Сети ЭВМ и телекоммуникации. Глобальные сети: Учебное пособие

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<ul><li><p> .. </p><p> . </p><p>, 2006 </p></li><li><p> 2</p><p> 681.326(075) . . . / .. .:, 2006. 116. </p><p> , , . </p><p> 2301 (2201) , , . </p><p> 2301 (2201) , , . </p><p>: .. : ., ... .. ., ... .. </p><p> -4 13 2006 . </p><p>. -4, , ... .. </p><p> -4 , 2006 . </p></li><li><p> 3</p><p>1 ....................................................................... 5 1.1 ................................................................................... 5 1.2 .......................................................................... 5 1.3 ............................................................................................ 6 1.4 ........................................................................ 6 1.5 ....................................................................... 9 2 TCP/IP ....................................................................................... 11 2.1 Internet .................................................................................. 11 2.1.1 ........................................................................................ 13 2.2 IP................................................................................................ 15 2.2.1 IP-...................................................................... 19 2.3 ARP ........................................................................................... 20 2.4 ICMP ......................................................................................... 21 2.5 TCP/IP................................. 23 2.6 .......................................................... 23 2.6.1 ........................................................... 23 2.6.2 UDP ........................................................................................ 24 2.6.3 TCP......................................................................................... 26 2.7 ..................................................................... 34 3 TCP/IP.................................................................. 35 3.1 RIP................................................................. 39 3.2 OSPF ............................................................. 43 3.3 IGRP EIGRP ...................... 45 3.4 EGP BGP................................. 46 3.5 ..................................................................... 49 4 TCP/IP .................................................... 50 4.1 DNS .............................................................................................. 50 4.2 ............................................................. 51 4.3 ..................................................................... 52 5 X.25, FRAME RELAY, PDH, SDH ........................................ 53 5.1 X.25........................................................................................ 53 5.2 Frame Relay ........................................................................... 55 5.2.1 Frame Relay................................................................ 56 5.3 ........................................................ 58 5.4 .............................................................. 62 5.5 ..................................................................... 68 6 ISDN ATM ........................................................................... 69 6.1 ISDN ...................................................................................... 69 6.1.1 ISDN.................................................................................. 69 6.2 ATM....................................................................................... 71 6.2.1 ATM ............................................... 71 6.2.2 ATM........................................................................... 75 </p></li><li><p> 4</p><p>6.2.3 AAL ....................................................................... 76 6.3 ..................................................................... 78 7 ................................................................ 