Παιδιατρική | Τόμος 75 • Τεύχος 1 • Ιανουάριος - Φεβρουάριος - Μάρτιος 2012

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<ul><li><p> 75 1 -- 2012 75 1 -- 2012</p><p>Volume 75 Number 1 January-February-March 2012Volume 75 Number 1 January-February-March 2012</p><p>www.paediatriki.edu.grwww.paediatriki.edu.grISSN 0377-2551ISSN 0377-2551</p></li><li><p> e-mail: hps@ath.forthnet.gr</p><p> :http://www.e-child.gr/paediatriki/iae.pdf</p><p> E . </p><p>I 15,15451, . T.: 2107771140, 2107771663e-mail: grammateia@e-child.gr proedros@e-child.gr</p><p>E : 40E, : 20</p><p> E E</p><p> 75 1 -- 2012</p><p>. </p><p> . . </p><p>M. . . . . . . K-. . -. . . . -. -</p><p>04</p><p>10</p><p>18</p><p>34</p><p>44</p><p>56</p><p>72</p><p>86</p><p>96</p><p>102</p><p>108</p><p>114</p><p>H O Y </p><p> : , . </p><p> , , . </p><p> 2 : , . </p><p> : , , . </p><p> - , , . </p><p> 5 - , , , , , - , , , , , - . </p><p> (eNO) - , , , , , . </p><p> : , , . </p><p>- , , . </p><p> ( Kikuchi-Fujimoto) E, , , , M . </p><p> : , , , . </p></li><li><p>Trimonthly publication of the Greek Paediatric Society</p><p>PaediatrikiVolume 75 Number 1 January-February-March 2012</p><p>PresidentA. Constantopoulos</p><p>Editorial boardDirectorG. S. Varlamis</p><p>MembersS. AndronikouE. GalanakisA. EvangeliouL. ThomaidouM. KanariouA. KapogiannisS. Kitsiou-TzeliE. MantadakisP. Panagiotopoulou-GartaganiA. PapadopoulouV. PapaevagelouA. PapathanassiouA. Siamopoulou-MavridouA. Syrigou-Papavasiliou</p><p>Manuscript submissione-mail: hps@ath.forthnet.gr</p><p>Instructions to authors:http://www.e-child.gr/paediatriki/iae.pdf</p><p>Manuscript editingEnglish editingS. Nakou</p><p>OwnerGreek Paediatric Society15, Mpakopoulou st.GR - 15451, . PsychikoT.: +302107771140, +302107771663e-mail: grammateia@e-child.gr proedros@e-child.gr</p><p>Annual subscriptionAll foreign countries: US$50</p><p>CONTENTS</p><p>04</p><p>10</p><p>18</p><p>34</p><p>44</p><p>56</p><p>72</p><p>86</p><p>96</p><p>102</p><p>108</p><p>114</p><p>EDITORIAL</p><p>SPECIAL ARTICLEPaediatric Neurology: Past, present, and futureS. G. Youroukos</p><p>REVIEW ARTICLESAssessment of lung function in preschoolersVasiliki Avramidou, Elpis Hatziagorou, Ioannis Tsanakas</p><p>ype 2 diabetes mellitus in children and young adults; obesity as a major pathogenetic mechanismAngeliki A. Makri, Demetrios P. Chiotis</p><p>Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: outcome with current therapeutic protocols and modern therapeutic approachesMaria Abatzidou, Euthymia Rigatou and Sophia Polychronopoulou</p><p>Infections in immunocompromised childrenFilippou Olga, Kalambalikis Panagiotis, Vliora Christianna</p><p>ORIGINAL ARTICLESA Greek multicenter study comparing the clinical and immunologic pheno-types between adult and juvenile-onset lupusP. Nalbanti, S. Stefanidou, S. Alfantaki, A. Siamopoulou, M. Trachana, V. Galano-poulou, P. Pratsidou-Gertsi, E. Farmaki, F. Papachristou, A. Garyphallos, F. Kana-koudi-Tsakalidou</p><p>The role of exhaled Nitric Oxide (eNO) in modification of treatment among asthmatic childrenElpis Hatziagorou, Vasiliki Avaramidou, Fotis Kirvassilis, Antigoni Mavroudi, Mar-ia Emboriadou, John Tsanakas</p><p>CASE REPORTSParotid pleomorphic adenoma in childhood: report of a case and review of the literatureEvangelia Tsakiropoulou, George Kontzoglou, Aris Maganaris</p><p>Osteomyelitis: a complication of varicellaH. Papadimitriou, M. Argyrou, J. Kavaliotis</p><p>ikuchi-Fujimoto disease in a 12-year old girl with pauciarticular juvenile idi-opathic arthritisE. Spatoula, F. Haliotis, C. Stefanaki, E. Efthimiou, N. Manolaki</p><p>Haemophagocytic syndrome: report of three casesGeorgia Avgerinou, V. Papadakis, Kleoniki Roka and Sophia Polychronopoulou</p></li><li><p> .