2014 Career Handbook 2014

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Advice and Opportunities for Scientists

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  • 2014CareerHandbookAdviceandOpportunitiesforScientists

    ProducedbytheScience/AAASCustomPublishingOffice

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  • Thanksforpickingupacopyofthe2014CareerHandbook.OurgoalwiththisbookletandwithallthecareerresourcesfromScienceistobringyouuseful,relevantinformationtohelpyounavigatethejobsearchprocessandmanageyourdevelopmentinawaythatleadsyoutoatrulyrewardingcareer.

    Tothatend,wehaveteamedupwithsomegreatorganizationstobringyouinformationaboutthelatestcareeropportunitiesinmanydifferentfields.Theprofilesshownherewillgiveyouasenseofthetypesoforganizationsthatareacceptingresumesandthekindsofpositionstheyoffer.Wevealsoincludedsomearticlestohelpyouimproveyourresumeaswellassomegeneraltipsandadviceonjobsearching.

    Inadditiontothecompaniesfeaturedinthisbook,youcansearchhundredsofadditionaljobpostingsonourwebsiteScienceCareers.orgallforfree.

    TheCoverLetter:RelicorStillRelevant?DavidG.Jensen ................................................................................................... 4

    OpeningIndustry-AcademicPartnershipsChrisTachibana ................................................................................................... 6

    GettingtheInsideScooponScienceCareersPhilipS.Clifford,JenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt ............................................ 10

    YouNeedaGamePlan JenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.Clifford....................................................... 13

    SoYouThinkYouHaveSkillsJenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.Clifford ...............................................................15

    EmployerProfilesFAPESP ................................................................................................................18

    HarvardDepartmentofMolecularandCellularBiology ..........................................................20

    St.JudeChildrensResearchHospital ...........................................22

    INTRODUCTION

    Photo credits:Coverclockwisefromtopleft:iStockphoto.com/anyaivanovaiStockphoto.com/vkovalcikiStockphoto.com/KalawiniStockphoto.com/nic0las_

    p.3 iStockphoto.com/anyaivanovap.3 iStockphoto.com/Kalawinp.4 iStockphoto.com/berpinp.6 iStockphoto.com/nic0las_p.7 iStockphoto.com/nic0las_

    Editor:AllisonPritchardCopyEditor:YuseLajiminmuhipDesign:MaryEllenCrowley

    Titlesandaffiliationsforauthorsandforsourcesquotedwerecorrectatthetimeoforiginalpublication.

    2014 byTheAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience.Allrightsreserved.1February2014

    CONTENTS

    p.8 Pixtal/agefotostockp.10 iStockphoto.com/laflorp.13 iStockphoto.com/KeithBishopp.15 iStockphoto.com/exdez

  • 4Whenitcomestothetopicofcoverletters,todaytheresnosuchthingasconventionalwisdom.AquickInternetsearchturnsupmanycommentsfromjobseekerswhoaregladtoseeitgoandcareerexpertswhosay,Tossit.Butsomepeoplestilladvise,Betterwriteagoodone;theyreimportant.

    IfallintothelattercampbutIdorecognizethattheroleofthecoverletterhaschanged.NolongerdoyouintroduceyourresumeorindustryCVwithaletteronthefinestlinenstationary;theletterwillbeprintedout,ifatall,onwhateverpaperthehu-manresources(HR)departmenthappenstohaveintheprinter.Anditstruethatalotofpeopledontevenreadcoverletters.

    Yet,thecoverletterstillservesapurposethatnootherpartofyourapplicationpackagecanserve:Itmakesastrong,upfront,specificcaseforyourcandidacyfortheposition.Theresnobetteropportunityatleastuntiltheinterviewtopointoutaparticu-larstrengthorhammerhomethereasonsyoudbeanespeciallygoodfitfortheposition.