79 8 ................................................ 82 8.1 ..................................................................... 82 8.2 Microsoft DCOM........................................................................................ 85 8.3 CORBA.................................................................................. 88 8.4 ..................................................................... 90 9 ................................................................. 91 9.1 .......... 91 9.2 ................................................................. 92 9.2.1 FTP ........................................................... 92 9.2.2 TFTP .................................. 93 9.3 ............................................................... 94 9.3.1 SMTP .......................................... 94 9.3.2 POP ......................................................... 95 9.3.3 - IMAP ............................ 96 9.4 ................................................ 98 9.4.1 Telnet........................................... 98 9.4.2 SSH ............................. 100 9.5 - ........................................................................... 100 9.5.1 -................................................. 101 9.5.2 - .................................................. 103 9.6 ................................................................... 105 10 Web- ....................................................................................... 107 10.1 Web- ..... 107 10.2 HTTP............................................... 109 10.2.1 HTTP- ....................................................................................... 110 10.2.2 HTTP- ......................................................................................... 111 10.2.3 HTTP........ 112 10.3 Web- ................................... 113 10.4 ................................................................. 114 ....................................................................................... 115 </p></li><li><p> 5</p><p>1 </p><p>1.1 </p><p> (. corporate network) </p><p> , (, , </p><p>) (, </p><p>, ..). </p><p>. </p><p>1.2 </p><p> () </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> , . </p><p> , </p><p>: </p><p> (, </p><p>, ); </p><p>STP , </p><p> ; </p><p> ; </p><p> ; </p><p> ( MAC-, </p><p> ); </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 6</p><p>1.3 </p><p>, , </p><p> (. internetwork, internet), </p><p> (. subnet) . </p><p> (. router). </p><p>, Ethernet, Token Ring, X25, </p><p>Frame Relay, ATM .. </p><p>, ( ), </p><p> , . </p><p>, : </p><p>. , </p><p> (MAC) (, IPX/SPX). </p><p> , . </p><p> (, TCP/IP). </p><p>1.4 </p><p>, , , , </p><p> - . </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> , , </p><p> ( ). , </p><p> , </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 7</p><p> , . </p><p> , ( </p><p> ). </p><p> , </p><p> 1.1. S1..S10 , M1..M13 . </p><p> , </p><p>, M5/S2 M5, S2. </p><p> M7 1.1 </p><p> 1.1 </p><p> 1.1 M7 </p><p>S1 M1/S4 M7/S4 1 S2 M5/S5 M7/S5 2 S3 M5/S5 M7/S5 3 S4 M7/S4 0 S5 M7/S5 0 S6 M6/S4 M7/S4 1 S9 M9/S4 M7/S4 1 </p><p>S11 M9/S4 M7/S4 2 Default M10/S5 M7/S5 1 </p><p>S1 S2 S3</p><p>S5</p><p>S8 </p><p>S7 </p><p>S10S11 S9 </p><p>S12</p><p>M1 M2</p><p>M5</p><p>M3</p><p>M10</p><p>M12</p><p>M13 </p><p>M6 </p><p>M9 </p><p>M11 </p><p>M7</p><p>M4 </p><p>M8 </p><p>S4 </p><p>S6</p></li><li><p> 8</p><p> () , , , </p><p> . </p><p> : </p><p> , </p><p> , </p><p> ( ). </p><p> , </p><p> , , </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> , </p><p> . (. source routing) </p><p> ( </p><p>) , </p><p> , . </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> . , </p><p> , . </p><p> : </p><p> , ; </p><p>; </p><p> , ; </p><p> , </p><p> ( </p><p>, ). </p></li><li><p> 9</p><p> (, </p><p> ) ( </p><p> ), </p><p>( ). </p><p> . </p><p> : </p><p> ; </p><p> , </p><p> ( ); </p><p>o ( -, </p><p>. Distance Vector Algorithms) </p><p> ; </p><p>o (. Link State Algorithms) </p><p> ( </p><p>- -); </p><p> , </p><p> ; </p><p> + ( , </p><p> , </p><p>). </p><p>1.5 </p><p> , , </p><p> (, Ethernet)? </p><p> 5 </p><p>, Ethernet? </p></li><li><p> 10</p><p> M4 </p><p> S12 ( 1.1)? </p><p> ? </p><p>? </p><p>? </p><p>? </p></li><li><p> 11</p><p>2 TCP/IP </p><p> TCP/IP, , </p><p> RFC (Request For </p><p>Comment ). </p><p>, , </p><p> RFC. </p><p> TCP/IP </p><p> RFC, . RFC </p><p>, , Web- : http://www.ripn.net/nic/ </p><p>2.1 Internet </p><p> , Internet, , , </p><p> : ( , .., , </p><p>MAC- Ethernet-), (IP-) </p><p>( , DNS-). </p><p>, , </p><p>. </p><p> TCP/IP , </p><p> IP- (RFC 990 RFC 997). IP- ( , </p><p> ) 32 (4 ). , IP- </p><p> ( ), </p><p> , : 123.45.67.89. : </p><p> , MAC-</p><p> ( ). </p><p>Internet ( InterNIC, </p><p>ICANN, ), </p></li><li><p> 12</p><p> , Internet, </p><p> . </p><p> IP- 5 ( A E), </p><p> . </p><p> 2.1 ( N </p><p> , , H , </p><p> , M , </p><p> ). </p><p> 1 2 3 4 </p><p>A 0 N N N N N N N H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H HB 1 0 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H HC 1 1 0 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N H H H H H H H HD 1 1 1 0 M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M ME 1 1 1 1 0 </p><p> 2.1 IP- </p><p> IP- : </p><p> , , , </p><p> ; </p><p> , , </p><p> , , ; </p><p> , , , </p><p> , , </p><p> ( , </p><p>. limited broadcast); </p><p> , , </p><p> ( ), </p><p>( , . broadcast). </p><p> , , </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 13</p><p>: N = 2n2, n , </p><p> : N = 2m2, m </p><p> . </p><p>, 16382 (2142) B (14 </p><p>, 16 ) 65534 (2162) </p><p> x.x.0.1 x.x.255.254. </p><p> , , 127. </p><p> . , , </p><p>, , </p><p> (. loopback). </p><p>127.0.0.1, 127.x.x.x. </p><p> IP- </p><p> , </p><p> NAT (. Network Address Translation), </p><p> RFC 1631. ( 10.0.0.0 </p><p>10.255.255.255), 16 B ( 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255) </p><p>256 C ( 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255). </p><p> (. private). </p><p> . </p><p>2.1.1 </p><p> , </p><p> , , </p><p>( ). IP-, , </p><p>, 32- , , </p><p> , 1, 0. </p><p> , </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 14</p><p> TCP/IP (. subnet mask); </p><p> , IP-: , </p><p> . : </p><p> 255.0.0.0, B 255.255.0.0, C 255.255.255.0. </p><p> , </p><p> , IP- </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> . , , </p><p> : </p><p>. , </p><p> , IP-</p><p> , (.. ) </p><p>. , </p><p> . </p><p>: , </p><p> , </p><p>, , </p><p> , . , </p><p>194.153.99.210 255.255.255.224 C </p><p>195.153.99, 6, 18. </p><p> : 1, 0, </p><p> ( </p><p> ) : , </p><p>255.255.255.224 /19. </p><p>, : </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 15</p><p>, </p><p> . </p><p> : , </p><p> A 127 , </p><p> . C </p><p> 1990- . </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> ( ) . </p><p> ( ). </p><p>2.2 IP </p><p> IP (. Internet Protocol, </p><p>) RFC 791. IP </p><p> , , </p><p> . (, . datagram) </p><p> . . </p><p> , , </p><p> . IP </p><p> (. Maximum Transfer Unit, MTU). </p><p> IP </p><p> : , . , </p><p> : </p><p> 0, 7. </p><p> (IP-) . </p><p> 2.2. </p></li><li><p> 16</p><p>1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IHL </p><p>IP- IP- </p><p> ( ) 4 2.2 IP- </p><p> (. Version) [4 ] </p><p> . </p><p> 4. </p><p> (. Internet Header Length, IHL) [4 ] </p><p> , </p><p> 5 ( 20 ). </p><p> 60 . </p><p> (. Type of Service) [8 ] </p><p> . </p><p> 2.3. </p><p> 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 </p><p> D T R 0 2.3 IP- </p><p> (. Precedence) 0, </p><p> ( 1 7) , </p><p>, . </p><p> D (. Delay, ), T (. Throughput, </p><p>) R (. Reliability, ) </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> . () 1, </p></li><li><p> 17</p><p> 0. , </p><p> . </p><p> (. Total Length) [16 ] </p><p>( ) . </p><p> 65535 , , </p><p>, , 576- ( , </p><p>), , </p><p>, . 576 , </p><p> IP- 512 ( </p><p> , ; , 512 </p><p> ), 64 </p><p> : IP- 20 60 . </p><p> (. Identification) [16 ] , </p><p> , </p><p>( ). </p><p> (. Flags) [3 ] , </p><p>: </p><p>0 , 0; </p><p>1 (DF, . Dont Fragment) 0 = , </p><p>1 = ; </p><p>2 (MF, . More Fragments) 0 = , </p><p>1 = . </p><p> (. Fragment Offset) [13 ] </p><p> , </p><p>. 