</p><p> , , </p><p>, , </p><p> , .</p><p> , </p><p> , </p><p>, , , , </p><p>.</p><p>( , ), </p><p> ( </p><p> - - 2 </p><p> ), , </p><p> 1 , </p><p> . 4 </p><p> . </p><p> EDITORIAL</p></li><li><p> - </p><p> 1. . : , </p><p> . , - 10 , 2010, , .</p><p>2. , , . </p><p> , , . , , .</p><p>3. , . 2 : </p><p> 2 (-2) . -2, , , , . .</p><p>4. , , . : </p><p> , , .</p><p>5. , , . - </p><p> , - - .</p><p>6. , , , , , - , , , , , - . 5 </p><p> , . .</p></li><li><p>7. , , , , , . (eNO) </p><p> (eNO) . .</p><p>8. , , . : </p><p> , , .</p><p>9. , , . - </p><p> - , .</p><p>10. E, , , , M . - ( Kikuchi-Fujimoto) </p><p> Kikuchi-Fujimoto, .</p><p>11. , , , . : </p><p> ( -). 3 .</p><p>..</p></li><li><p> , </p><p>2011.</p><p>Petersen Michael</p><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>- </p><p> -</p><p> 74 2011 </p><p>-Gantenbein </p><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>- </p></li><li><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>- </p><p>- </p></li><li><p>0</p><p> SPECIAL ARTICLE</p><p>: , </p><p> . </p><p> 10 , 2010.</p><p> 50 . 1950 , . , . 1951 , . 1968 , 1992. 50 ... , . European Paediatric Neurology Society 6,5 . .... 2009, 7 (4 , 6 , 2,5 ). 2002 , . 30 1-2 . , .</p><p>-: , , </p><p>Paediatric Neurology: Past, present, and future</p><p>S. G. Youroukos</p><p> During the last 50 years paediatric neurology was internationally recognized and es-tablished. After 1950 it became clear that paediatricians as well as adult neurologists could not manage efficiently neurological disorders in children. At that time in some ma-jor paediatric hospitals of developed countries, the first efforts to organize paediatric neurology units were started. In Greece the first effort to organize such a unit took place in 1951 in the Athens University Department of Paediatrics in St. Sophia Childrens Hospital. Since 1968, international societies for paediatric neurology have been formed, while the Hellenic Paediatric Neurology Association was formed in 1992. In the fifties a 3-year-training program was organized in U.S.A. This program was later extended to 5 years. In Europe, the training program proposed by the European Paediatric Neurology Society, is 6.5 years long. In Greece, the program proposed to the Ministry of Health by the committee appointed in 2009, has a duration of 7 years (4 years paediatrics, 6 months neurology, 2.5 years paediatric neurology). Since 2002 paediatric neurology has been rec-ognized in Europe as subspecialty of paediatrics with strong relation to neurology. In Greece we have more than 30 paediatric neurologists and 1-2 new ones are expected every year. It is hoped that the ability to provide full training of high level in Greece, will lead to better paediatric neurology services in the country.