Химия: Контрольные задания и методические рекомендации по их выполнению

  • Published on
    14-Dec-2016

  • View
    234

  • Download
    12

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • 3

    ..

    ..

    2001

    4

    546 (076)

    :

    . .. ,

    ..

    : ..

    .

    .

    .

    - ()

    . .: .. , 2001. 38 ., . 22.

    .

    1

    ,

    , .

  • 5

    . .. , 2001

    - () , . 38. - . . .. .. " " [1]: , 1 - 3, 5 - 10, 4, 11 - 17. .. " " [2] 1 - 6, 8 - 13, 17 -19, 7, 14 - 16, 20 - 27. , . , . , , , , .. . , . , . , , (. 6 .). , , , .. [1], [8], . : 1. . 2. ( ) , . 3. , . . 4. 1 - 22.

    6

    . ( ) . 35. :

    1. () , .

    2. . .

    1. 00072. (, ) 72.

    2. 72 ( ) 1 ( 1) 13. , 1 13 ( , ): = B2O3; = H2SiO3; = NiSO4; = Sn(OH)2; m = 14,0 , = B. . 4. , . , 1 : : [1, . 2; 2, . 5]. . . , [1, . 2] .. " " ( 1 ), 2 (. 2).

    1. .. . .: , 1990. 2. .. . .: , 1979. 3. .. . .: , 1985. 4. .., .. . .: , 1990. 5. .. . .: , 1977-1987. 6. .. . .: , 1985. 7. .., .., .., .. . .: , 1997. 8. . .: , 2000. 9. .. . .: , 2003.

  • 7

    1.

    .

    , . 2 - 105 .

    , , . (Fe+2, NH4+, UO2+2), (Cl -, NO3-, SO4-2).

    , ( , ).

    , () 6 , 6 , 6 . . , . , , . , . , . , : 126 ,

    136 ,

    146

    6, 7 8 . , .

    . , 2 , NaCl NaCl. , Na+ Cl-, NaCl. , .

    , .

    . , , . , . , . .

    8

    , , . , , .

    (1) (3) , (2). H O

    SH O O

    H O

    H OS O

    H O

    H OCa

    O

    1 2 3 : , , , . (2, NH3 .). , , (, 2, 2, 25 .). , , . . . , H+: H2SO4 H+ + HSO4- 2H+ + SO42-. H2SO4, HNO3, HCl . , -: ()2 - + - 2+ + 2-. a(OH)2, NaOH, Fe(OH)3 . . NaCl, CaCO3, Ca(HCO3)2, (CaOH)2CO3. (). : , , .

    4 . 1.

    : 22 + 2 = 22. 2.

    : 22 = 22 + 2. 3.

    : NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O. 4.

    : Fe + CuSO4 = FeSO4 + Cu.

  • 9

    .

    , ( NA = 6,0231023). : , , 0,012 126 . ( , ) ( , , , ) :

    ..12AC = 1 = 12 ..182

    = 1 2 = 18

    22,4 (..). , P = 1 = 101, 325 , t = 0 C = 273,16 K. , ( ) . 22,4 .. (16 - 34 ), .

    , - - . , , , 1 8 . , HCI22CI2H =+ 1 35,5 . 35,5. :

    () () . , . : OH2SONaSOHNaOH2 24242 +=+ . NaOH

    ( NaOHM1NaOHM

    NaOH == ), 42SOH

    (2

    4SO2HM

    4SO2H = ).

    , , (-, -).

    10

    , , : . - , , , , , .

    1. , , ,

    , , . (. 1) [1, . 2; 2, . 5].

    2. , , , , , m , (. 1) [1, ; 2, . 1].

    1

    m,

    1 Li2O Ca(OH)2 H2SO3 MgSiO3 20,0 Li 2 H2SO4 CO2 Ba(NO3)2 Fe(OH)3 5,0 O 3 HClO N2O5 Co(OH)2 Na2SO4 3,0 Cl 4 SO3 CaCO3 HClO2 KOH 0,1 S 5 HClO3 NaHSO4 NO2 Ba(OH)2 12,0 H 6 HClO4 CaO Sr(OH)2 CaOHNO3 130,0 O 7 HNO3 NaOH AI2O3 Mg(HCO3)2 10,0 N 8 HPO3 Zn(OH)2 KHCO3 CrO3 60,0 P 9 H3PO4 MnO2 NaOH (CaOH)2SO4 25,0 P 10 H3AsO3 LiOH NaH2PO4 Fe2O3 0,3 As 11 H3AsO4 SiO2 Al(OH)3 Ca(AlO2)2 8,0 As 12 P2O5 Pb(OH)2 H2CO3 Fe(NO3)2 7,0 P 13 B2O3 H2SiO3 NiSO4 Sn(OH)2 14,0 B 14 HNO2 As2O3 Ca3(PO4)2 Ni(OH)2 20,0 N 15 H2SeO4 CsOH BaCl2 TiO2 45,0 Se

    3. , ,

    , . (. 2) [1, . 9, 12; 2, . 20 - 27].

