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1 , - : Federal HousingAdministration (FHA) (= United States governmentagency that insured loans made by banks and otherprivate lenders for home building and home buying);building department; real estate agency.
2 , : surveyor (= a personwho examines the condition of land and buildingsprofessionally).
3 , - : designer (= a person whodevises or executes designs, especially one whocreates forms, structures, and patterns, as forworks of art or machines); gardener (= a personwho is employed to cultivate or care for a garden,lawn, etc.); architect (= a person professionallyengaged in the design of certain largeconstructions other than buildings and the like);nursery worker (= a person who grows, prunes,waters, and fertilizes plants and trees);landscaper (= landscape gardener).
: Royal park(= land originally owned by the monarchy of theUnited Kingdom for the recreation (mostlyhunting) of the royal family);
-: leisure center (= a large public building withmany different sports and exercise facilities);national park (= an area of countryside, oroccasionally sea or fresh water, protected by thestate for the enjoyment of the general public orthe preservation of wildlife);
: garden(= a piece of ground adjoining a house, used forgrowing flowers, fruit, or vegetables); front yard(= the portion of land between the street and thefront of the house, a type of yard).
2 , :
, :orangery (= a building like a large conservatorywhere orange trees are grown); orchard (= apiece of enclosed land planted with fruit trees);potager (= a kitchen garden); vineyard (= aplantation of grapevines, typically producinggrapes used in winemaking); annual flowergarden (= type of garden where annual flowersare grown); biennial flower garden (= type ofgarden where biennial flowers are grown);
, :Chinese garden, Dutch garden, Englishlandscape garden, French formal garden,French landscape garden, Italian garden,Japanese garden, Knot garden, Koreangarden, Mughal garden, Native garden,Persian garden, Roman garden, Spanishgarden, Terrarium, trial garden, tropicalgarden, water garden, wild garden, Xeri-scaping, Zen garden, etc.;
, : polychromatic garden,monochromatic garden, analogous garden,complementary color garden, mixed (clashing)color garden, etc.
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(climate zone =gardeners rely on them to know which plants theycan grow): polar landscape zone, temperatelandscape, drought landscape zone, subtropicallandscape zone, tropical landscape zone;
(soil = the upper layer of earthin which plants grow): loamy soil, peat swampsoil, alkaline soil, acid soil, alkali soil, lime soiletc., neutral soil, clay soil, limestone soil, rockysoil, chernosem soil, sandy soil, podzolic soil.
2 -: rock (= the solid mineral material);granite (= a very hard, granular, crystalline,igneous rock often used as a building stone); stone(= hard solid non-metallic mineral matter used asa building material); gravel (= a mixture of gravel
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with coarse sand, used for paths and roads);timber (= wood prepared for use in building andcarpentry); reed (= a tall straight stalk of a reedplant, used especially as a material in makingthatch or household items).
3 : water(= colourless, transparent, odourless, liquid whichforms the seas, lakes, rivers, and rain and is thebasis of the fluids of living organisms); air (= theinvisible gaseous substance surrounding the earth);plant (= a living organism of the kind exemplifiedby trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and mosses).
- () - .
1 : fiberglass, aluminum, plastic,brick, veneer, gypsum.
2 : tape measure(= a length of tape or thin flexible metal, markedat graded intervals for measuring); T-square (= aT-shaped instrument for drawing or testing rightangles); tracing paper (= transparent paper usedfor tracing maps, drawings, or designs); drawingboard (= a large flat board for artists or designersto work on); shovel (= a tool resembling a spadewith a broad blade and typically upturned sides,used for moving coal, earth, snow, or othermaterial); wheelbarrow (= a small cart usedtypically for carrying loads in building work orgardening); trowel (= small handheld tool with acurved scoop for lifting plants or earth).
3 : post lights (= lightsthat illuminate walks and drives); step lights(= lights that prevent stumbles); floodlights(= lights that mount on poles, in trees, or high onhouse sides and back); in-ground lights (= lightsthat placed below plants, can erase burglar-hidingshadows).