</p><p>Key words: paediatric neurology, training, subspecialty</p><p>Abstract</p><p> . </p><p>S. G. YouroukosFirst Department of Paediatrics, University of AthensAghia Sophia Childrens Hospital</p></li><li><p> = </p><p>2DG = 2--D- </p><p>TCA = </p><p>GNU = </p><p>GABA = - </p><p>DON = 6--5--L- </p><p>AEDs = </p><p>MCT1 = 1</p><p>ATP = </p><p> . , 11527, .: 2108061714, 6972721996www.pediatrics-uoa.edu.gre-mail: sotel@hol.gr</p><p>CorrespodenceS. G. YouroukosThivon &amp; Livadias, 11527, Athens, Greeceel.:+302108061714, +306972721996www.pediatrics-uoa.edu.gre-mail: sotel@hol.gr</p><p> . 19 20 . Little, , (1). 1950, , (2,3). . . (3). 1950 , ( ) . . ... W. Lennox (Boston Childrens Hospital), P. Dodge (Mass General Hospital, Boston), S. Carter (New York) D. Clark (John Hopkins, Baltimore). S. Prichard (Toronto), W. Wyllie R. McKeith Y. Fukuyama (2). 20 . 1897 Sachs (2). V. Hutinel ( 1909) 1036 (Maladies des enfants: Tome V. Maladies du Systeme Nerveux) (4). 1550 Diseases of the Nervous System in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence F. Ford, 1937 (5).</p><p> . 50, 60 70 , ( ). 1951 ( ) . , . , , ... . 1952 , . , , 1986. , , Hospital for Sick Children 1976. (1965-1883). (1960-1980). . , . . - ( 2 ...) . . ( ), , .</p></li><li><p>: , </p><p> 70 , , , ( ...). ( ) . , , . 80 90 , , . 80, , 3 ( , ). . , , , . , ( , , ). , , . . , . , . , . , . . , . , . . .</p><p> European Federation of Child Neurology Societies 1968. . , . . 1970 Socit Eu-ropenne de Neurologie Pdiatrique, , , , , , . ... 1972 Child Neurology Society 1975 British Paediatric Neurology Association. . International Child Neurology Association (ICNA) 1973. 2 (International Review of Child Neurology Series). European Paediatric Neurology Society (EPNS) European Federation of Child Neurology Societies. 1995 ( 1999) 450 . . (Board) 4 : Executive, Training, Educational, Scientific, Expended Europe, Journal, Committee of Na-tional Advisers (CNA). . EPNS European Journal of Paediatric Neurology (training courses) . 40 , EPNS J. Aicardi, P. Barth, P. Casear, V. Dubowitz, P. Evrard, N. Gordon, B. Hagberg, F. Hanefeld, G. Lyon, B. Neville, F. Schulte.</p></li><li><p> - </p><p>. 1980-1990. . . 1992 . . . , . , . , . , . , . . 2001 2009 (, ). . , . , . , . , . , . , . . . 35 . 90% 10% .</p><p> . ... 1957-58 , (6). 1967 (Special Certificate in Child Neurology) 1969 (Board certification) (6,7). ... 5 . 2 , 1 2 . 1 , 1 , 1 2 . 1 , 1 , 1 2 (6,7,8). . 70 (9,10,11). ( ) . . . , . , European Paediatric Neurology Society (EPNS), 1997-2002, (European paediatric neurology training program). Brian Neville. 6,5 . 3 , 0,5 , 2 1 . 2 , 1 , 2 1 . , ( ) , , . 2002 EPNS : Euro-pean Board of Paediatrics, European Neurological Board European Union of Medical Specialties. , , </p></li><li><p> Confederation of European Specialties in Paediatrics (CESP). 2009-2010 ( Euro-pean Board of Paediatrics). . . . . 1982 . , . , . . . , , 10 , . 2009 .... ( 8300/11.12.2009) . 10 . . . . . ( 2010) , , 6 2,5 ( 3 ). () 1,5 ( ) 2,5 . 2010 . . . () . 30 6-12 . ( EPNS) , , , , , , -, , . .</p><p> 30 - . (...), . . , , , . ... . , , . , (custom-made) , ... </p><p>: , </p></li><li><p> . . ... 1.500 (0.44 100,000 ) 36-40 (7,12). 33-35 (2.2 100,000 ) 1-2 . ... , 2020 20% (13). ... 146,000 $ 200,000 $ (12,13). 60,000 40,000 . ... (2 , 1 , 2 ). 4 (1 , 3 , 2,75 ) (14,15,16). EPNS 6,5 (3 , 6 , 2 , 1 ). 7 (4 , 6 , 2,5 ). , . , (mentors) (14,16,17). , . , , , , , (8,17). . . ( registry , ) . , . 