    Why Bother?Youmightwellask,Whyarecoverlettersnecessary?Ijustfilledoutsixonlineapplicationsandnotonecompanyrequiredit.Ifyoureapplyingonline,acoverlettermaynotbenecessary,butitsstillagoodidea.Itsanopportunitytopersonalizeyourapplication.WillyourletterbetoanHRperson?Ahiringmanager?IfyouareapplyingviaaWebsite,youprobablywontknowwhotowriteto;youllbestuckwritingaToWhomitMayConcernletterifyougettoincludeoneatall.But,whenworkingyournetwork,asweadvisesooftenatScienceCareers,youllbeabletoe-mailpeopledirectlyandincludeanicelyformattedMicrosoftWordorPDFdocumentaddressedtothempersonally.Thatsthebestapproach.

    Writingaletteralsoforcesyoutoconsidertheuniquenessoftheopportunityinfrontofyou.Youstarttodifferenti-ateyourself,tofocusonwhatyoucandoforthem,andtosellthattothecompany.Youshouldneveruseagenericcoverletterthatfailstomakespecificreferencetoaparticularjoborreader.

    Anotherreasonwhyacoverletterisgoodisthatitallowsyoutopresentyourstrengthsandaccomplishmentsinbite-sizednuggets.Thatsbothgoodpracticeandaneffectivejob-searchstrategy.Iwroteabouttheimportanceofsuccinctwritinginpartoneofthisseries;thecoverlettershouldcarrythatforward.Youwill,infact,utilizeoneofthoseChallenge-Approach-Results(C-A-R)paragraphsfrompartonelaterinthiscolumn.Butbeforewegettothat,Illtalkabouthowcoverletterscanbeanadvantagetoemployersevenif,asyoumayhavediscovered,theydontaskforthemveryoften.

    How is the Cover Letter Received?Justbecauseyouvewrittenagreatcoverletterdoesntmeanthateveryoneisgoingtoreadit.IdidanimpromptusurveyofmyHRfriends;just40%toldmetheyregularlyreadthecoverletter.Theother60%,though,saidthattheyreadcoverlettersonoccasion,andthatincertainsituationsacoverlettercouldbeveryuseful.

    AndreaPiccarelli,managerofhumanresourcesatTheSmithersGroupinAkron,Ohio,tellsmethatwhileshedoesntconsistentlyreadthem,coverlettersareimportantinseveralsituations.Forexample,ifIlookattheCVbutnotice

    TheCoverLetter:RelicorStillRelevant?ByDavidG.JensenSeptember 18, 2013

  • thehomeaddressisntinthegeographicalareaofourbusiness,Iwillgotothecoverlettertoseewhattheapplicanthadtosayaboutthepotentialofactuallymakingamove,Piccarellisaysinaninterview.

    Inanotherinstance,theremaybeaverystrongemphasisoncommunicationskillsforaparticularjob,andtheresnobetterwaytogetagrasponthatthantoseehowtheywritetheircoverletter.Lastly,iftheresasignificantgapinemploymentorperhapsaseriesofshortstaysinjobsIwanttoseeanexplanationthereinthecoverletter.

    The Mechanics of Writing the Cover LetterThepassageoftimeismostobviousinthecoverletterschangingformatandappearance.Nooneopensaphysicalenvelopeanymore,andeventhefaxhasmostlyvanished.Yourchoice,then,iswhethertoworkupanicelyformat-tedMicrosoftWordorPDFversionandincorporateitaspageoneoftheCVor,asmostpeopledo,separatethemintotwoseparatedocuments.Ifyoureapplyingonline,youllprobablyjustpasteyourcover-lettertextintoabox.

    Piccarellioffersanotheroption:Shesaysthat,ifyouresendingyourpackagebye-mail,itsOKtoputyourcover-letterpointsinthee-mailthatenclosestheCV,andmanypeoplewouldagreewithher.Unfortunately,noteveryoneprintsouttheemailwhentheycirculateanenclosure.Takeme:IfIwanttohandmyclientabinderofourcandidatesforasearch,IllroutinelyprintcoverlettersandCVs,butIneverprintane-mail.Ifyouwanttoensurethateveryonereadsyourcoveringstatements,youstandabetterchancewithaseparate,stand-alonedocument.

    Considerthecoverletteryourfirstpieceofeloquentbusinesswriting.Itsasalestool.Itisnotmeanttobearestate-mentofwhatisinyourCV,oramultipagerambleonwhatyouvedoneatworkandwhatyouwantoutoflife.Thecoverlettershouldbeaclearlywritten,succinct,three-paragraphsummarythatteasesthereaderintowantingtoknowmoreaboutyou.Itsformulaic,orshouldbe.

