Информационные технологии: Электронный учебник

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  • . .

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    2004 .

  • 007 32.81

    59

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    .. 59 . . :

    . -, 2004. - 208 .

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    .., 2004

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    ..................................................................................................... 7

    ....................................................................................................................... 9

    .............................................................................................................................. 10 ................................................................................................. 12 ............................................................................. 13 ...................................................................................................... 13 .......................................................................................... 14

    1. ........................ 15 1.1. ...................................................................................................... 16

    1.1.1. ...................................................................................... 16 1.1.2. ..................................................................................................................... 18 1.1.3. ................................................................................................... 19 1.1.4. .................................................................................. 19

    1.2. .................................................................................... 21 1.2.1. ........................................................................................ 21 1.2.2. ...................................................................... 23 1.2.3. ......................................... 25

    1.3. ...................................................................... 29 1.3.1. ......................................................... 29 1.3.2. .............................................................. 31 1.3.3. ....................................................... 32

    1.4. .............................. 34 1.4.1. .......... 34 1.4.2. ......... 35 1.4.3. ... 37 1.4.4.

    .................................................................................................................................. 37 1.4.5. ............ 42

    1.5. .................................................. 45 1.5.1. ..................................... 45 1.5.2. ,

    ................................................................................................................................ 46 1.5.3. ...................... 47 1.5.4.

    , .................................................... 48 1.6.

    .......................................................................................................................................................... 49 1.6.1. ................................................................................. 49 1.6.2. .............................................................. 49 1.6.3. ......................................................... 50 1.6.4. .......................................................... 51 1.6.5. ........................................................ 52

    1....................................................................................... 53 .............................................................................................. 55 1 ........................................................................................... 56

    2.

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    ...........................................................................................................................................58 2.1.

    ...................................................................................................59 2.1.1. ...................................................................................................59 2.1.2. ...............................................................................................61 2.1.3. ........................................................................................62 2.1.4. ............................................................................................62 2.1.5. ........................................................................................63 2.1.6. ...............................................................................................65 2.1.7.

    ....................................................................................................65 2.2. ................................................66

    2.2.1. .........................................................66 2.2.2. .................................................66 2.2.3. ..................................................67 2.2.4. .......67 2.2.5. - .............................68

    2.3. .......................................71 2.3.1. ....................................71 2.3.2. ......................................................71 2.3.3. ...........72 2.3.4.

    ......................................................................................................................................................74 2.4. .................................................................................75

    2.4.1. ......................................................................................................................................................75

    2.4.2. ....................................................................77 2.4.3. .....................................................................................................78 2.4.4. ...............................................................................................78 2.4.5. .................................................................................................79 2.4.6. ........................................................................................79 2.4.7. ...................................................................................79 2.4.8. .............................................79 2.4.9. ..........................................................................80 2.4.10. .........................................................................80 2.4.11. ..............................................................80 2.4.12. .......................................................................80

    2.5. ............................................................................81 2.5.1.

    ......................................................................................................................81 2.5.2. .......................................................83 2.5.3. .......................................................................................................85 2.5.4. ..............................................................85 2.5.5. .....................................................................................86 2.5.6. ...................................................................................86 2.5.7. .................................................................................................87 2.5.8. .........................................................................................87

    2.6. ..........................................................................88 2.6.1. .................................................................................88 2.6.2. ..............................................................................89 2.6.3. ...........................90 2.6.4. ..................................................................92

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    2.7. ............................................................................................................................................ 95

    2.7.1. ............ 95 2.7.2. ......................................................................................... 101 2.7.3. ...................................................................................... 102 2.7.4. ....................................................................................................... 104 2.7.5. ...................................................................... 105 2.7.6. ................................................................................................... 105

    2..................................................................................... 106 ............................................................................................ 107 2 ......................................................................................... 109

    3. .......................................................................................................................... 112

    3.1. ............. 113 3.1.1. .................................................. 113 3.1.2. ................................................................ 114

    3.2. .................................................................................................................................. 116

    3.2.1. ............................. 116 3.2.2. ............................................ 118

    3.3. ............................................................................................................................... 121

    3.3.1. 121 3.3.2. ................................................................ 121 3.3.3. ............................................................................................... 122

    3.4. ...................................... 124 3.4.1. ................................................................................... 124 3.4.2. ..................................................................................... 124

    3.5. ................................... 125 3.6. ..................... 128

    3.6.1. ............................................................. 128 3.6.2. ....................................................................... 130 3.6.3. ......................................................... 135 3.6.4. .......................................... 138 3.6.5. .................................................................................. 139 3.6.6. ................ 140

    3.7. .................................. 143 3.7.1. .............................................................................................. 143 3.7.2. .................................................................................................. 144 3.7.3. .................................................................................................. 146

    3.8. ..................................................................... 147 3.8.1. ............................................................................................. 147 3.8.2. .............................................................................................. 147 3.8.3. ........................................................................................ 148 3.8.4. ............................................................................................... 148 3.8.5. ........................................................................................ 148 3.8.6. ................................................................................................... 148 3.8.7. ............................................................................................... 149 3.8.8. .............................................................................................. 149

    3..................................................................................... 149 ............................................................................................ 151

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    3 .........................................................................................152

    4. ...................155 4.1. ...........................................155

    4.1.1. ......................................155 4.1.2. .............................................................156 4.1.3. .........................................................157 4.1.4. .........................................................158

    4.2. - .......................................................................159 4.2.1. -.................................................159 4.2.2. ....................163

    4.3. ..............................................164 4.3.1. ....................................................164 4.3.2. ..165 4.3.3. ................................167 4.3.4. .......................................169

    4.4. ...................................................................170 4.4.1. ................................................170 4.4.2. .................................................172 4.4.3. ...........................................................................173

    4.5. ..............................................................173 4.6. ...................................175 4.7. .............................................176

    4.7.1. .......................................176 4.7.2. ................................................................176

    4 .....................................................................................179 ............................................................................................180 4 .........................................................................................180

    .....................................................................................................................183

    .......................................................................................................................185

    .........................................................................................................................187

    ...........................................................................................203

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