50 . , (12,14). , . , . .</p><p>1. Little WJ. On the influence of abnormal parturition, difficult labors, premature birth and asphyxia neonatorum, on the mental and physical condition of the child, especially in relation to deformities. Trans Obstet Soc 1862; 2:293-344.</p><p>2. Milichap J, Millichap JG: Child Neurology: Past, present, and future. Part 1: History. Neurology 2009; 73:e31-e33.</p></li><li><p>3. Hagberg B, Ingram T, McKeith R: Development of Paediatric Neurology. Lancet 1970; 1:940- 942.</p><p>4. Hutinel V. Maladies des enfants. Tome V. Maladies du systeme nerveux). Paris : Asselin et Houzeau; 1909.</p><p>5. Ford F. Diseases of the nervous system in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Spring-field, Illinois; 1937.</p><p>6. Laureta E, Moshe S. State of training in child neurology 1997-2002. Neurology 2004; 62:864-869.</p><p>7. Maski K, Jeste S, Darras B. Child Neurology: Past, present, and future. Part 2: Present training structure. Neurology 2010; 74:e17-e19.</p><p>8. Tibbles J: The functions and the training of a Paediatric Neurologist. Devel Med Child Neurol 1976; 18:167-172.</p><p>9. Aicardi J: Paediatric Neurology (Letter). Devel Med Child Neurology 1979; 21:264.</p><p>10.Gordon N: Paediatric Neurology. Devel Med Child Neurology 1978; 20:670-672.</p><p>11. Bax M, Brown K.: Paediatric Neurology (Editorial). Devel Med Child Neurology 1979; 21:283- 284.</p><p>12. Lavenstein B. Crisis in the child neurology workforce. World Neurology 2010 June. Webpage: www.wfneurology.org</p><p>13. Werner R, Polsky D. Comparing the supply of pediatric subspecialists and child neu-rologists. J Pediatr 2006; 148:20-25.</p><p>14. Gilbert D, Ridel K, Elkind M. Child Neurology: Past, present, and future. Part 3: The future. Neurology 2010; 75:e9-e12.</p><p>15. Bradley W. Neurology in the next two decades: report of the Workforce Task Force of the American Academy Of Neurology. Neurology 2000; 54:787-789.</p><p>16. Polsky A, Werner R. The future of child neurology; a profile of child neurology resi-dents. J Child Neurol 2004; 19:6-13.</p><p>17. Ashwal S, Rust R. Child neurology in the 20th century. Pediatr Res 2003; 53:345-61.</p><p>: , </p></li><li><p> REVIEW ARTICLES</p><p>Abstract</p><p>Vasiliki AvramidouElpis HatziagorouIoannis Tsanakas</p><p>Department of Paediatric Pneu-monology, 3rd Department of Paediatrics, Hippokrateion General Hospital of Thessa-loniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki</p><p> - </p><p> , , </p><p> , . , (Interrupter Resistance, Rint), (Multiple-Breath Washout, MBW), (Whole Body Plethysmography, WBP) (Forced oscillation Technique, FOT). , , . Rint , , . MBW, , FRC , (Lung Clearance Index, LCI) . WBP , , . , FOT . .</p><p> -: , , -, , , , </p><p>Assessment of lung function in preschoolers</p><p>Vasiliki Avramidou, Elpis Hatziagorou, Ioannis Tsanakas</p><p> Measuring lung function in preschoolers and infants presents a number of special challenges. The most commonly used pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this age group include Interrupter Resistance (Rint), Multiple-Breath Washout (MBW), Whole Body Plethysmography (WBP) and Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT), which require only qui-et tidal breathing. In addition, adjusted spirometric indices can be used in presch...</p></li></ul>