- 2 25.04.2003 .
. 3 .
1 : .
Present Past Future
I do I did
I shall/will do
I am doing I was doing
I shall/will be doing
I have done I had done
I shall/will have done
: A. 1) I like chocolate. 2) My father drives to his office every day. 3) I know the
answer. 4) She left home at 6 oclock. 5) My friend will come here tomorrow. 6) I will help you. 7) I washed my face and neck. 8) They are always careful. 9) The sun rises in the East. It happened a very long time ago.
B. 1) They say they are going to London tomorrow. 2) He was driving to his office when he saw Jane. 3) We will be waiting for you tomorrow at 5 oclock in the evening. 4) The students are reading texts now. 5) Listen! They are speaking Greek. 6) We will be playing tennis at 3 oclock. 7) Tomorrow Im going to the library. 8) Mother is making toasts in the kitchen now. She always makes toasts for breakfast. 9) John is doing his homework now. 10) While I was watching TV, my sister was cooking.
C. 1) My friend has moved to London. 2) Bill has just come back. 3) This year students of our group have read and discussed several books by English writers. 4) When I came, Jack had already gone away. 5) They have been to different countries. 6) When I have finished my homework I will go to the cinema. 7) My friend has passed his examinations successfully. 8) He will have finished his report by Monday. 9) When I came to the car park I realized that I had left my key at home. 10) By the time they came we had already discussed this question.
1. I write a letter. 2. Richard walks to school. 3. We lived in that house. 4. My father is working in the garden. 5. Yesterday at 5 oclock they were watching TV. 6. Last month we travelled to London. 7. I have read this book. 8. We are at home on Sundays. 9. The book lies on the table. 10) They took part in the competition last week.
: They study English. Do they study English? She studies German. Does she study German?
1. She helps me. 2. We listen to the music. 3. You make a lot of mistakes. 4. The farmer works in the field. 5. A friend plays the piano. 6. That man lives next door to us. 7. Careless students never do their work well. 8. It usually rains in autumn. 9. I go to school on my bicycle. 10. We always spend holiday in Scotland. IV. : : Do you study English? Yes, I do./ No, I do not.(dont) Does your sister study English? Yes, she does./No, she does not(doesnt) 1. Does Mr. Brown go to his office every day? 2. Do you believe me? 3. Does she write to her brother every day? 4. Do they wear uniform? 5. Do you like sweets? 6. Does your father own a shop? 7. Do they grow fruit in the garden? 8. Does his mother work as a teacher? 9. Do you take your little brother to school? 10. Does this baker sell good cakes? V. : Mr. Green drives the car. Who drives the car? 1.The boy tries to understand the lesson. 2. The teacher comes to school early. 3. The birds sing sweetly. 4. They learn English at school. 5. We buy fruit from Greece. 6. They know Henry. 7. You come to school every day. 8. This book costs 2 pounds. 9. Mary lives in Salonika. 10. I speak clearly. VI. :
What What books
How many books Where What When
do do do
does does does
you you you
your brother he
read every month? study?
. 1. Egypt grows a lot of cotton. 2. He takes English lessons every day.
3. They all go to the football matches. 4. Mary sews all dolls dresses. 5. There are five windows in this room. 6. In autumn the leaves fall from the trees. 7. Mary has a birthday in October. 8. Henry lives in London. 9. The Sudan lies to the south of Egypt. 10. That bicycle costs 100 pounds.
to be + Participle II
is was written. will be
has been had been written. will have been
is being was being written.
I. . A) 1. Youre wanted on the phone. 2. When was this house built? 3. He was shown
the way to the Ministry. 4. Who was the book written by? 5. A new library will soon be built here. 6. Our students are given a lot of homework every day. 7. What kind of books are discussed in the class? 8. How many houses are built in our town every year? 9. The delegation was met at the station. 10. The theatre wasnt built last year.
B) 1. Nobody likes to be sent for at night. 2 This must be done at once. 3. He cant be given a holiday now. 4. We have a lot of work to do. 5. He will have to be asked about it tomorrow. 6.I dont like to be talked about. 7. The road is being built now. 8. The question has been discussed already. 9. The field was being ploughed by the farmer. 10. All this week our house is being painted.
II. : 1.The girl rings the bell. 2. Everybody forgets that. 3. Does the wind blow the clouds away. 4. Mary is cooking the dinner. 5. They are examining the new student now. 6. Somebody has broken the window. 7. The cat has caught a mouse. 8. Most people have heard this story. 9. Have the pupils finished the exercises? 10. The wind was blowing the clouds away. 11. The shot had frightened the birds. 12. Lightning had struck the house. 13. The postman will deliver the letters. 14. People will forget it after a few weeks. 15. Will they show the film? 16. Someone printed this book in London.
III. : 1. The letters are delivered by the postman. 2. That is forgotten by everybody. 3. The clouds are blown away by the wind. 4. That was forgotten by everybody. 5. The city is being defended bravely by the soldiers. 6. Mr. Brown is being sent abroad on business. 7. A battleship is being sent to the war area. 8. Is the new student being examined now? 9. This chair has been broken by someone. 10. Everything that was needed has been done by George. IV. , . 1. Houses are built very quickly now. 2. This work will be finished tomorrow. 3. The delegation was met at the station. 4. The article has been translated into Russian. 5. The work can be done tomorrow morning. 6. The doctor has been sent for. 7. The question has been discussed. 8. You are wanted on the phone. 9. The rules will be revised at the next lesson. 10. The book was written in 1999. V. . One evening a young man at Oxford who (to know) to be something of a poet (to read) one of his poems to a small group of friends in his room. The poem (to admire) greatly, but as they (to come) away one of the friends, Charles, (to say) , I (to interest) very much in Alfreds poem but it (to steal) from a book.. This remark (to repeat) to Alfred, who (to annoy) and (to demand) an apology. Well , (to say) Charles, I (not take) back what I (to say), but on this occasion I (to admit) I (to be mistaken). When I (to get) to my room I (to look) in the book from which I (to think) the poem (to steal) and I (to find) it (to be) still there. VI. . 1. . 2. ? 3. ,
? 4. . 5. . 6. , ? 7. .
