พันธะเคมี ( Chemical bond)

  • View
    454

  • Download
    13

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

( Chemical bond). 2 . H 2. H 2 O. NH 3. CH 4. . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript

  • 2

  • (Lewis Structure) VSEPR

  • ---

  • 2 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. 2.1 2.2

  • (Ionic bond) 8

  • (Ionic bond)

  • NaCl 2 1. Na Cl

  • 2. 2Ca(s) + O2(g) 2CaO4Li(s) + O2(g) 2Li2O

  • (IE ) (IE )

  • 1. (CH3COO-) CH3COONa, (CH3COO)2Ca2. 3. 1 ( )

  • 1. Na Cl2. Mg P3. Mg O4. Mg N5. Na+ CO32-6. Ca2+ PO43-7. Na S8. Mg Cl9. Al O10. PO43- Na+

    NaClMg3P2MgOMg3N2Na2CO3Ca3(PO4)2Na2SMgCl2Al2O3Na3PO4

  • * ( )

  • 1. - (-ide) (hydride) (chloride) (bromide) NaCl (Sodium chloride)KBr (Potassium bromide)

  • 2. - (-ide) Fe 2 2 Fe2+ Fe3+ Fe FeCl2 (II) (Iron (II) chloride)FeCl3 (III) (Iron (III) chloride)

  • 3. Cr 2 2 Cr2+ Cr3+ Cr CrSO4 (II) (Chromium (II) sulfate)Cr2(SO4)3 (III) (Chromium (II) sulfate)

  • 4. Na2SO4 (Sodium sulfide)Ba(OH)2 (Barium hydroxide)KNO3 (Potassium nitrate)NH4Cl (Amonium chloride)

  • BaCl2barium chlorideK2Opotassium oxideMg(OH)2magnesium hydroxideKNO3potassium nitrateFeCl2iron (II) chloride Cr2S3 chromium (III) sulfideCu(NO3)2copper (II) nitrateKH2PO4potassium dihydrogen phosphateNH4ClO3 ammonium chlorate

  • 2.

  • 3. 4.

  • EN EN

    ** EN 1.8

  • 1. 2.

  • < 0.1 g / H2O 100 g 25 C > 1 g / H2O 100 g 25C 0.1 g - 1 g / H2O 100 g 25C (Solubility)

  • 1A NH4+ (NO3-) (CH3COO-) (ClO3-) (ClO4-) Ag+, Pb2+ , Hg2+ , Hg22+ (SO42-) (CO32-) (S2-) (PO43-)(AsO43-) 2A Ag+, Pb2+ , Hg2+ 1A , NH4+ MgSO4 (OH-) OH- 1A , NH4+

  • 1A 1 +1 2 2 +2 7A 1 -1 5 -3 3

    IIIIIIIVVVIVII+1+2+3-4-3-2-1

  • (Octet Rule) * ( 8A) () s p block Be B AlNoble Gas (8A)valence e 8valence e = 8 H He

  • -

  • Max BornFritz Haber

  • Na(s)Na(g) H1 = +107 kJ/mol Cl2(g) Cl(g) H2 = +122 kJ/molNa (g)Na+ (g) + e- H3 = +496 kJ/molCl (g)+ e-Cl- (g) H4 = - 349 kJ/molNa+(g) + Cl-(g)NaCl(s) H5 = - 787 kJ/mol12345E E IEEAE

  • Na(s) + 1/2Cl2(g)Na(g) + 1/2Cl2(g)Na(g) + Cl(g)Na+ (g) + e - + Cl(g)Na+(g) + Cl-(g)NaCl (s)Hf = -411 kJ/molH1 = +107 kJH2 = +122 kJH3 = +496 kJH4 = -349 kJH5 = -787 kJ12345Hf = (+107)+(+122)+(+496)+(-349)+(-787) = - 411 kJ/mol Hf

  • (Lattice Energy of Ionic Compound) IE, EA (Lattice Energy) 1 mole Lattice energy (kJ/mol) m.p. (oC)

    LiF 1,017 845 LiCl 828610 LiBr 787 550 LiI 732 450** /(U)

  • Born Habor Cycle BornHabor cycle Lattice energy IE, EA LiF (s) Li + (g) + F (g) , H = ?

  • Hof = Ho1 + Ho2 + Ho3 + Ho4 + Ho5 -594.1 kJ = 155.2 kJ + 75.3 kJ + 520 kJ - 328 kJ + Ho5 H05 = - 1,017 kJ LiF -1,017 kJ?

