Поиск информации в сети Internet. Методические указания к курсу ''Компьютерные методы в современном естествознании

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<ul><li><p>. . , . . , . . </p><p> " Internet" </p><p> " -</p><p> ." </p><p>-- 2001 .</p></li><li><p> - </p><p> 4 17.04.2001. : .. , . . . , .. 5 . . . , . . , . . " </p><p> Internet" " - ." --: , 2001 . </p><p> - Internet. - (Yahoo, Alta Vista, Rambler, ndex). , - " ". Internet, . </p><p> . </p><p> 2</p></li><li><p>1. Internet </p><p>1. 1. Internet , </p><p> . . </p><p> , - (). . --, . -- , . , - , . </p><p> , -- Internet TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol / ). TCP , IP , . . , - . </p><p> TCP http (hypertext transfer protocol (- )), ftp (file transfer protocol ( -)) . ., Internet (Web-), . . -, , , - Web-. </p><p> , Internet, IP-. -. IP- , - . , , 0 255 (, 147.120.3.28 . .). . , - , (host). "" , TCP/IP . </p><p> 3</p></li><li><p>1.2. , -</p><p> IP- - (domain host name). , - , . 122 (2001 .), : phys.rnd.runnet.ru. (phys) -, (rnd) ( Rostov-on-Don), - (runnet) Internet (, Internet !) (ru) (Russia). , - . </p><p> . IP- , . . , , , - Web-. , </p><p> gov ; </p><p> edu ; </p><p> org , - , . -, - (, www.aps.org -- (American Physical Society, APS); </p><p>com ( ). , </p><p> . , ru, uk, de, it . . </p><p> , . . , - , , (). . </p><p>, , , , - . </p><p> , - IP-. "" </p><p> 4</p></li><li><p>Domain Name System (DNS ). , IP- . DNS - IP-, . </p><p>1.3. URL- URL- -</p><p> Internet. , Internet , (IP-), ( ). , -, . , . - , - . </p><p> (, , - , ) - , URL (Universal Resource Locator ). URL . </p><p>, . . , URL -: </p><p>://_//_ , , , </p><p> (://). _ , </p><p>. , </p><p> . -(/). </p><p>_ (), . . Web- html, , , pdf, - gif, jpeg (), wav, au (), avi () . . </p><p> URL- . , , . - Internet-, (WWW World Wide Web), . </p><p> 5</p></li><li><p> , , . , , , . . , - Web-, . , . , - , , Web- URL-, - . </p><p>, Brigham Young University (BYU) : http://www.byu.edu. home page , (, , ) . - Web- , -, . -, . URL , - . </p><p> URL-: , @. - , , . , . , BYU Harold Stokes e-mail- stokesh@landau.byu.edu. - @ landau . , . . . </p><p>1.4. ( . browse ) -</p><p> Internet, , WWW- , . </p><p> , Netscape Navigator (NN) Netscape Communications ( Netscape Communicator) Internet Explorer (IE) Microsoft. , - . Internet Explorer . </p><p> , Windows, , -</p><p> 6</p></li><li><p>. , - Location (), URL-. - . Fail (), Edit () View () , Windows. , File () - - ( , ). </p><p> URL- Web-. - , - , ( , . .). </p><p> Web- - URL - Web- . , - Web-. </p><p> , , , - Go (). , - Web-. , - . Back () Forward () , Web- . </p><p> Web- Save as ( ) File () -. Web- , File () Edit Page (), Save File as ( ). , Web- . , , , , . </p><p> Web- (. File ()). Windows. , Web-, . </p><p> Web- - Stop (). </p><p> 7</p></li><li><p> Web-, , - () Web-, , , . 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Web- - , , (URL) , . , , , , Web- . , - 25 % Web-. </p><p> - . , -, - Web-, ( ). , : -, . . , - . </p><p> - , , , , , - Web-. -</p><p> 10</p></li><li><p> , . . </p><p> , Web-. , -- - "Fermi-Pasta-Ulam" ( , FPU), - . , "Ivanov" , , , . </p><p> , , . -, -, , Web-, "Chechin war, chechin terrorists" . . </p><p> - , - . </p><p>, , (, Yahoo!) - () . </p><p> -. , Internet. , , , . ., , , . , , Rambler. </p><p>3. ( ) </p><p> . - . Web- , . - . </p><p> 11</p></li><li><p> , , , . , , - 2000 . . - </p><p>Alferov , - . </p><p>Zhorez Alferov, , , -. "" (OR) ( Yahoo, AltaVista . .). Zhorez Alferov , , , , : , Zhorez, Alferov, . </p><p> - , - : </p><p>"Zhorez Alferov". , , -</p><p> (Alferov Zhorez), , - . </p><p> , Web-, , . , </p><p>+Zhorez +Alferov Web-, Zhorez, Alferov, , - ( ). </p><p> , , . , , , </p><p>++- , -</p><p>, (, -</p><p> 12</p></li><li><p> , . .). - , , : , - (, OF), . </p><p>, , " - ...", - () </p><p>++*-* (1) (*) -</p><p> . </p><p>, (1), "" . </p><p> () () . - , . - , . </p><p> Web-, . Web-, : AltaVista title:, Yahoo! t: Rambler $ title:, . . </p><p>4. -</p><p> Web-, (advanced) . , , - , . </p><p> OR (""), AND ("") NOT () , ( !) NEAR, Web- (. ). </p><p> , - , . - OR, AND, NOT, NEAR -</p><p> 