64- (8-) . , </p><p> , , , </p><p> , 16- . </p><p> . </p><p> (. Time to Live, TTL) [8 ] </p><p>, . </p></li><li><p> 18</p><p> , </p><p> TTL = 0, ICMP-</p><p>. </p><p> . TTL </p><p> ( , , </p><p> ) </p><p> traceroute. </p><p> (. Protocol) [8 ] , </p><p> . </p><p> (RFC Assigned Numbers), : 1 </p><p>ICMP, 4 IP, 6 TCP, 17 UDP, 89 OSPF. </p><p> (. Header Checksum) [16 ] </p><p> , </p><p> 16- ( </p><p>). (, ) </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> , . </p><p> (. Source IP Address) [32 ] IP- </p><p> . </p><p> (. Destination IP Address) [32 ] IP- </p><p> . </p><p> (. Options) [ ] , </p><p> , ( </p><p> ) .. </p><p> , (1 ), </p><p> (1 ) . </p><p> , . </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 19</p><p> (. Padding) , </p><p> 4 . </p><p>2.2.1 IP- </p><p> (MTU). , , Ethernet </p><p> 1500 , FDDI 4500 , </p><p> . IP </p><p>, MTU , </p><p> (), </p><p>. , </p><p>, - IP </p><p> . , </p><p> , - . </p><p> , . </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> , </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> , , , </p><p> 8 . </p><p> . </p><p> (MF), , , </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 20</p><p> , MF 0, </p><p> . </p><p> (DF) , </p><p> . </p><p> MTU, ( </p><p> ICMP). </p><p> , , </p><p> . </p><p>2.3 ARP </p><p> ARP (Address Resolution Protocol, </p><p>) RFC 826. </p><p> , </p><p> IP- . , </p><p>(, MAC- Ethernet) IP-, </p><p> ARP. </p><p>Ethernet-, , </p><p> . </p><p> , ARP, ARP-, </p><p> . </p><p> , ARP-</p><p> ARP-, , , </p><p> : - </p><p> IP 123.45.67.89? 123.45.67.90, MAC- 10:20:30:40:50:60.. </p><p>, , ( , </p><p>): , 123.45.67.89 . MAC- 10:20:30:40:50:61. </p></li><li><p> 21</p><p>ARP-. , , , ARP-</p><p>. </p><p> , ARP- </p><p>( -</p><p>, ). </p><p> ARP </p><p> ( 256 ). </p><p> ARP IP- </p><p> . </p><p>2.4 ICMP </p><p> ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol, </p><p> ) RFC 792. </p><p> , </p><p> - - </p><p> . </p><p> ICMP IP-, </p><p> ICMP , IP, </p><p> ICMP- , IP. </p><p> ICMP , </p><p> (. 2.4), . </p><p> 1 2 3 4 </p><p>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 </p><p> ( ; ) 2.4 ICMP </p><p> (. Type) [8 ] (. 13.1). </p></li><li><p> 22</p><p> (. Code) [8 ] </p><p> (. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 2.4). </p><p> . </p><p> (. Checksum) [16 ] </p><p>ICMP- ( ), , IP. </p><p> 2.1 ICMP 0 (Echo reply) 3 (Destination unreachable) 4 (Source quench) 5 (Redirect) 8 (Echo) 11 (Time exceeded) 12 (Parameter problem) 13 (Timestamp) 14 (Timestamp reply) 15 (Information request) 16 (Information reply) 17 (Mask request) 18 (Mask reply) </p><p> 2.2 ICMP 3 ( ) 1 2 3 4 , DF 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 - 12 - </p><p> 2.3 ICMP 5 ( ): 0 1 2 3 </p></li><li><p> 23</p><p> 2.4 ICMP 11 ( </p><p>): 0 1 </p><p>2.5 TCP/IP </p><p> Ping </p><p> ( </p><p> ). </p><p> ICMP- 8 (Echo request), </p><p> ICMP- 0 (Echo reply). </p><p> Traceroute , </p><p> . : </p><p> TTL: </p><p>1,2,3 .. , TTL , </p><p> ICMP- 11 (Time exceeded). </p><p> ICMP- </p><p> . -: </p><p> Windows ICMP- ( ping), </p><p> Linux/FreeBSD UDP-. </p><p>2.6 </p><p>2.6.1 </p><p> , , </p><p> , (). </p><p>, , </p><p> , </p></li><li><p> 24</p><p> . ( , </p><p> , ) (. port). </p><p> . </p><p> , , </p><p> , . </p><p> 16- . </p><p> , </p><p>, , 20 TCP 20 UDP </p><p> . </p><p> . </p><p> IANA (. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). </p><p> 0 1023 ( </p><p>255). </p><p>. 1024 5000 (. </p><p>ephemeral). , IANA </p><p> . </p><p> IP- ( TCP/IP) </p><p> (. socket) , </p><p> . </p><p>2.6.2 UDP </p><p> UDP (. User Datagram Protocol, </p><p>) RFC 768. </p><p> . UDP </p><p> ( ) </p><p> ( , </p><p> IP). IP, UDP </p><p> . </p></li><li><p> 25</p><p> UDP </p><p> (. User datagram) </p><p>. 2.5. </p><p> . </p><p> 1 2 3 4 </p><p>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2.5 UDP </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> . </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> , (. 2.6). </p><p> 1 2 3 4 </p><p>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7IP- IP- </p><p>0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.6 UDP </p><p> , </p><p> . </p><p> . ( </p><p>...</p></li></ul>

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