    2

  • 11

    1 Al Al2O3 AlCl3 Al(OH)3 NaAlO2 2 CaCO3 CO2 H2CO3 Na2CO3 NaCl 3 H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 FeCl3 HCl H2O 4 NaOH Na2SO4 NaCl Na NaOH 5 N2 NH3 NH4NO3 NH3 NH4OH 6 MgO MgCl2 MgCO3 MgCl2 Cl2 7 CuSO4 Cu CuO Cu(NO3)2 Cu(OH)2 8 Mg Mg(OH)2 MgCO3 Mg(HCO3)2 MgO 9 Ca(OH)2 CaO Ca(NO3)2 Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 10 H2 H2O NaOH Be(OH)2 Na2BeO2 11 Fe FeCl3 Fe(OH)3 H2O H2 12 Cr2O3 CrCl3 Cr(OH)3 NaCrO2 Cr(NO3)3 13 H3PO4 Na3PO4 Ca3(PO4)2 H3PO4 (NH4)2HPO4 14 Co(OH)2 CoCl2 HCl H2CO3 Na2CO3 15 AgNO3 Ba(NO3)2 HNO3 NO2 N2O5

    4. , - (. 3). [1, . 11 - 12; 2, .20 - 27].

    5. , , , , (. 4) [1, . 9,11,12; 2, . 4, 20 27]. 3 A B 1 2 3 1 H2SO4 Ni(OH)2 2 HBr Cr(OH)3 3 LiOH H3PO4 4 CsOH H3AsO3 5 RbOH H3AsO4 6 HNO3 Fe(OH)3 7 Mg(OH)2 HCl 8 H3PO4 KOH 9 Zn(OH)2 H2SO4

    12

    1 2 3 10 HPO3 Fe(OH)3 11 Ca(OH)2 H2CO3 12 H2SiO3 Ca(OH)2 13 Ba(OH)2 H2SeO4 14 HClO4 Al(OH)3 15 H2SO3 Ca(OH)2

    6. D

    : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) (. 4) [1, . 11,12; 2, . 20 - 27].

    4

    D

    1 Li Ti N BeO 2 Se Mg O TiO2 3 F Mn Be Cr2O3 4 Na Cl Co Ga2O3 5 Ni Ca I MnO2 6 S Mg K ZnO 7 Ba V B GeO2 8 Se Sr W GeO 9 Zn As C Ta2O5 10 Al Ag Cs In2O3 11 Si Ga Pt SnO 12 Hg B Sn PbO 13 Pb P Cd SnO2 14 Ta Zn SB PbO2 15 Te Re Cu Al2O3

    2.

    - , , , . . , .

  • 13

    1, ( ). .

    , (S) 3s234, - : 3s 3p 3d

    5 3d-, :

    3s 3p 3d 4, p3d;

    3s 3p 3d 6, sp3d2.

    . , , . , (2), . , ( ) , . (l) (NaCl) . . . . , - (NH4+). (Fe), , , ( ). , - , , , . , .

    14

    7. , , ,

    . - ; , , (. 5) [1, . 1; 2, . 3]. 5

    1 K Cl Pt 2 Li Tl Re 3 Be P Pd 4 Na Br Rh 5 Br Se Ta 6 Ra As Os 7 Ba I Zr 8 Cs Ge W 9 Sr C Ni 10 Ca Si Fe 11 Pb S Co 12 Mg Sb Mn 13 Li Sn V 14 He Pb Ti 15 H Te Hg

    8. , , ,

    , (. 6) [1, . 2; 2, . 5].

    9. , - , , , , n. , , , . , (. 7) [1, . 10; 2, . 14].