    Paragraph One Thisiswhereyouexplainhowyouandthereaderareconnected.YoullrecallthatwemetatthePAG2013meetinginSanDiegowherewehadacupofcoffeewithourmutualfriendDan.Or,Isawtheadvertise-mentforaseniorscientistinyourprocessdevelopmentteamandwantedtodrawyourattentiontomyCV.IdontthinkyoushouldeverwriteaToWhomitMayConcernletter,butyoumaynotbeabletoavoiditifyouareapply-ingviatheironlineapplicationprocess.

    Paragraph Two Thisisthecriticalparagraph,whereyoubringoutthebiggunyourmostrelevantaccomplish-mentandenticethereadertolookatyourCV.InpartoneofthisarticleItoldyouhowtowriteasuccinctstatementaboutyouraccomplishments,viatheC-A-Rexercise.Hereswhereyouputthattouse.Imsurethatthescientistyouhireforprocessdevelopmentwillneedtohavegreatcritical-thinkingskillstoaidthecompanysprograminmicrobialprocessdevelopment.Idemonstratedsuchskills,tociteoneexample,aftermybossaskedmetoresolveaproblemwhereabench-scaleE.colifermentationhaddropped20%inyield,suddenlyandwithoutapparentcause.Myapproachwastotakeitbacktoshakeflasksanddoabioanalyticalstudy.Ifoundawaytoimprovethemediaandwewereabletogettheprocessupandrunningagain,witha7%increaseinthroughputforthesecondaryme-taboliteofinterest.

    Paragraph Three Inmarketingcircles,thisisknownasthecalltoaction.WhetheryouarewritingaWebpageforaproductoracoverletterforanemploymentpackage,thecalltoactionprovidescriticalclosureforyourmes-sage.Marketingexpertswilltellyouthatthekeytoacalltoactionliesinitssimplicity,sodontoverdoit.Thegoalistosuggestwhatshouldhappennext:IwouldlovetohaveanopportunitytomeetwithyouoryourHRbusinesspartner,inpersonorbyphone,todiscussyourcompanysneedsandmyfitwiththoseneeds.Alternatively,IllbeinBostonnextmonthfortheAmericanSocietyforMicrobiologymeeting;Illcheckinwithyoubeforehandtoseeifwecanmeet.IfthereareanyissueswithyourCValonggapduetoillness,parenting,orunemployment,forexamplethisistheparagraphwherethoseshouldbedefused.

    Thats all you need:threesimpleparagraphs,fine-tunedtomakethebestpossibleimpressionandillustratethatyoumatchtheemployersrequirements.Whetheritisane-mailor,better,anicelyformattedMicrosoftWorddocu-mentorPDF,dontmissthisopportunitytoreinforceyourfittothejob,ortoclarifysomeissuethatotherwisemightscarepeopleoff.Whileitmaynotbeasimportant,oraswidelyread,asitoncewas,thecoverletterremainsanimportanttoolinfindingajob.

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  • 6Alinebetweenindustryandacademicresearchbeganblurringinthelate 20thcentury.BiotechnologycompaniessuchasGenentechinSouthSanFranciscoencouragedtheirscientiststopursuesideprojectsandpublishresults.Universitiesstartedpushingtechnologytransferandtranslatingresearchintoproducts.Today,partnershipsbe-tweencorporationsandacademiaarecommon,althoughsuccessrequirescarefuladvanceplanning.

    Industry-academiccollaborationsarelikepartnersskilledindifferentdancestryingtoreachacompromisebetweenwaltzandsalsa.Rhythms,pace,andexpectedoutcomescanbefrustratinglyatodds,asuniversityresearchersprioritizeeducationandbasicresearchandcorporatescientistspursueproductsandprofits.Successdependsonfindingcommongoalsandnegotiatingplansthatpayofffinanciallyandintellectuallyforallparties.

