管 理 學 第十七章 領導 Leadership —John Kotter Most firms are overmanaged and underled. —John Kotter.
LeadershipMost firms are overmanaged and underled. John Kotter* 1. 2. Leader, subordinates, situation.*17.1 17.2 17.3 *1. Define leaders and leadership2. Trait theories: selecting Behavioral theories: training3. Contingency theories: (re)placing interaction with subordinates, situation1. 2. () 3. 17.1 Leaders and LeadershipLeader: Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authorityLeadership: What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goalsIdeally, all managers should be leaders.**1. Fiedler 2. 3. 4. 5. VS. 6. 7. 1. Stogdills handbook of leadership2. A dream makes a team, the team builds the dream. 3. 17.2 *1. power2. (trust)3. empowerment4. 5. Sometimes leadership is irrelevant 17.3 *1. Case study: a managers dilemma (p.517)2. Thinking critically about ethics (p.536)3. Internet-based exercise (p.544)4. Team-based exercise (p.548)Team work*1. authority, power, influence2. leader, subordinates, situation3. power: legitmate, coercive, reward, expert, referent Terms to Knowleaderleadershipbehavioral theoriesmanagerial gridFiedler contingency modelleader participation modelpath-goal theorytransactional leaderstransformational leaderscharismatic leadervisionary leadershiplegitimate powercoercive powerreward powerexpert powerreferent powertrustempowerment**1. Drive, 2. the desire to lead, 3. honesty and integrity, 4. self-confidence, 5. intelligence, 6. job-relevant knowledge, 7. extraversion.1. 2. 3. *Trait Theories*The Managerial Grid*Fiedler Model: vs. *Findings of the Fiedler ModelLeast-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaireAssumptions: A certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.* Follower readiness:R1: followers are unable and unwillingR2: followers are unable but willingR3: followers are able but unwillingR4: followers are able and willingSpecific leadership styles:Telling: high task- low relationship leadershipSelling: high task- high relationship leadershipParticipating: low task- high relationship leadershipDelegating: low task- low relationship leadershipHersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)*Exhibit 175 Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership ModelExhibit 176Time-DrivenModel*Source: Adapted from V. Vroom, Leadership and the Decision-Making Process, Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 87.Path-Goal Theory* Environmental Contingency Factors Task Structure Formal Authority System Work GroupLeader Behavior Directive Supportive Participative Achievement orientedOutcomes Performance SatisfactionSubordinateContingency Factors Locus of Control Experience Perceived AbilityTransactional VS. Transformational*Transactional leaders are leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges (transactions).Transformational leaders are leaders who stimulate and inspire (transform) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes.Evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over transactional leadership is overwhelmingly impressive. *Have a vision.Are able to articulate the vision.Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.Are sensitive to the environment and follower needs.Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.Charismatic LeadershipExhibit 178Specific Team Leadership Roles**1. 2. 3. 4. Leaders -- The strategies for taking charge,by W. Bennis & B. Nanus, 1988. *1. Proactive 2. Begin with the End in Mind3. Put First Things First4. Think Win Win5. Seek First to Understand then be Understood6. Synergise7. Sharpening the Saw8. Finding Your Voice and Inspiring Others to Find TheirsPrinciple - Centered Leadership, by S. R. Covey, 1991.*The work of the leader, by W. Pagonis, HBR, 1992.*A feeling of significance (community).1. 2. The hard work of being a soft manager, by W. Peace, HBR, 1991.* Add value to the others *1. (deliberate vulnerability)2. 3. (tough empathy)4. Why should anyone be led by you? by R. Goffee & G. Jones, HBR, Sep-Oct. 2000.Five Sources of a Leaders Power*Legitimate powera leader has as a result of his or her position.Coercive powerto punish or control.Reward powerto give positive benefits or rewards.Discuss: Ins and Outs of Office Politics (p.535)Expert poweras a result of his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge.Referent powerarise because of a persons desirable resources or admired personal traits.*Practice openness.Be fair.Speak your feelings.Tell the truth.Show consistency.Fulfill your promises.Maintain confidences.Demonstrate competence.*1. What women want? 2. I need a wife. 3. Exhibit 1711Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard*Source: R. Sharpe, As Leaders, Women Rule, BusinessWeek, November 20. 2000, p. 75.Cross-Cultural LeadershipUniversal Elements of Effective LeadershipVisionForesightProviding encouragementTrustworthinessDynamismPositivenessProactiveness*Basics of LeadershipGive people a reason to come to work.Be loyal to the organizations peopleSpend time with people who do the real work of the organization.Be more open and more candid about what business practices are acceptable and proper and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed. *Leadership can be irrelevant!*Substitutes for LeadershipFollower characteristicsExperience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independenceJob characteristicsRoutine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobsOrganization characteristicsExplicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groups*********