13</p></li><li><p>. , . </p><p> , - (., , - 2!). , - -. </p><p> , - , bushes of normal modes ( ) . . </p><p>OR ( "") , . , </p><p>bush OR modes , bush, modes, . </p><p>AND ( "") , - , . , - - . , </p><p>bush AND modes AltaVista - , - . " "(!), , , . </p><p>NOT , Web-, ( , , "" ). </p><p>NEAR ( , ) . . , AltaVista , -. NEAR - , - , , . </p><p> 14</p></li><li><p>bush NEAR modes , , , . , Web- : "Bushes of normal modes..". </p><p> NEAR </p><p> , , . . , - NEAR -, , , , , . </p><p> , . -, - : </p><p>(Rostov-on-Don and University) and (physics OR mathematics) Web-, </p><p> Rostov-on-Don, University physics mathematics. . , - , -- -, , ( , - ). </p><p> - Web-, , - . ., - Internet. , - Yahoo ( ) AltaVista ( -), [1,2] , , - (Help). </p><p> 1 - , - Yahoo, AltaVista Rambler Yandex. </p><p> 15</p></li><li><p>5. Yahoo Yahoo </p><p>http://www.yahoo.com. , </p><p>. , Netscape Communicator Yahoo Yahoo, - . </p><p> Yahoo (. . 1) - Web- , "Search" (""), - (), . </p><p> , , Web-</p><p> , . </p><p> , Yahoo, , : , . . </p><p> Yahoo , (More Yahoo!s), , (News), , , (Weather) . . </p><p>URL- -, "Location". </p><p> Yahoo , . 20 , , , "Search". - ( - OR AND), . . </p><p> , . Substrings Yahoo , , , , "art" () - "department" (, . .). Substrings, (. ., "-s"), . . , Complete Words -</p><p> 16</p></li><li><p> , . </p><p>. 1. Yahoo Yahoo</p><p> Y! Bill Pay </p><p>view and pay bills online [] My Yahoo! </p><p>create your own </p><p>Searchadvanced search</p><p>Auctions - buy/sell anything - Ichiro Suzuki, PlayStation 2, coins, Longaberger, cameras, Pokemon, autos... Shop Auctions Classifieds PayDirect Shopping Travel Yellow Pgs Maps Media Finance/Quotes News Sports WeatherConnect Careers Chat Clubs Experts GeoCities Greetings Mail Members Messenger Mobile Personals People Search</p><p>Personal Addr Book Briefcase Calendar My Yahoo! Photos Fun Games Kids Movies Music Radio TV more...</p><p>Yahoo! Shopping Mother's Day is May 13. Departments Stores Features Apparel Beauty Books Computers Gourmet</p><p> Bargains Flowers Music Sports more depts.</p><p> JCPenney Barnes&amp;Noble GiftCertificates Avon more stores...</p><p> Mother's Day Free Shipping Shaggy Yahoo! Wallet more features</p><p>FTD.COM - Send F esh Flowers Today! r Arts &amp; Humanities Literature, Photography... 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DC - more... More Yahoo!s Guides : Autos - Careers - Health - Living - Outdoors - Pets - Real Estate - Yahooligans!Entertainment : Astrology - Broadcast - Events - Games - Movies - Music - Radio - Tickets - TV - moreFinance : Banking - Bill Pay - Insurance - Loans - Taxes - FinanceVision - moreLocal : Classifieds - Events - Lodging - Maps - Restaurants - Yellow Pages - moreNews : Top Stories - Business - Entertainment - Lottery - Politics - Sports - Technology - WeatherPublishing : Briefcase - Clubs - Experts - Invites - Photos - Home Pages - Message BoardsSmall Business : Biz Marketplace - Domain Registration - Small Biz Center - Store Building - Web HostingAccess Yahoo! via : Pagers, PDAs and Web-enabled Phones </p><p>Make Yahoo! your home page </p><p>How to Suggest a Site - Company Info - Copyright Policy - Terms of Service - Contributors - Jobs - Advertising </p><p> , -</p><p> . Ivanov, Web-, - 2000 -, : </p><p>Science&gt;Physics&gt;Physicists Alferov, Zhores Ivanovich(1930) Regional&gt;Countries&gt;Russia&gt;Cities and Towns Ivanovo Arts&gt;Humanities&gt;Literature&gt;Authors&gt;Poets Tsvetaeva, Marina Ivanovna(18921941) Yahoo , </p><p>, Web- , Ivanov. </p><p> Yahoo , , , - Web-. , Yahoo - Web-. , . Yahoo , . , -</p><p> 18</p></li><li><p> , . </p><p> Yahoo , - . , Yahoo, - , - . , Yahoo - . Web- 0,1 % Web-. </p><p>6. Alta Vista : </p><p>http://altavista.digital.com ( altavista). </p><p>Alta Vista - , . Alta Vista (simple search), - (advanced search), . </p><p> Alta Vista (2000.) , Yahoo, , . </p><p> Web- WWW- (Usenet). - WWW Usenet - , , , . </p><p> Alta Vista - Yahoo. , Alta Vista, Yahoo, : - Web- , - . - , , - * ( - ). , * , ,...</p></li></ul>

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