    Lets Start at the Very BeginningAnentry-leveloptionforacademicandindustryinvestigatorswhowanttocollaborateisco-advisingaPh.D.student.TheDanishMinistryofScience,InnovationandHigherEducationsponsorsanIndustrialPh.D.programthat,initscurrentform,hasfundedmorethanathousandprojectssince2002,mostinhealth,naturalsciences,andtechnol-ogy.TheEuropeanCommissionMarieCurieActionshasasimilarinitiativebasedontheDanishprogram.

    IndustrialPh.D.projectshighlightthedifficultiesofsatisfyingbothacademicandbusinessinterests.Someprofes-sorssaytheyappreciatethefundingandcreditforgraduatingaPh.D.student,butarechallengedtofindprojectsthatadvancetheirresearchwhilemeetinganindustryneed.Forstudents,however,workinginindustrywhilegettingauniversitydegreeisachancetoexperiencebothworlds.

    JulieChristinaGrewhasaMastersdegreeinpublichealthandisearninganindustrialPh.D.withtheUniversityofCopenhagenandthemedicaldevicecompanyMedtronic,whoseworldheadquartersisinMinneapolis,Min-nesota.Grewsprojectisananthropologicalanalysisofpatientswithdevicessimilartopacemakersthatmonitorheartrhythm.Shehopesherresearchwilllaunchacareerinpatient-orientedworkforapharmaceuticalormedicaldevicecompany.Grewappreciatesthenetworkingopportunitiesthatcomewithhertraining.Itsachancetogetintoindustryandseewhatitisliketotakesomethingfromanideatoreallife,tomakethingsbetterforpatientswithchronicdiseases,shesays.

    AtMedtronicDenmark,ElisabethReimerRasmussensexpertiseinhealtheconomics,policy,andpublicaffairsmadeheranaturalfittobeGrewsindustrycontact.AlthoughthecompanywasnotseekingtohostaPh.D.studentwithananthropologistsoutlook,RasmussensaysGrewsfreshperspectivehasalreadychangedthinkingaboutpatientsatisfaction.Andcorporationsknow,saysRasmussen,Ifyouwanttostayahead,youhavetoseethingsindifferentways.

    Make ConnectionsIndustryandacademicscientistswhosecareersarealreadyunderwaycanconnectthroughinitiativesfromcom-panies,governments,andprivateorganizations.IndustryFellowshipsfromtheRoyalSociety,theUnitedKingdomsnationalacademyofscience,supportopen-endedindustry-academiccollaborations.Theguidingprinciplesofthefellowshiparepure,excellentscience,saysJoeSweeney,professorofcatalysisandchemicalbiology,UniversityofHuddersfield,WestYorkshire,England.SweeneyhasafellowshiptoworkwithAstraZeneca,whichhasitscorporateheadquartersinLondonanditsresearchheadquartersinSdertlje,Sweden,andheishelpingtoincreasenetwork-

    OpeningIndustry-AcademicPartnershipsByChrisTachibanaApril12, 2013

  • ingandknowledge-sharingamongtheprogramsparticipants.Thebusinessexposureisabenefit,hesays:MyownuniversityresearchhasimprovedthroughwhatIvelearnedfromindustrypracticesaboutmanagement,engage-mentwithfundingagencies,andidentifyingtranslationalopportunities.

    Ontheindustryside,Lilly,headquarteredinIndianapolis,Indiana,hasaprogramthatencouragesscientistsatthepharmaceuticalcompanytocollaboratewithuniversityresearchers.TheLillyResearchAwardsProgram(LRAP)fundsprecompetitiveresearchproposalsdevelopedjointlybyLillyanduniversityscientists.JamesStevens,aLillydistinguishedresearchfellow,saysthegoalsarefosteringinnovationandcultivatingprofessionalrelationships.LRAPallowsourscientiststopursuelifelonglearning,hesays.Butwealsoexpectreturnsoninvestmentinin-novationandinthedevelopmentofourscientists.LRAPallowsLillyscientiststoworkwithacademicresearchersonhigh-riskprojects.Experimentsareconductedattheacademiclaboratory,andLillyscientistscontributedataanalysis,projectplanning,andothervirtualactivities.