  • 15

    6

    1 H2SO4 O2 FeOHCl2 2 Fe(OH)3 F2 (NH4)2SO4 3 HClO4 Cl2 Co(NO3)3 4 Ca(OH)2 P KHSO4 5 NaOH Na NaHCO3 6 HNO3 S2 NH4Cl 7 KOH N2 KH2PO4 8 H2SO4 C BaOHCl 9 Ba(OH)2 Al Ca(HCO3)2 10 HNO2 I2 BaOHCl 11 Co(OH)2 Cr Na3PO4 12 H3PO4 H2 Fe(OH)2Cl 13 HCl Fe CaOHCl 14 Mg(OH)2 Br2 Na2CO3 15 HClO3 Cu NH4NO3

    7

    n

    1 Fe3+ CNS- - NH4+ 6 2 Co2+ CN- OH- Na4+ 4 3 Ni2+ CI- Br- K+ 4 4 Cu2+ NH3 - SO42- 4 5 Pt4+ H2O I- NO34- 6 6 Ag+ NH3 - Cl- 2 7 Hg2+ CN- Cl- K+ 4 8 Pb2+ I- - K+ 4 9 Pt2+ NH3 H2O SO42- 4 10 Ti4+ H2O Cl- NO3 6 11 Mo4+ I- Br- K+ 8 12 Co3+ H2O - OH- 6 13 W4+ H2O Cl- Na+ 8 14 Fe2+ NH3 Cl- K+ 4 15 Ni3+ CI- H2O NO3- 6

    16

    3.

    , , . , ( , V, T, U, , , S, - , , G). - ( ) ( ): = 2 1.

    () : H = U PV ( VPU = ). ( ) . , . , : + 22 4,

    85,74 40298 = .

    ( = 1 , = 298 ). 0298 .

    (S) (Q) ():

    TQS = .

    . , H2O() H2O() , . - ( , G)

    : G = H TS ( STHG = ). . . , , (

    ),

    ( ). , , , , . ,

  • 17

    4 + 22 = 2 + 22 :

    ).(34,8020)85,74()84,241(251,393

    OH2CHHOHH2COHHAaHBbH 202984

    02982

    02982

    0298

    n

    1iii

    m

    1jjjP

    0298

    =+=

    =+== ==

    , ( ) 0 . G . 0G

  • 19

    [ ][ ][ ] [ ]6262

    626126

    2

    1

    kk

    == . 0k1 0k 2 , 0K p , [ ] 0OHC 6126 ,

    [ ] 0O2 . , . , . , : KlnRTG = . G

    , ; R = 8,314

    ; , ;

    .

    . , , : , , , , . .

    , N2 + 3H2 2NH3 . ( ), . , , 4 (1 3 ), 2 (), .. , . , - (PV = const ) . , , . , .

    . , N2 + 3H2 2NH3 [ ] [ ] [ ] 2:3:1NH:H:N 322 = . , .

    20

    10. , ,

    0298H 0298S ,

    (, 0298G =0),

    , (. 8, 9) [1, . 5; 2, . 8 - 9]. 8

    1 () + 2 2 2 + 2 2 3 Fe2O3() + CO Fe() + 2 4 FeO() + 2 Fe() + 2() 5 Al2O3 + 2 Al() + 2() 6 + 2 4 + 2 7 2 + 2 4 + 2( 8 Fe2O3 + CO Fe() + 2 9 4 + 2 2 + 2() 10 Al2O3() + () Al() + 2 11 FeO() + Fe() + 2 12 2 + () 13 2 + 2 2() 14 FeO() + 2 Fe2O3() 15 Fe() + 2() FeO() + 2

    11. + = +D,

    . , : 1) t ; 2) V; 3) . . , , , D ( 1 , 2 ) (. 10, 11) [1, . 6 - 7; 2, . 10].

  • 21

    9 0298H , /

    0298S , /

    2 0 130,60 2 0 205,03 0 5,74 Fe() 0 27,15 Al() 0 28,31 -110,50 197,40 2 -393,51 213,60 2() -241,84 188,74 4 -74,85 186,19 FeO() -263,68 58,79 Fe2O3() -821,32 89,96 Al2O3() -1675,00 50,94

