14 декабря 2011 года

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    TSI 14 2011

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    , , , ; ; - , ; (, , - .) - , , - , - , .. , - , (), ( ), ..

  • .. () , , 6-10 . 100 (0,1 ). 7708-2006: (particle aerodynamic diameter): 1 /3, , , .

  • . . (PM10 , PM2.5 , PM1) , , : - (100 ) 10 PM10 , , 99 %

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    , 100 .

  • , TSI.

    SMPSFMPSAPSOPSLAS2,5 1000 5,6 560 0,5 20 0,3 10 0,09 7,5 108 -3 109 -3 103 -3 3103 -3 18103 -3162 32 52 16 100 30 1 1 1 1

  • SMPS/FMPS. SMPS , FMPS

    100 . ( ), .

    : ; 2. .

  • SMPS/FMPS

  • SMPS Long DMA, Nano DMA( )CPC( )

  • SMPSDMACPC / > 20 (SMPSTM) ~ 1-3

  • CPC? !!! CNC ( ) , CPC 3 , () , CPC ()

  • S = Pv = Psaturation(T) = D = dS = M = rL = dR = T = S = 1) 2) 3)

  • CPC

  • : - - , , , ,

  • Saturator, 12 CGrowth Tube, 75 CSaturator, 35 CCondenser, 10 CAlcohol-based CPCWater-based CPC S = Pv/PsatS = Pv/Psat CPC

  • BCPCs , WCPCs S = (air)S = (DH2O > air)

  • WCPC Flow SchematicCooled saturator followed by warm condenser (growth tube)In cooled saturator: aerosol saturated with water vapor & temperature equilibrated Growth tube: Heated walls produce high level of supersaturation as water vapor diffuses quickly to center of stream before aerosol is heated up Mass diffusivity of water vapor > thermal diffusivity of air !Aerosol becomes supersaturated and water condenses on particles

  • CPC -

  • (CPCs) , (DMA) DMA , ( ) DMA (SMPS)

  • (Zp)

  • DMA Zp : , DMA , DMA, DMA.

  • DMA

  • -DMA* 3 50 2 150 , , : (/) (5 ) DMA: -DMA

  • : DMA, DMA , Kr-85, ( )

  • , , np Wiedensohler, A. (1988) An Approximation of the Bipolar Charge Distribution for Particles in the Submicron Size Range, Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 387-389, 1988.

    Sheet: Sheet1

    Sheet: Sheet2

    Sheet: Sheet3

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    Sheet: Sheet10

    Sheet: Sheet11

    Sheet: Sheet12

    Sheet: Sheet13

    Sheet: Sheet14

    Sheet: Sheet15

    Sheet: Sheet16

    +1

    +2

  • : DMA, SMPS

  • ; , X-

  • . 85Kr, 210Po 241Am 5 %. , SMPS 3936 & 3034 3080 107 /cm3

  • : , DMA:- :

  • SMPS 3936

  • (SMPS)

    0,0025 1,0 - 167 1 108 /3 30 . 0,2 2 /.

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  • SMPS 2 1000 ; ,

  • SMPS

  • SMPS

  • SMPS

  • SMPS

  • SMPS

  • SMPS

  • (FMPS) .3091

  • , , , DMA 2 , 5 ~200 - 300 / (AEM) Liu, B.Y.H., Pui, D.Y.H. (1975). On the Performance of the Electrical Aerosol Analyzer, J. Aerosol Sci. 6, 249-264.

  • : . (1)

  • (FMPS) .3091

  • (FMPS) .3091

    5,6 560 - 32 , 200 /3 (10 / ) , VGA

  • (APS) . 3321

    . 3321 : - - .

  • APS .3321

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  • (APS) . 3321

    0,5 - 20 ( ) 0,37 - 20 ( )/ 1000 / 0,001/ 3 1 18 ( ) 5 / 52 380300180 10

  • ,

  • LAS 3340

  • Instrument DesignPatented* intracavity designParticles exposed to >1W laser lightDesigned to prevent contamination in laser cavity*US Patents 5,907,575; 7,079,243; 7,295,585*

  • . , 3340 , , . 3340 , , .

  • : He-Ne . 1 5 . 50 % 90 . : - : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) .

  • OPS 3330

  • OPS Offering3330 Optical Particle Sizer Included Accessories:Carrying CaseBattery (one) and AC adapter (also charges battery)USB cable, inlet tubingSpare filters, filter tool, stylusAIM softwareManualsOptional accessories:Additional BatteryExternal Battery ChargerAdditional spare partsService Offerings Repair and CalibrateClean and CalibrateExtended Warranty and Service Agreements

    *

  • OPSShort Straight inlet path to reduce particle lossesSheath flow focuses particle stream to enhance resolutionAutomatic flow control (improves concentration accuracy)Wide Collection angle minimizes Mie scattering effectsGravimetric filter for mass correlation or chemical analysis

    *

  • Well designed optical instruments are useful in a variety of applications due to their ease of use, fast measurement time, robustness and reliability. A few popular applications are listed below

    Aerosol research studiesAerosol sizingIndoor air quality investigations Industrial/occupational hygiene surveys Environmental MonitoringAmbient air measurementsOutdoor environmental monitoring Emissions monitoringWork place monitoringFilter TestingHVAC filters (ASHRAE 52.2, EN 779)Automotive cabin air filters (ISO 11155-1, DIN 71460-1)

    *

  • OPS

  • LAS/SMPS/APSSMPSLaser Aerosol SpectrometerAPS*

  • ***********This schematic is not complete, e.g. the optical branch is missing, with Light Scattering Analysis and instruments like OPS and LAS.****In a traditional (Alcohol) CPC the heater creates alcohol vapor that condenses in the Condenser to grow the particles.In this case the Saturator vapor pressure is lowered to increase the Supersaturation Ratio

    In the Water CPC the cooled condenser keeps the particles cool.The high water vapor pressure in the condenser portion of the growth tube will cause particle growth.Increase the Condenser vapor pressure increases the Supersaturation RatioHere you see the entire family, despite the EECPC 3790. The two ultrafine CPCs are in the two right columns. The highlighted columns are the SMPS compatible CPCs.***Electrical mobility, Zp, represents the ability of a charged particle to move in an electric fieldThe expression for Zp, the ratio of particle velocity to electric field strength, is obtained by balancing the viscous drag force and electric force on a charged particle in the electric field Electrical mobility of a particle depends on the size of the particle, the number of charges carried by the particle and the properties of the gas in the electrical field-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cunningham correction factor should be used when particle size approaches the mean free path of the gas. It is usually used for particles smaller than 1 micron, or even for particles smaller than 5 to 10 micron for more accurate work. The correction factor is determined by the mean free path of the gas and the particle diameter.

    **In the stainless-steel sealed tube, a large amount of positive and negative ions are generated to neutralize the particles. Aerosol coming out of the neutralizer reaches Fuchs equilibrium which is a known charge distribution. 2 versions available with identical geometry but different radiation levels: 3077 and 3077A with 2 resp 10 mCi. The A-versions are designed for highly-precharged aerosols and/or upper half of flow range and/or upper half of concentration range.We call it neutralizer as the sum of all charges over all particles is approximately zero, more accurately it would be called a bipolar diffusion charger.

    ************He-Ne laserDetector at 90 to laser beam and particle beam*He-Ne laserDetector at 90 to laser beam and particle beam*He-Ne laserDetector at 90 to laser beam and particle beam*

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