    Open WideAlsovirtual,butmoredirectlytargetedtoLillyinterestsistheOpenInnovationDrugDiscoveryinitiatives.AlanPalkowitz,Lillyvicepresidentofdiscoverychemistryandtechnologies,saysopeninnovationprogramsarebornoftherealization,especiallybypharmaceuticalcompanies,thatwecantdoitalone;ourcurrentchallengesaretoobigandcomplex.

    Theprogramisaglobal,crowdsourceddrugcandidatesearch.Scientistsworkingonmoleculeswiththerapeuticpotentialinspecificareassuchasanti-angiogenesissendthemtoLilly.Companyscientistsperformhighthrough-putassaysandscreensandsenddatatothescientists.Accesstoexternalcompoundsinexchangeforbiologicaldatathatsthecurrencywehavedeveloped,saysPalkowitz.Weevaluatethecommercialpotentialofcom-poundstobeoptimizedintodrugcandidates.Inexchangeforthedata,Lillygetsfirstrightofaccessforpromisingcompounds.

    Cultivatinglong-termrelationshipsisagoal.PalkowitzdescribestheacademicpartnersascustomersaswellascollaboratorsandsaysLillywantsthescientiststoreturntotheprogramastheyfindnewdrugcandidates.Lillycraftsagreementsthatensureconfidentialityaboutthescientistscompounds,offermutuallybeneficialintellectualpropertyrights,andallowpublicationofthedata.SaysPalkowitz,Thisprogramwillliveanddiebasedontheexpe-riencesthescientistshave,soweputeffortintoservingtheirinterests,firstandforemost.

    WhiletheLillymodelisvirtual,Pfizerisinvestinginanopeninnovationmodelbasedonface-to-face,side-by-sidecollaborations.Thecompany,whichhascorporateheadquartersinNewYork,deployed90oftheirownscientiststoCentersforTherapeuticInnovations(CTIs)atthreeU.S.locationssofar:SanFrancisco/SanDiego,NewYork,andBoston.TheCTIshavePfizerlaboratoryspacenearacademicmedicalresearchcentersandfive-yearcollaborationagreementswithuniversities.

    CTIprojectscurrently,about20areinprogressbeginwithacademicscientistsproposingresearchonprotein-baseddrugs,suchastherapeuticantibodies.Acceptedproposals,evaluatedbyajointindustry-academiccommit-tee,receivestafffunding,supplies,andaccesstocompanyresourcessuchasantibodylibrariesandinstruments.Pfizerandacademicscientistsdotheresearch,directedbyPfizerprojectmanagers.Theendpointisaproof-of-mechanismclinicaltrial,afterwhichPfizerhasthefirstoptiontodevelopthepotentialtherapy.Collaborationbar-rierssuchasmaterialtransferagreementsareremovedinadvance.Intellectualpropertyarrangementsrecognizeacademicinterests:atprojectcompletion,ifPfizerisnotinterested,rightstothecandidatetherapyreverttotheuniversityforfurtherstudyordevelopment. 7

    Industry-academic collaborations are like partners skilled in different dances trying to reach a compromise between waltz and salsa.

  • StuartA.Aaronson,chairofoncologicalsciences,IcahnSchoolofMedi-cineatMountSinaiinNewYorkCity,andGadiBornstein,Pfizerassociateresearchfellow,arecollaboratorsattheNewYork-basedCTI.Theirprojectisdevelopingtherapeuticantibodiesagainstanoncogenictarget.Itsbeenagoodexperience,saysAaronson.Wefeellikeweremovingtogethertoacommongoal,andwevehadconsensussofaronwhatsimportanttopursue.Althoughtheyhavecleardeadlinesanddeliverables,theaca-demicscientistshavenotfeltlimited,saysAaronson.Everyoneappreciatesthatlearningmoreaboutthetargetishelpfultothewholeproject.Suc-cessdependsonthismutualvisionandcontribution,saysBornstein.Theacademicscientistshavethebiologicalexperiencewiththetargetsystem,andPfizerhasthedrugdiscoveryexpertise.