4 , : path (= away or track laid down for walking or made bycontinual treading); walkway (= a passage or pathfor walking along, especially a raised passagewayconnecting different sections of a building or awide path in a park or garden); driveway (= aroad, especially a private one, leading from a streetor other thoroughfare to a building, house, garage).
5 : fountain(= an ornamental structure in a pool or lake fromwhich one or more jets of water are pumped intothe air); waterfall (= a cascade of water falling
from a height, formed when a river or streamflows over a precipice or steep incline); pond (= asmall body of still water formed naturally or byartificial means); stream = (a small, narrow river).
6 : arch (= acurved symmetrical structure spanning an openingand typically supporting the weight of a bridge,roof, or wall above it); arcade (= a coveredpassage with arches along one or both sides);pavilion (= a building at a cricket ground or othersports ground, used for changing and takingrefreshments); gazebo (= a small building,especially one in the garden of a house, that givesa wide view of the surrounding area); trellis (= aframework of light wooden or metal bars used asa support for fruit trees or creepers, typicallyfastened against a wall); arbor (= an axle orspindle on which something revolves).
7 : patio, back yard,front yard, play area; outdoor kitchen, outdoorliving room, secluded spots.
8 :sculpture, stone statue, stone vase, woodenstatues, adornment, furnishings, drawings.
1 :measure (= to ascertain the size, amount, ordegree of (something) by using an instrument ordevice marked in standard units); mark (= toindicate the position of a particular section orarea); lay out (= to construct or arrange buildingsor gardens according to a plan); sketch (= to makea rough drawing); plan (= design or make a planof (something to be made or built)).
2 : dig (= tobreak up and move earth with a tool or machine,or with hands, paws, snout); excavate (= to make(a hole or channel) by digging); drain (= to causethe water or other liquid in (something) to run out,leaving it empty or dry).
3 , - : design(= to decide upon the look and functioning of(a building, garment, or other object), by makinga detailed drawing); plant (= to put (a seed, bulb,or plant) in the ground so that it can grow); mow(= to cut down grass with a machine); install (= toplace or fix (equipment or machinery) in position
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ready for use); fix (= to fasten (something)securely in a particular place or position).
- . - : , -- - (Royal mail), - (red double-decker) - , (a full dress uniformof red tunics, black trousers, and bearskins). , - .
-, - . , , - , - - - .
-, , , , . - green fingers (= considerable talent orability to grow plants) .
- (White garden), - . - , .
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- ), , . be born in purple (= of royal orexalted birth) - (. : ).
-, - . - - : estate (= ahousing development); castle (= a large fortifiedbuilding or group of buildings with thick walls,usually dominating the surrounding country);country house (= a residence in the country,especially a mansion or other large dwelling on acountry estate); arboretum (= a place where anextensive variety of woody plants are cultivatedfor scientific, educational, and ornamentalpurposes).
, - : Chiswick House,Rousham House, Stowe House, Stourhead,Sissinghurst. - , , - - .
, - - , .
1 - : Lowes Complete Landscaping.Ideas Plans & Plants How-To / ed. Michael MacCaskey.Oxmoor House, Incorporated, 2008. 432 p. ; Step-by-StepLandscaping Better Homes & Gardens / MichaelMcKinley. Meredith Corporation, Des Moines, Iowa,
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2007. 407 p. ; Russell N. E. Outdoor Entertaining IdeaBook. Newton : The Tauton Press Inc., 2009. 202 p. ;Better Homes and Gardens. Ideas and How-To GardenStructures / Michael McKinley. Meredith Corporation,Des Moines, Iowa, 2007. 234 p.
1. , . . / . . -. . : , 1987. 139 .
2. , . . - / . .
// -. 2, . 2006. 5. . 100104.
3. , . . -- - / . . // - . 2011. 1, . I (). . . : http://ves