ХУДОЖЕСТВЕННАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА И ЕЕ ОБЪЕКТЫ

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6 6 666666 82.0: 16 - . - . : - . The article is dedicated to the problem of fictional characters' onthological status. Various ways of the solution in the framework of contemporary analytic philosophy are taken under review. Actuaist realism and truthclaiming nonrealism are marked out as the most promising approaches. I. , , -, 1. - - (, , , ), (, -). - , . - , , . . - , - - . , , -, . , - - . , - , 1 - [24] [4]. -; . [11] British Journal of Aesthetics, . 4144, . . . . 2006. . 12. . . 623. 7 7 ( , ; , ). - ( ). , , , , -. , - ( ) , ? - , , - . [7; 10; 20]. - , - . - , - , . : , -. - , . . - , , - , . -, x x. - (being) -. , x . (), - , x . [22; 23], [8; 9], [20] [18]2. [14], [7], [3], [30] [15], . 2 , , - 1970- . [20; 18]. [27]. 8 8 . - (being) -. , , - , - , . , - (non-truthclaiming nonrealists). - ( ). , (truthclaiming nonrealists). -, , , - -. - . [6], . [17] . [16], . , [28], [24], [4], , [1]. - - . , -, . , , . , - , -. , - , . II. - . - - - . , - . , - , . , -. , 9 9 . , , . , . - . - , , , , , , , . - , - , - . - , - ( ) . - . : , , , 1,5 . , : , ( ). , , . (x P) - (x -P) , . , - , 1,5 , , 1,5 , , 1,5 1,5 . , , ( ) - -, , - . - , , , 3. - . , , - . - . - - , . , 3 , () () - , , , - , . 10 10 , , - . - , , , , , . , , , , , , -. -. , , - - . III. - , . [17] , -, , , - . , , , , , , , . - , , , , - , . , - : , ( . .), . , , - ( . .), . ( - ), - , , - . , 4. - . - 4 [16]. , , - . ( ) [6]. , , mutatis mutandis, . 11 11 , - . ( , ) - [12]5. ( ), - . - , - , -, , , , - . , - , - , -. , -, 6. IV. -, , - , -. - . , , , - . - , , . -- , . , . , , , , , ( . .) . - , , , - , - - . 5 - , , - , . 6 [15]. 12 12 - . . , , . . - , , , -, . - ( ) - - . . -, . 7. - , - . , , , --. , -, , . , - . - , (1) , , , (2) . , - , , . , - , - - , - , - . , , . . , , - , - . , , , . - 7 . [20] -, . 13 13 . , . - P , , - P. , - P -P. , P -P - -. , , P, -P, . , , , , , , , , . , , - . , - , , ( ), -. , - , , . - (1), , (2). 1) , . - . , , , , . -- , , -. , ( ) 8. - - - ( ), , (), - () de re (). - , - - . [24, p. 385], -- [24, p. 386] 8 , . [20] , . , . 14 14 , . , --, , - . - . 2) , . - / . - . , - - ? , , - . , - , . , , - ( ), - , (- ) [18, p. 304; 20, p. 112; 22, p. 308]. - , -, - , - . , - , , , -, , . - - . - - -, , 9. , , , , 9 , , - (quasi-indexical reference) , -. , (indexicality) - , , [20, p. 4748]. , - . , [21]. 15 15 -, ? - - , ? , , , - -, ? . , -. , 10. . , , : -, . -, , . , , , , : -, , - . , - - , - , . (, , , - , - , - ; .) , - , . -, , , , . - -, , - . , (, - - , ). - : - , -, - 10 , , [18, p. 294302]. , . , . 16 16 , . , ad hoc, - . - , - . , - , -. . - , - . : , . . - , . ? , ? , , , - ? -, , , , ? , - , ? - -, , -, , , , , - [79; 18; 20]. ? - , ? , - . - . V. , - -, , - -11. , - 11 , . - [28; 7] , - , [1; 2, p. 18]. ( , ) , . -17 17 , - , - . , - , , () . . , , - , . , , , . . , , , - . - , - , - , . , - . , , , - , . , . , , , - . , . , , , , , ( , , , - ). , , - , . , , - , - - . , - , , . , , , . - , , , -, - . - , [26]. [4]. 18 18 - , . , , . , : , - , , [24, . 6, 7]12. . , - , . . - de dicto , , , . . , , - , , - de dicto. de re , - . , - , , , . , , . . - , de re -, , , . de dicto - , - . - . - . , , - . , , , - , . , , . -, , , - 12 , , , . 19 19 , . , , - , - , . ( , ), , - (, ) , - [24, p. 400416]. , , , , , . - - . , . -, , , - , -. , -, . - . -, (, - ) , . - , . -, - -, . , , -, , . , , , 13. . , -, - , . , , , , . - . - . , , - 13 , , , - . 