    CTIprojectshaveharddeadlines,andtheyarenotbasicresearchproj-ects.ThemechanismdoesntworkforeverybodyinacademiaandisnotareplacementforNIHgrants,saysAnthonyCoyle,Pfizerchiefscientificofficer,addingthattotaltransparencyiscrucial.Upfront,everyonemustappreciatethatfundingstrictlydependsonmeetingtimelines,sogoalsandexpectationsmustbealigned,witheveryoneonthesamepageaboutpriorities,specificaims,andgo/no-godecisions.Butweworkasateamtoachievepre-agreedsteps.Inthenextyearorso,CoyleexpectsthefirstclinicaltrialsfromCTIstostart,withthreetofivecandidateproteinsidenti-fiedfortrialseachyear,startingin2013.

    Get Everyone Into the ActOpeninnovationisnowamegamodel,underlyingpartnershipsofcompanies,universities,governmentagencies,andphilanthropicorganizations.TheInnovativeMedicinesInitiative(IMI)isapublic-privateendeavorbasedinBelgiumwitha 2billion(approximatelyUS$2.6billion)budget.FundingcomesfromtheEuropeanCommission(EC)andin-kindcontributionssuchasresearchactivitiesfrommembersoftheEuropeanFederationofPharmaceuti-calIndustriesandAssociations(EFPIA).GovernedbyEFPIAandECrepresentativesandguidedbyscientificadvisorsandEuropeanUnionmemberstaterepresentatives,theIMIisacceleratingnewmedicinedevelopment.MichelGold-man,executivedirector,saysthattheIMIwasfoundedin2008becauseEuropeaninvestmentindrugdevelopmentwasdeclining,withsevereeconomiceffects:TotheECandEFPIA,itwasclearthattheonlywaytorestoreEuropeancompetitivenessindrugdevelopmentwasthroughcollaboration.

    TheIMIfundsmultinationalconsortiaofcompanies,universities,hospitals,smallbusinesses,regulatoryagencies,andpatientorganizations.Projectsaddressareasrangingfromdiabetestoschizophrenia.Fromtheperspectiveofmanagingoneoftheworldslargestprivate-publicpartnerships,Goldmansaysthatteamworkamongdiverseenti-tiescanhappenifallpartiesagreetoworktowardcommonobjectives,andifeachpartnerisgivenaclearmissionandiscarefullyevaluatedtomakesuretheyareaddingvalue.

    TheIMIactsasatrustedneutralpartythatbringsbusinesses,universities,andgovernmentagenciestogether.Bycooperating,thesediverseentitiescantakeonchallengesthatareimportanttoallpartners,butneglectedbecausetheyarehighriskorhavelowprofitpotential,suchasdevelopingnewantibiotics.GoldmansaystheIMIalsopro-videsaplatformforagenciessuchastheU.S.FoodandDrugAdministrationandtheEuropeanMedicinesAgencytodiscussnovelregulatoryapproachestogettingdrugstopatientsquicklywhileensuringsafetyandefficacy.As

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  • partoftheIMIseducationalmission,ithasfiveprogramsfortraininginregulatoryscience,includingprogramsinpharmacovigilanceandnewapproachestotoxicology.

    GlaxoSmithKline,headquarteredinLondon,isparticipatinginIMIantibioticinitiatives.AndreasHeddiniisamedicaladvisorwiththecompany,andconfirmstheimportanceoftheIMIinbringingtogetherpartieswhoseinterestsdontalwaysalign.TheIMIiscrucialforadvancingantibioticdevelopment,saysHeddini.Thisisacriticalareaforinfec-tiousdisease,butithasbeenneglectedfordecades.Theinitiativeisgreatbecauseithasthreecomponents:itleadstoanincreasedunderstandingofresistancemechanisms,bringsnewcandidatedrugsforward,andprovidesawaytosharedata,includingaboutwhatdoesnotwork.

    Dataandknowledge-sharingarealsoessentialtotheTBDrugAcceleratorprogram.ThistuberculosisinitiativeisjustoneofmanyprogramssupportedbytheBill&MelindaGatesFoundation,aphilanthropicorganizationbasedinSeattlethatinvestsinglobalhealth.TheTBDrugAcceleratorpartnersincludetheU.S.NationalInstitutesofHealth,sixresearchinstitutions,andsevenpharmaceuticalcompanies.TheWellcomeTrust,acharitableorganizationbasedinLondon,isalsoacontributor.