    10

    , /

    D D

    1 22 O2 CO2 H2O() 2,0 3,0 1,0 1,0 1,9 2 26 O2 CO2 H2O() 1,0 4,0 2,0 3,0 0,8 3 2 Cl2 HCl - 2,0 3,0 4,0 - 1,0 4 N2 O2 NO - 1,0 0,5 2,0 - 0,7 5 NO O2 NO2 - 3,0 1,0 2,0 - 2,5 6 4 - H2 22 2,0 - 3,0 2,0 1,0 7 SO2 O2 SO3 - 4,0 3,0 3,0 - 2,5 8 N2 H2 NH3 - 2,0 4,0 4,0 - 1,4 9 O2 H2 CH4 H2O() 1,0 2,0 2,0 1,0 0,6 10 NO Cl2 NOCl - 3,0 5,0 1,0 - 2,5 11 2 O2 H2O() - 5,0 7,0 3,0 - 4,0 12 Cl O2 H2O() Cl2 2,0 3,0 1,5 2,0 1,8 13 O H2 CH4 H2O() 4,0 5,0 2,0 2,0 3,0 14 24 O2 C2 H2O() 1,0 2,0 2,0 3,0 0,7 15 2 CO2 H2O O2 1,0 1,0 2,0 5,0 0,5

    22

    11

    t = t2-t1, 2/1 V2/V1 CA2/CA1 CB2/CB1

    1 10 2,5 2 2 1 2 20 3,0 3 3 1/2 3 30 3,5 4 4 1/3 4 40 4,0 5 2 1/4 5 50 2,0 2 1/2 2 6 60 2,5 3 1/3 3 7 10 3,0 4 1/4 4 8 20 3,5 5 3 2 9 30 4,0 2 2 2 10 40 2,0 3 1 2 11 50 2,5 4 1/2 1/3 12 60 3,0 5 1 1/2 13 10 3,5 2 2 1/3 14 20 4,0 3 3 1/4 15 30 2,0 4 4 2 12. ,

    : 1) , 1 2, 2) 1 2, 3) . , (. 12) [1, . 6 - 7; 2, . 10]. 12

    E1, /

    E2, /

    1, K 2, K

    1 2 3 4 5 1 17,3 8,1 350 400 2 58,1 43,2 280 260 3 14,7 9,4 420 510 4 74,8 65,5 340 290 5 49,6 35,4 480 590 6 20,7 13,2 410 360 7 40,9 29,4 520 590 8 34,4 10,2 300 350 9 41,4 20,9 290 250 10 36,7 19,4 280 390

  • 23

    1 2 3 4 5 11 21,3 9,0 520 410 12 34,5 12,3 300 450 13 29,2 14,0 1200 700 14 51,1 32,7 500 850 15 12,1 5,4 600 300

    4.

    ( ) () , . 2CO () OH2 () : )(2 )(2 )(32 + + 3 + + 32 . ( 2CO , OH2 ) . () , ( ) . ( ), , , . :

    100V

    m100

    mmm

    100mm

    %

    =+

    == , m , ;

    m - , ; m - ; , /; V - , .

    :M

    10

    = ;

    10

    = ; 1001000

    1000

    MT =

    =

    = ; n = .

    , /; V , ; , , /; , /; , - /; , /; , /;

    n = . :

    LM1000mm

    = , m L

    .

    ( m CKit = ) ( m CKit = ) . ,ttt .. = .t ; .t

    24

    ; ,ttt .. = .t ; .t ; K K

    ( 86,1K = , 516,0K = ); i ,

    . i :

    1k1i

    = ,

    ( ); k , . , Cl2 Ca2+ + 2Cl- 8,0=

    ( ) ( ) 6,21138,011ki =+=+= , 1 2 ( 321k =+= ). , , , . 2 + + -. [ ] [ ]+ = OHHK W , , . , 20 W = 10-14, 100 W = 10-12. W = 10-14, [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 14OHlgHlg14OHlgHlg14OHHlg ==+= +++

    [ ]+= HlgpH [ ]= OHlgpOH , + = 14. . /. = = 7, < 7, > 7. .

    : H2SO4 H+ + HSO4- ( 1 ); HSO4- H+ + SO42- ( 2 ); H2SO4 2H+ + SO42- ( ).

    : ( > 30 %. HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 ., NaOH, KOH, ., ), (30 % > > 3 %), (3 % > ). . ,

    2 : [ ] [ ][ ]

    + =

    4

    24

    2HSO

    SOHK .

    . ,

  • 25

    ( ), ( ), ( ). , . , ZnCl2 1 : ZnCl2 + H2O ZnOHCl + HCl ( ); Zn2+ + 2Cl- + H2O ZnOH+ + H+ + 2Cl- ( ); Zn2+ + H2O ZnOH+ + H+ ( ). , . . , Zn2+ ( ), H+ ( < 7).