8. . 9. ? 10. , .
he is doing it now he does it every day he did it some days ago he has just done it
He says (that) he will do it in June He has said (that) he will be doing it at 5 o clock
he will have done it by 5 oclock
he was doing it He said (that) he did it every evening he had done it some days before he had just done it he would do it in June he would be doing it at 5 o clock he would have done it by 5 oclock I. . 1. I thought you spoke Russian. 2. He said he was very busy and couldnt stay for the lecture. 3. I was sure that you knew everything. 4. She thought we were waiting for her. 5. We wrote to our partners that we liked their new ideas. 6. I wasnt sure that he knew my address. 7. We didnt know that they were still having talks. 8. We didnt know that you had already discussed the problem. 9. We agreed that the goods would be packed in wooden boxes. 10. I wasnt sure that the book was worth reading. 11. I knew he was a historical person. 12. I thought the seafront was a long way from the hotel. 13. Did you say it was a historical novel? 14. He said he would visit us as soon as he got to London. 15. The director hoped the film would be a success. II. . 1.When Jack came home, his sister told him that Peter had rung him up half an hour (ago, before).2. Did you work or were you still going to school two years (ago, before)? the teacher asked one of the students. 3. Last week I asked my friend to translate this article, but he said he couldnt do it (now, then) and said he would do it (in two days, two days later). 4. My friend spent his last week-end in the country. He says the weather was fine (today, that day). 5. I gave my friend a book last week and he said he would return it (tomorrow, next day), but he hasnt
done so yet. 6. Are you going to give a talk (tomorrow, next day)?my friend asked me. 7. He wanted to know when we were going (here, there)again. III. . 1.The author of the article wrote that until the 1990s the Americans (to supply) themselves with energy from their own sources. 2. Magellan finally proved conclusively that the Earth (to be) not flat. 3. The guide informed us that there (to be) no permanent residents on the island until 20th century. 4. Leonardo da Vinci discovered that Moon (to shine) by reflected sunshine. 5. Already in the 50s there was some evidence that new discoveries in this field (to be made) . 6. The scientists insisted that sleep (to be) just a waste of time. 7. He discovered his abilities as a hypnotist when he (to be) a schoolboy. 8. Socrates said that nothing (can) harm a good man. 9. The man explained that he (not to speak) English. IV. . 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , ? 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , , . 10. , , . : 1. .
( ) . 2. () 7-10 ,
. 3. (). TEXT 1. 1. Unlike the Germanic invasions, the Norman invasion was small-scale. There was no such things as a Norman area of settlement. Instead, the Norman Nobles were given the ownership of land and of the people living on it. 2. William saw England as an extension of his French domains. He had all land divided into manors. Most manors contained a village. Great nobles, or barons, were given several manors in return for a promise to serve him in war. They also had to give him part of the produce of the land. The barons gave some of their manors t knights (lesser nobles), who paid them for the land in the same way. That was the strict feudal system imposed by William: barons were directly responsible to the king, knights were responsible to a baron.
3. Under the barons and knights were the peasantry, who were often little better than slaves. Over three quarters of the country people were serfs who were not free to leave their lords service or his land without permission. 4. William kept the Anglo-Saxon system of sheriffs, and used these as a balance to local nobles. He kept a fifth of the farmland to himself. As a result, England unlike France, had only one powerful family. 5. Most of the Norman nobles had land on both sides of the English Channel, in England and in Normandy. 6. A very small number of Saxon lords kept their lands. All the others lost everything. Many of them fled to lowland Scotland. After each English rebellion there was more land to give away. Over 4,000 English landlords were replaced by 200 Norman ones. By 1086, only two of the greater landlords and only two bishops were English. 7. In 1086, Williams officials surveyed much of England to record the ownership, size and value of each manor Their records formed The Domesday Book which provided information for Williams tax offices. 8. French became the language of the countrys ruling class for several years. But Anglo-Normans had to talk to the conquered population traders, craftsmen and peasants, and fairly soon they (the third generation) became bilingual. TEXT 2. 1. The Hundred Years War was followed by a long power struggle(1455-85) for the English Crown between the two branches of the royal family, which Walter Scott later called the Wars o the Roses. 2. The man who ended the war and united the two royal houses and their supporters was Henry Tudor, duke of Richmond, who became King Henry VII giving origin to the Tudor dynasty (1485-1603). 3. Henry avoided quarrels with neighbors and made important trade agreements with European countries. He was careful to keep the friendship of the merchant and lesser gentry classes who produced most of the nations wealth. Like him they wanted peace and prosperity. He understood earlier than most people that Englands future wealth would depend on international trade and he built a large fleet of merchant ships. Henry VII built the foundations of a wealthy nation state and a powerful monarchy. 4. He sent his seamen to explore the Atlantic coast of North America soon after Columbuss great discovery. But England did not start colonizing the new continent until the early seventeenth century when it had become strong enough. 5. In the 1530s, henry VIII, wasteful and ambitious, broke away from Rome, and Parliament made him head of the Church of England. An English Bible was placed in every church for people to read. After a careful survey of Church property Henry VIII closed 560 monasteries and took over their land and wealth. He sold much of their lands to the rising classes of landowners and merchants to boost his...