    Amajorchallengetofightingtuberculosisisthesix-monthtreatmentregimen,saysKenDuncan,GatesFoundationdeputydirectorofGlobalHealthDiscovery.TheTBDrugAcceleratorprogramisseekingmedicinesthatshortenthetherapytoamonthorless.Companiesinthepartnershipsupplycompoundlibrariesanddrugdiscoveryexpertisetotheeffort,whileacademicpartnerscontributeknowledgeaboutthediseaseandfacilitiesforscreensandassays.TheFoundation,saysDuncan,providesfinancialsupportandprojectcoordination,settingtimelinesandmilestonesandmonitoringprogress.Ourmostimportantfunction,hesays,isintegrationbringingeverybodytogether.

    Duncan,whospent16yearsatGlaxoSmithKlineworkingondiseasesofthedevelopingworld,sayscompaniesintheTBDrugAcceleratorprogramhaveanunusuallyopenagreement.Thisincludessharingdrugcandidatestruc-turesandpositiveandnegativeresults.Theconsortiumwillputdatainthepublicdomainasquicklyaspossible,tohelppreventresearchredundancy.Whilethecommercialpotentialmightnotbeimmediate,Duncansaysthecollaborationcouldyieldconcreterewardsforthecompanies,suchasnewR&Davenuesfromidentificationofnoveldrugtargets.Inaddition,hesays,thescientistsgettoapplytheirenergyandexpertisetohelpsolveamedicalproblemandhaveanimpactonglobalhealth.

    Where We Go From HerePatientsandpatientadvocacygroupsarenowjoiningprivate-publicpartnershipsasadvisors,connectionstotrialparticipants,andconduitsforresults.Potentialusersofnewtherapiescanprovidevaluableinsightsduringdevelop-ment.Patientscanalsohelpcompaniesandregulatoryagenciesexplaintheirproductsandpoliciestothegeneralpublic.

    Collaborationsamongindustry,academia,foundations,governments,andendusersarebecomingmorecommon.TheresultisadynamicR&Denvironmentthatfitsthenetworked,integrated,andinterdisciplinarywaypeopleliveandworktoday.Drivingopeninnovationistightbudgetsallaround.Everybodyisunderpressureacademia,phar-maceuticalcompaniesitencouragescollaboratingeffectively,saysMt.SinaisAaronson.

    Regardlessofpartners,collaborativesuccessrestsonthreeprinciples:amutualinterestinacommon,achievablegoal;constantcommunicationaboutexpectations,timelines,andrewards;andtransparencythroughouttheproj-ect.JoeSweeneysays,Inmyexperience,almostallroadblockstocollaborationhavenotbeentheprojectbutprob-lemswithhumaninteractionsalackofunderstandingaboutrequirements.Itsimportanttohaveconversationsinwhichallpartnersexplainwhattheyneedfromthecollaboration:funding,deliverables,publications,patents.Agoodindustry-academicpartnershipissetupfromthestartasawin-winforallsides.

    Everybody is under pressureacademia, pharmaceutical companies it encourages collaborating effectively. Stuart A. Aaronson

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  • TheconceptofinformationalinterviewingwasintroducedbyRichardBollesinhisbest-sellingbook,What Color is Your Parachute.1Itistheprocessofgatheringfirsthandinformationfrompeoplewhoarealreadysuccessfulinacareerthatinterestsyou.Aninformationalinterviewprovidesaninsidersviewofacareerpathincluding,ifyouasktherightquestions,theskillsthataredesiredbyemployers,theday-to-daychallenges,andthefutureofthefield.Youmayalsoreceivevaluabletipsformakingasuccessfultransition.Aninformationalinterviewisthemosteffectivewaytogetaccurateandpersonallyrelevantinformationaboutacareerpath.

    Interview Whom?Convinced?Thenyourfirststepistofindpeopletointerview.Anyonewhoyoubelievecouldprovideinformationaboutthefieldyouareinterestedinisacandidate.Themorepeopleyoutalkto,themorecompleteyourpicturewillbe.Thisiswhereyoureffortstodeveloparobustanddiversifiednetworkwillpayoff.