    () .

    : [ ] [ ][ ]+++

    =22 Zn

    HZnOHZnCl (

    ).

    13. m VA . , , , 10VA 1 , , (. 13) [1, . 8; 2, . 11].

    14. ( ), . ( ) , , 1 , ( > 7, < 7, = 7) (. 14) [1, . 8; 2, . 11 - 12].

    15. [H+] [H-], , + 1 , ( > 7, < 7, = 7). , 10 . , (. 15). : [1, . 8; 2, . 11 - 12].

    26

    13

    A , / m, VA,

    1 NaOH 1,225 20 80 2 KOH 1,286 30 40 3 H2SO4 1,307 40 60 4 HNO3 1,316 50 50 5 HCl 1,121 24 76 6 NaOH 1,268 28 72 7 KOH 1,437 42 58 8 H2SO4 1,127 18 72 9 HNO3 1,054 10 90 10 HCl 1,163 32 68 11 NaOH 1,137 12 88 12 KOH 1,048 6 94 13 H2SO4 1,324 42 58 14 HNO3 1,093 16 84 15 HCl 1,039 8 92

    14

    1 H2SO3 Ba(OH)2 NiSO4 Na2CO3 2 HNO2 Sr(OH)2 AlCl3 K2SO3 3 KClO2 Ni(OH)2 Fe(NO3)3 BaSiO3 4 H2SeO3 KOH Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO2)2 5 H2SiO3 NaOH FeCl3 K2SeO3 6 CH3COOH Fe(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 Na3AsO4 7 H2SO4 Cu(OH)2 NiCl2 CaS 8 H3AsO4 Mn(OH)2 CoSO4 Ba(CH3COO)2 9 H3PO4 Mg(OH)2 Na2SO3 MnSO4 10 HNO3 Fe(OH)3 K2SiO3 MnCl2 11 HCl Co(OH)2 Ba(NO2)2 Mn(NO3)2 12 H2CO3 Ca(OH)2 CaSeO3 FeSO4 13 HPO3 Ni(OH)3 K3AsO4 Al(NO3)3 14 H2S Pb(OH)2 Na2S Ni(NO3)2 15 HClO3 Cd(OH)2 K2CO3 CoCl2

  • 27

    15

    [H+], / [H-], /

    1 10-3 - 2 - 1,7 10-2 3 3 10-8 - 4 - 3,4 10-5 5 5 10-4 - 6 - 7,2 10-9 7 6 10-10 - 8 - 1,02 10-2 9 4,1 10-5 - 10 - 6,8 10-7 11 1,2 10-7 - 12 - 8,5 10-3 13 7,1 10-2 - 14 - 5,1 10-8 15 2,5 10-9 - 16. ,

    ( ) () t (t) . , = 0,516 , = 1,86 . , V . , () (. 16) [1, . 8; 2, . 11 - 12]. 16

    t, t, , % V,

    1 2 3 4 5 6 1 24(OH)2 1,0 - 0 2 2 Na2PO4 - 2,0 75 5 3 K2SO4 3,0 - 85 10 4 NaCl - 5,0 90 3 5 H2SO4 7,0 - 70 4 6 1222O11 - 1,0 0 6 7 (N4)2CO3 2,5 - 60 70 8 35(OH)3 - 0,5 0 9

    28

    1 2 3 4 5 6 9 25OH 1,0 - 0 12 10 612O6 - 1,5 0 8 11 37OH 0,6 - 0 11 12 3OH - 1,2 0 13 13 3COOH 1,3 - 5 10 14 FeCl3 - 5,0 80 15 15 Na2CO3 2,0 - 75 14

    5. -

    - () , (, 22

    402

    0 OCOC ++ ). , , (2), (). : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) , . , , , . , - . .

    , ( ). , - (G < 0). , , Zn|Zn2+||Cu|Cu2+, : An: Zn 2 Zn2+ ( ) Kt: Cu2+ + 2 Cu ( ) Cu2+ + Zn Zn2+ + Cu ( , ) Me enMen ++ , Me , ; +nMe ; n () , : cln

    nFRTEE 0 +=

    , ; 0 ,

  • 29

    R = 8,31 / ; , ; F (K),

    eq AN , ( 96500106106,1NqF 2319Ae == K); n () ; (, ) . , F, R, T = 298 (25 0) : clg

    n059...

Recommended

View more >