKH speHHH c~eTHOPO ~oKyca MS aBTopa/paccKasqMKa B CaM~R HepcQHa~K.

    06Hapy~MBaeTCH TyT HeMa~oBa~Hoe npOTMROpeqHe C Ho3~- HeRmMMM pa6OTaMHt B HaCTHOCTM C KHMPOR O ~OCTOeBCKOM. Me~J~y TeM KaK B paHHeR CTaTbe BaXTMH OHHcaeTcR sa aBTO-- pa, ~e~aeT CoxpaHHT5 3a HHM BC~ ~O~HO~eHHOCTb w Becb H3-- 6MTOK B~eHMH H BHaHHH, BC~ HpHBH~ePHpOBaHHOCTb, xa~e~ o TOM t qTO HOYTH Bce ~aBH~e ~epoH ~OCTOeBCKOPO "3aB~a- ~eBaDT aBTOpOM"w OH HoB~e O~O~pHeT TOT ~e CaM~R HaqHHa-- D~HRCH C ~OCTOeBCHOrO KpHsMC aBTOpCTBa KaK npeo~o~eHMe aBTOpMTeTHO~Ot MOHO~O~HqecKoro0 saBep~a~x~ePo C~oBa, HaK nyT5 H HOnH~OHHBMyo 3~ecb BOBHHKaeT BOHpOC O TOM, HMeeM nH MU ~eRcT~HTenSHO ~eno c HSMeHeHMeM KOH~eH~HH. (C la rk / Ho lqu is t 1984:63 onpe~ensmT paSBHTMe BaXTHHa KaK M~CnH-- TenH TeM, qTO OH ~aeT HsMeHRD~Hecs OTBeT~ Ha O~HH H TOT ~e BOHpOC.} HRH ~e STO npOTHBOpeqMe Ha CaMOM ~ene TOn~- ~oKa~Y~eecs?

    Tzvetan Todorov (1981:152-165) BH~HT B M~aeHSH ~ax- THHa Me~y 1924 H 1928 "une t rans format ion rad ica le" (159) H pacCMaTpHBaeT KHH~y O ~OCTOeBCEOM KaE aHTHTesy K HepBoHaqa~HOMy Tpe~oBaHMD OT aBTOpa ~OB