20 20 , . - . , , . , ( ), , . - , . , -, , - . , . , , . , A B , A B . ? , A B 14. , , , , A B : -, . A B , , , A B . , - , ( , -) , - . , , - - , , , - ? - - . , - , - - , ? , - [9, p. 424428; 20, p. 97100]15? 14 A B - - , (, ), , [7, p. 144, 161]. 15 , - [19]. [29]. , - . 21 21 , - . -, , . . . , - , , , . , - , . , - - , , , , - -, , 16. , - - , . , - , -? . -, , (singular) -. , - , - , , [20, p. 98]? - , , , . , - , -. - ( ), , . - [19]17. , : , , - 16 , , , - . - [24]. 17 [26] [24], . . 22 22 ( ) , - ( )18. -, , , - , - [24, p. 2, 68, 405, 423]. - . . - . , , , - - . , . VI. , , - ( - ) . . - , - , ? - , , ? , . . , - , - (, , ). . , -, . .. 1. Adams F., Fuller G., Stecker R. The Semantics of Fictional Names // Pacific Phi-losophical Quarterly. 1997. Vol. 78. P. 12848. 18 , (. IV, 2) ). [24, p. 423, 428]. 23 23 2. Braun D. Empty Names // Nos. 1993. Vol. 27. P. 44969. 3. Crittenden Ch. Unreality: The Metaphysics of Fictional Objects. Ithaca; N.Y., 1991. 4. Currie G. The Nature of Fiction. Cambridge, 1990. 5. Everett A., Hofweber T. (eds.). Empty Names, Fiction, and the Puzzles of Exis-tence. Stanford, CA, 2000. 6. Frege G. On Sense and Reference // Black M., Geach P. (eds.). Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. Oxford, 1952. 7. Howell R. Fictional Objects: How They Are and How They Arent // Poetics. 1979. Vol. 8. P. 12977. 8. Howell R. Review of Terence Parsons, Nonexistent Objects // The Journal of Philosophy. 1983. Vol. 80. P. 16373. 9. Howell R. Essay-review of Walton: Mimesis as Make-Believe // Synthese. 1996. Vol. 109. P. 413434. 10. Howell R. Fiction, Semantics of // Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 1998. Vol. 3. 11. Howell R. Ontology and the Nature of the Literary Work // The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 2002. Vol. 60. P. 6779. 12. Kripke S. Naming and Necessity. Cambridge, MA, 1972. 13. Lewis D. Truth in Fiction // Philosophical Papers. Oxford, 1983. Vol. 1. 14. Meinong A. On the Theory of Objects // Chisholm R. (ed.). Realism and the Background of Phenomenology. Glencoe, IL, 1960. 15. Parsons T. Nonexistent Objects. New Haven, 1980. 16. Quine W. von O. On What There Is // From a Logical Point of View. 2rd ed. N.Y., 1961. 17. Russell B. On Denoting // Marsh R.C. (ed.). Logic and Knowledge. N.Y., 1956. 18. Salmon N. Nonexistence // Nos. 1998. Vol. 32. P. 277319. 19. Stanley J. Hermeneutic Fictionalism // Midwest Studies in Philosophy. 2001. Vol. 25. P. 3671. 20. Thomasson A. Fiction and Metaphysics. Cambridge, 1999. 21. Thomasson A. Fictional Characters and Literary Practices // British Journal of Aesthetics. 2003. Vol. 43. P. 13857. 22. Van Inwagen P. Creatures of Fiction. American Philosophical Quarterly. 1977. Vol. 14. P. 299308. 23. Van Inwagen P. Fiction and Metaphysics // Philosophy and Literature. 1983. Vol. 7. P. 6777. 24. Walton K. Mimesis as Make-Believe. Cambridge, MA, 1990 25. Walton K. Metaphor and Prop-Oriented Make-Believe // European Journal of Philosophy. 1993. Vol. 1. P. 3957. 26. Walton K. Existence as Metaphor? // Everett A., Hofweber T. (eds.). Empty Names, Fiction, and the Puzzles of Existence. Stanford, CA, 2000. 27. Wolterstorff N. Works and Worlds of Art. Oxford, 1980. 28. Woods J. The Logic of Fiction. The Hague, 1974. 29. Yablo S. Go Figure: A Path through Fictionalism // Midwest Studies in Phi-losophy. 2001. Vol. 25. P. 72102. 30. Zemach E. Real Beauty. University Park, PA, 1997. . (Robert Howell) . - , , bobh@albany.edu. mailto:bobh@albany.edu

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