  • LiF (s) 5 1.Li (s) Li (g)Ho1 = 155.2 kJ (Sublimation)2. F2 (g) F (g) Ho2 = 75.3 kJ (Dissociation)3. Li (g) Li+ (g) + e- Ho3 = 520 kJ (IE)4. F (g) + e- F (g) Ho4 = - 328 kJ (EA)5. Li+ (g) + F (g) LiF (s) Ho5 = ?

    Li (s) + F2 (g) LiF (s) Hof = - 594.1 kJ

    Hof = Ho1 + Ho2 + Ho3 + Ho4 + Ho5 -594.1 kJ = 155.2 kJ + 75.3 kJ + 520 kJ - 328 kJ + Ho5 H05 = - 1,017 kJ LiF -1,017 kJ

  • (hydration energy) () Na+(g) + Cl-(g) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + 764 kJ/mol (Lattice energy) (

    Na+(g) + Cl-(g) NaCl(s) + 768.3 kJ/mol NaCl(s) Na+(g) + Cl-(g) ; = +768.3 kJ/mol ## H2O

  • NaCl(s)Na+(g) + Cl-(g)Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)Hlatt = +776 kJHhyd = -771 kJHsoln = +5 kJ ()12

  • Hlattice > Hhydration Hhydration > Hlattice Hlattice >>> Hhydration < 0.1 g/H2O 100 cm3 25 0C 0.1-1.0 g/H2O 100 cm3 25 0C > 1.0 g/H2O 100 cm3 25 0C

  • Q = (J) m = (g) c = 4.2 J/goC t = oC

  • (II) 0.860 100 cm3 23.10 oC 23.41 oC 23.10 oC 23.41 oC CuBr2

    = (100)(4.2)(23.41-23.10)= 130.2 J - -

  • NaClNa+Cl-Ag+NO3- AgNO3AgCl (s)

  • NaCl (s) Na+(aq) + Cl- (aq)AgNO3(s)Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq)K2SO4(s)2K+(aq) + SO42-(aq)

  • (Ca(OH)2) (Na2CO3) (NaOH) NaOH (CaCO3)

    Ca2+(aq) + 2OH- (aq) + 2Na+(aq) + CO32-(aq) ---------> CaCO3(s) + 2OH-(aq) + 2Na+(aq)

  • "" OH- Na+ 2 ""

    Ca2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + CO32-(aq)---------> CaCO3(s) + 2OH - (aq) + 2Na+(aq)

    Ca2+ + CO32-(aq) ---------> CaCO3(s)

  • 1. 2. H2 NH3 CO23.

  • 1. AgNO3 (aq) CaBr2(aq)2. CuSO4 (aq) K2S (aq)3. NaOH (s) HCl (l)

  • 1) NaCl Na+ Cl- 6 Cl- Na+ 6

  • 2) CsCl Cs+ Cl- 8 Cl- Cs+ 8 3) CaF2Ca2+ F- 8 F- Ca2+ 4 Ca 2+ : F- = 4:8 = 1:2 CaF2Cs+Cl-Ca 2+F-

  • (Bond Energy) (Bond dissociation energy, D) () H2(g) 2H(g) D(HH) = 436 kJ/mol C-HCH4(g) CH3(g) + H(g) D(H-C)CH4= 436 kJ/molCH3(g) CH2(g) + H(g) D(H-C)CH3= 368 kJ/molCH2(g) CH(g) + H(g) D(H-C)CH2 = 519 kJ/molCH(g) C(g) + H(g) D(H-C)CH = 335 kJ/mol

  • (Average Bond Energy) ()

  • () () ( Hrxn)

    DHrxn DHrxn () (Heat of Reaction)

  • CH4(g) + Cl2(g) CH3Cl (g) + HCl(g)

    () = 4D(C-H) + D(Cl-Cl) ( )= D(C-Cl) + 3D(C-H) + D(Cl-H)Hrxn = 4D(C-H) + D(Cl-Cl) [D(C-Cl) + 3D(C-H) + D(Cl-H)] = (4414 + 243) (339 + 3414 + 431) kJ/mol = 113 kJ/mol 113 kJ/mol

  • (Bond Length)

  • 2

    H2O = 104.5 H2S = 92

  • (Bond Polarity) EN EN X+Y- EN Y X

  • (net dipole)

    (Polarity of Molecule)

  • BCl3

    NH3

    CHCl3

    SF5

    HCN

  • (Dipole Moments) EN e-

    (polar bond) 2.1 4.0

  • dipole moment = 1. 87( polar molecule)Cis (polar) = 1. 89Trans = 0 H2O CO2 C2H2Cl2 vector non-polar molecule = 0