р - элементы VІІА группы. Галогены . р -элементы VІІІА группы. Благородные газы

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- V . . - V . . F , Cl , Br , I , At . . 2. 2 s. H 1s 1 F 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 Cl 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Br 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 5 I 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 5 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • - V . . - V . .

  • F , Cl , Br , I , At

  • 2s2H 1s1F 1s22s22p5Cl 1s22s22p63s23p5Br 3s23p63d104s24p5I 4s24p64d105s25p5At 4s24p64d105s25p65d106s26p5

  • 1826 .Br2 1866 . F2 -

    1774 .Cl2. -1811 .I2 -

  • . 1774 . 1811 . .. 1826 . .. 1886 . .

  • 1. 2. -3. - 4. ,

  • FR 7 -1, 0 Cl+7, +5, +3, +1, 0,-1BrIAt

  • F Cl Br I2s22p53s23p54s24p55s25p5

  • F-I FClBrI

  • * ..* ..7456 123F29190

    ( ) 1. - 2.

    3. C : -1; 0

  • * ..* ..7456 123Cl2+1735,50..

    1. F > Cl > Br 2.p 1s22s22p63s23p64s24p5 3. : S < Cl > Br 4. C : -1; 0 ; +1; +3; +5; +7

  • * ..* ..7456 123Br235800

    ( ) 1. - 2. 3. C : -1; 0 ; +1; +3; +5; +7

  • * ..* ..7456 123I2531270

    ( ) 1. - 2. 3. C : -1; 0 ; +1; +3; +5; +7

  • F2I2Cl2Br2

  • Hal2, ns2np5 Hal:

    : Hal Hal.

    :

    F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 - r, I, A, , , l. , .

  • Cl Cl

  • - ,- , , -, -220-188, -, -101-34-, -7+58 - +114+186

  • Hal2+ 2+1 -1HHal++n -1Haln++n -1Haln

  • F2 + H2 = 2HF Cl2 + H2 = 2HCl V Br2+ H2 = 2HBr

    I2+ H2 = 2HI

  • + = 2Fe + 3Cl2 = 2FeCl3 2Al + 3I2 = 2AlI3

    u + Br2 = Cu Br2Zn + F2 = ZnF2 ? ?

    (III)

  • Cl2 + H2O = HCl + HOCl

    I2 + H2O

  • Cl2 + 2KOH = KCl + KOCl + H2OI2 + KOH

    3Cl2+KOH = 5KCl+KClO3+3H2O3I2+6KOH = 5KI+KIO3+H2O

  • Ag

    Ag+ + Cl- = AgCl

    Ag+ + Br- = AgBr

    Ag+ + I- = AgI

  • ()

    CaF2

  • Na3AlF6

  • ()

    NaCl

  • ,

  • SiO2 + 2F2 = SiF4 + O2;2H2O + 2F2 = 4HF + O2.

  • S + 3F2 = SF6, H0298 = - 1207 /; 2P + 5F2 = 2PF5, H0298 = - 3166 /.Xe + 2F2 = XeF4, H0298 = - 252 /.

  • :1/2Cl2() + 1e Cl-(), G= -240 /1/2Cl2() + 1e Cl-(), G= -131 /Cl2 + NaOH NaClO + NaCl + H2O3Cl2 + 6NaOH 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O3Cl2 + 6KOH 5KCl + KlO3 + 3H2O. :2Fe + 3Cl2 = 2FeCl3; Cu + Cl2 = CuCl2. :H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl2S + Cl2 = S2Cl2Si + 2Cl2 = SiCl42P + 5Cl2 = 2PCl5. O2, N2, C .

  • 2FeCl2 = Cl2 = 2FeCl3H2SO3 + Cl2 + H2O = H2SO4 + 2HCl

  • MnO2 + 4HCl = MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O2KMnO4 + 16HCl = 2KCl + 2MnCl2 + Cl2 + 8H2O.KClO3 + 6HCl = KCl + 3Cl2 + 3H2OK(-) 2Na+ + 2e = 2NaA(+) 2Cl- -2e = Cl2

  • H2 + Cl2 = 2HClNaCl + H2SO4 = NaHSO4 + HCl2NaCl + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 = 2HCl

  • He , Ne , Ar , Kr , Xe , Rn

  • Xe(, 1962) Xe + PtF6 = Xe[PtF6] Xe Xe: XeF2 XeF4 XeF6: 2XeF2 + 2H2O = 2Xe + 4HF + O2 6XeF4 + 12H2O = 2XeO3 + 4Xe + 24HF + 3O2XeF6 + 3H2O = XeO3 + 6HF , XeF6 > XeF4 > XeF2 S + 3XeF2 = SF6 + 3Xe2Ir + 5XeF2 = 2IrF5 + 5Xe2XeF6 + SiO2 = 2XeOF4 + SiF4 5XeF2 + 2MnSO4 + 2H2O = 5Xe + 2HMnO4 + 10HF + 2H2SO4 Xe Xe: XeO3 XeO4: XeF6 + 3H2O = XeO3 + 6HFNa4XeO6 + 4H2SO4 () = XeO4 + 4NaHSO4 + 2H2O: XeO3 + KOH = K[HXeO4] 2K[HXeO4] + 2KOH () = Xe + O2 + K4XeO6 + H2OK4XeO6 + 2Na2SO4 + 8H2O = Na4XeO68H2O + 2K2SO4:5XeO3 + 6MnSO4 + 9H2O = 5Xe + 6HMnO4 + 6H2SO4K4XeO6 + 4MnO2 + 4KOH = 4K2MnO4 + Xe + 2H2O

  • Xe1. Xe2+:[XeF]ClO4 + HClO4 () = Xe(ClO4)2 + HFXeF2 + HSO3F = Xe(SO3F)22. XeCl, XeN:XeF2 + NaCl + 2SbF5 = [XeCl][Sb2F11] + NaFXeF2 + HN(SO2F)2 = FXeN(SO2F)2 + HF

    Kr, Rn Kr + F2 = KrF2KrF2 + MnF2 = MnF4 + Kr7KrF2 + Au = 2[KrF][AuF6] + 5KrKrF2 + SbF5 = [KrF][Sb2F11] + [Kr2F3][SbF6]

    3Rn + 2ClF3 = 3RnF2 + 2Cl2

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