微 观 经 济 学 Micro economics

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Micro economics. 1. . . . Choices : A what B how C for whom . how many - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Microeconomics

  • 1. how many whenChoices :A whatB howC for whom

  • 2. law of Scarcity

  • 3. Resources human resources natural resources capital resources--- N --- L--- K--- E

  • 4.

  • 0369121512345ABCDEF 5.PPF:Production Possibility Frontier A 0 15 B 1 14 C 2 12 D 3 9 E 4 5 F 5 0

  • 5. Opportunity Costs0369121512345ABCDEFABCDEF

  • 0369121512345ABCDEFG

  • 0369121512345ABCDEFHEconomic Institutions

  • Macroeconomics ---

  • John Maynard Keynes 20 1883-1946

  • 1929-1933 1929-1933

  • MicroeconomicsInvisible hand Resource allocation

  • Adam Smith (1723-1790)

  • 2F. 1758 -1623-168717761817D. 1T.J.-B.

  • 3. 1920A.lfred Marshll 1842192418701890

  • 193019201933

  • 4 F.von John Maynard Keynes 1883194619301936

  • Paul Anthony Samuelson 1915 19701940

  • 1 economical man2

  • what ought to bethe way things are

  • 1. 2.

  • (

  • (1) A B C D (2) A B C D B D

  • (3) A B C D(4) A B C DB C

  • 1 DemandSupply

  • Demand willing needswantsdesires able

  • Demand Function

    PQd

  • ! Qd = P

  • :The Law of DemandPQPQ0P QDab

  • 1.A Shift in the Demand Curve0P QDabP0Q0P1Q1

  • 2.A Shift of the Demand Curve 0

    P

    QD0P0Q0Q1D1Q2D2

  • PQD

  • A B C D D

  • 1.Giffens Goods PQ1845

  • 2. Conspicuous goodsPositional GoodsPQ0PQD

  • 1. --- --- Supply

  • Supply Function 2.3. Q s = + P1.

  • PQ PQ 0P QSab

  • 1.0P QSabP1Q1P2Q2

  • 2.0

    P

    QS0P0Q0Q1S1Q2S23.

  • 1. A B C D 2. 3.A B C D AAB

  • 4. ABCD5.xyxA x B x C yD y 6.A B C D

    ADB

  • Elasticity

    PQDPDQOO

  • elasticity

  • price elasticity of demand1.Ed

  • 2.

  • ab544008005445

  • abba QPPQ

  • 3. E = 0 perfect inelastic

  • E = perfect elasticPQD2O

  • E = 1 unitary elastic =

  • E < 1 inelastic
  • E > 1 elastic D56%9%POQ

  • 1.8620301P18P26Q120Q2302

  • 2.0.151.210Ed=0.15P1.2 P=0.8()0.810

  • 4.dQ/dP

  • CCO

    PQF

    CGQd=f(P)A

    BdPdQ

  • Q=f(P)OPQDCBEAed=ed>1ed=1ed
  • PQOABCAB1C

  • A B C D B

  • 3.1.2.4.

    5.

  • TR = P * Q 3101. (Total revenue

  • 2. E > 1Ed=2P1=500/Q1=100 10% 10%20% P2=500 500*10%=450/ Q2=100+100*20%=120 TR2=P2Q2=450120=54000 TR1=50000 TR2 TR1=54000 50000=4000 TR2 >TR1

  • 10%20%P3=500 +50010%=550/Q3=100 -10020%=80 10%TR3
  • E > 1,,; ,,1QOP

  • ABC

  • 3. E < 1Ed=0.5P1=0.2/Q1=100 10%10%5%P2= 0.2 0.210%=0.18/Q2=100+1005%=105TR1=P1Q1=0.2100=20TR2=P2Q2=0.18105=18.9TR2 TR1=18.920= -1.1TR2
  • 10%10%5%P3=0.2 +0.2*10%=0.22/Q3=100 -100*5%=95 TR3=P3Q3=0.2295=20.9TR3 TR1=20.9 20= 0.9TR3>TR1Ed=0.5P1=0.2/Q1=100

  • E < 1,,;,,QPO

  • 12

  • Cross-Elasticity of Demand 1. 1

  • 2.

  • 3.Ec0 YP XQXY Ec0 YP XQ XY Ec =0

  • Income Elasticity of Demand1.10%5%0.5

  • QM

  • 2.5A. Em1superior goods luxury, luxurious goodsEm0 B. Em1 C. 0 Em1essential necessary goodsnormal goods

  • D. Em =0 E. inferior goodsGiffen goodsEm0

  • Price Elasticity of Supply1. A

    P

    QO

  • 2.

  • 3.>1
  • Es=1Q ES=P ES=04. O

  • Q ES1PEs1PQES0O

  • 5.

  • Equilibrium of Supply and Demand

  • 1.The Equilibrium Price:

  • The Law of Supply and Demand 1.Q3P2P1PD1D3D2Q1Q2Q

    P3E1

    E2E3SO

  • 2. A Supply ShiftS1

    S2S3Q3P2P1PDQ1Q2Q

    P3E1

    E2E3O

  • DS QP1DD1P SPQD2DD2 P3DD3 P3. S S1P

  • A B C D

    D A

  • eg:D=122PS=2P P=3 Q=6

  • Price controls 1.Price floor

  • PQDSP0OQ0P1Q1Q2 excess supplyE

  • 2.Price ceiling PQDSP0OQ0P1Q1Q2excess demandE

  • >
  • ()

  • 1EQ3P1P3P2

    PPEPtOQQEQ2OSDQ1

  • 2.

  • 3SDEQePeQOPP1Q3P2Q2Q1tOP