# 微 观 经 济 学 Micro economics

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Micro economics. 1. . . . Choices : A what B how C for whom . how many - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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• Microeconomics

• 1. how many whenChoices :A whatB howC for whom

• 2. law of Scarcity

• 3. Resources human resources natural resources capital resources--- N --- L--- K--- E

• 4.

• 0369121512345ABCDEF 5.PPF:Production Possibility Frontier A 0 15 B 1 14 C 2 12 D 3 9 E 4 5 F 5 0

• 5. Opportunity Costs0369121512345ABCDEFABCDEF

• 0369121512345ABCDEFG

• 0369121512345ABCDEFHEconomic Institutions

• Macroeconomics ---

• John Maynard Keynes 20 1883-1946

• 1929-1933 1929-1933

• MicroeconomicsInvisible hand Resource allocation

• 2F. 1758 -1623-168717761817D. 1T.J.-B.

• 3. 1920A.lfred Marshll 1842192418701890

• 193019201933

• 4 F.von John Maynard Keynes 1883194619301936

• Paul Anthony Samuelson 1915 19701940

• 1 economical man2

• what ought to bethe way things are

• 1. 2.

• (

• (1) A B C D (2) A B C D B D

• (3) A B C D(4) A B C DB C

• 1 DemandSupply

• Demand willing needswantsdesires able

• Demand Function

PQd

• ! Qd = P

• :The Law of DemandPQPQ0P QDab

• 1.A Shift in the Demand Curve0P QDabP0Q0P1Q1

• 2.A Shift of the Demand Curve 0

P

QD0P0Q0Q1D1Q2D2

• PQD

• A B C D D

• 1.Giffens Goods PQ1845

• 2. Conspicuous goodsPositional GoodsPQ0PQD

• 1. --- --- Supply

• Supply Function 2.3. Q s = + P1.

• PQ PQ 0P QSab

• 1.0P QSabP1Q1P2Q2

• 2.0

P

QS0P0Q0Q1S1Q2S23.

• 1. A B C D 2. 3.A B C D AAB

• 4. ABCD5.xyxA x B x C yD y 6.A B C D

• Elasticity

PQDPDQOO

• elasticity

• price elasticity of demand1.Ed

• 2.

• ab544008005445

• abba QPPQ

• 3. E = 0 perfect inelastic

• E = perfect elasticPQD2O

• E = 1 unitary elastic =

• E < 1 inelastic
• E > 1 elastic D56%9%POQ

• 1.8620301P18P26Q120Q2302

• 2.0.151.210Ed=0.15P1.2 P=0.8()0.810

• 4.dQ/dP

• CCO

PQF

CGQd=f(P)A

BdPdQ

• Q=f(P)OPQDCBEAed=ed>1ed=1ed
• PQOABCAB1C

• A B C D B

• 3.1.2.4.

5.

• TR = P * Q 3101. (Total revenue

• 2. E > 1Ed=2P1=500/Q1=100 10% 10%20% P2=500 500*10%=450/ Q2=100+100*20%=120 TR2=P2Q2=450120=54000 TR1=50000 TR2 TR1=54000 50000=4000 TR2 >TR1

• 10%20%P3=500 +50010%=550/Q3=100 -10020%=80 10%TR3
• E > 1,,; ,,1QOP

• ABC

• 3. E < 1Ed=0.5P1=0.2/Q1=100 10%10%5%P2= 0.2 0.210%=0.18/Q2=100+1005%=105TR1=P1Q1=0.2100=20TR2=P2Q2=0.18105=18.9TR2 TR1=18.920= -1.1TR2
• 10%10%5%P3=0.2 +0.2*10%=0.22/Q3=100 -100*5%=95 TR3=P3Q3=0.2295=20.9TR3 TR1=20.9 20= 0.9TR3>TR1Ed=0.5P1=0.2/Q1=100

• E < 1,,;,,QPO

• 12

• Cross-Elasticity of Demand 1. 1

• 2.

• 3.Ec0 YP XQXY Ec0 YP XQ XY Ec =0

• Income Elasticity of Demand1.10%5%0.5

• QM

• 2.5A. Em1superior goods luxury, luxurious goodsEm0 B. Em1 C. 0 Em1essential necessary goodsnormal goods

• D. Em =0 E. inferior goodsGiffen goodsEm0

• Price Elasticity of Supply1. A

P

QO

• 2.

• 3.>1
• Es=1Q ES=P ES=04. O

• Q ES1PEs1PQES0O

• 5.

• Equilibrium of Supply and Demand

• 1.The Equilibrium Price:

• The Law of Supply and Demand 1.Q3P2P1PD1D3D2Q1Q2Q

P3E1

E2E3SO

• 2. A Supply ShiftS1

S2S3Q3P2P1PDQ1Q2Q

P3E1

E2E3O

• DS QP1DD1P SPQD2DD2 P3DD3 P3. S S1P

• A B C D

D A

• eg:D=122PS=2P P=3 Q=6

• Price controls 1.Price floor

• PQDSP0OQ0P1Q1Q2 excess supplyE

• 2.Price ceiling PQDSP0OQ0P1Q1Q2excess demandE

• >
• ()

• 1EQ3P1P3P2

PPEPtOQQEQ2OSDQ1

• 2.

• 3SDEQePeQOPP1Q3P2Q2Q1tOP