    Potentialcandidatesforinformationalinterviewsincludesomeoneyoumetataconference,anexpertwhogaveaseminaronyourcampus,afriendfromarecreationalteamorsocialclub,arelative,oranalumnuswhowentthroughyourprogram.Youmightbeabletofindcontactsthroughthemembershiplistsforprofessionalorganiza-tionstowhichyoubelong.LinkedInisausefultoolforidentifyingpotentialcontacts.UsingLinkedIn,youcanjoingroupsrelatedtoyourcareerinterest,searchspecificcompanies,andaskforanintroductiontopeoplewhoarelinkedtoyourprimaryconnections.

    Aswithallaspectsofnetworking,youshouldbeinitforthelonghaul.Thisisnotaone-timeexercise,butalong-termprojectofbuildinganetworkofconnectionsthatwillallowyoutomakethecontributionsyouwanttomakeinyourchosenprofession.

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    GettingtheInsideScooponScienceCareersByPhilipS.Clifford,JenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedtAugust14, 2013

    1 R.N.Bolles,WhatColorisYourParachute?(TenSpeedPress,NewYork,2013).

  • Arranging an Informational InterviewOnceyouhaveidentifiedsomeonewhoworksinacareerpathyouhavedecidedtoexplore,sendaformalletter,ane-mail,oraLinkedInprivatemessageinwhichyouintroduceyourselfandtellyourcontacthowyoulearnedabouthimorher.Mentionanycommonconnectionsfriend,alumnusofsameschoolsincethathelpstocreatesomerapport.Requestatimetotalkeitherinpersonoronthephone.Letyourcontactknowthatyouareseekinginforma-tionnotajob.Dontbeafraidofbeingturneddown:Peopleareremarkablywillingtoshareinformationabouttheircareers,butnoteveryonefeelstheyhavetime.

    Preparing for the InterviewInformationalinterviewstypicallylast30minutestoanhour.Thisisnotalotoftimesoyoushouldpreparecarefullytotakeadvantageofthetimeyouhave.

    Askquestionsaboutthepersonscareerpathandhowtheypreparedfortheirposition.Askaboutspecialskillsorcertificationsthatmightbenecessaryorrecommended.Dontbeafraidtoaskaboutpotentiallysensitiveissuessuchastypicalsalaries,workhours,andsoon.

    Theboxonpage12providesalistofstarterquestions.Asyouprepareforthemeeting,personalizethislisttoaddresstheissuesthataremostimportanttoyou.Thisshouldincludequestionsdirectlyrelatedtoyourpersonalvalues.Forexample,ifafamily-friendlycareerisveryimportanttoyou,youmaywanttoaskaboutflexibleworkhours,on-sitedaycare,andsoon.

    The InterviewThemostimportantthingtorememberabouttheactualinterviewistoberespectful.Firstofall,alwaysbeontime.Duringtheinterview,bepersonablebutalsoprofessional.Makeitclearthatyoudonotintendtowasteanyonestime.

    Startwithyourelevatorpitch:Yourbackground,whatyourecurrentlydoing,andwhatyouhopetodonext.(IfinishedmyPh.D.lastyearinthelaboratoryofDr.V,workingonW,andcurrentlyImapostdocinDr.XslabattheuniversityofYworkingonZ.Havingdonesomecareer-relatedresearch,ImthinkingImightliketoworkinregula-toryaffairs.Imseekinginformationaboutwhatitsliketoworkinthatfield.)

    Godownyourpreparedlistofquestions,followingupasneededtolearnwhatyouneedtoknow.Remember:thisisaninformationalinterview,notajobinterview,soitisnotappropriatetoaskaboutjobopeningsinthecompany.(Sometimesanintervieweemayvolunteerthisinformation;ifthathappens,feelfreetopursue.)

    Itisagoodideatoaskforcontactinformationorbetterstill,anintroductiontootherpotentialcontacts.Letssayyoureinterviewingsomeonewhoworksintheresearchanddevelopmentdivisionofacompany,butyoubelieveyourskillsandinterestsleanmoretowardacareerinregulatoryaffairs.Thisisanopportunityforyoutoobtaincontactinformationforsomeonewhoworksintheregulatoryaffairsdivisionofthesamecompany.Youcanalsousethisasanopportunitytofindoutaboutothercompaniesinthefield.Thiscouldbeofgreatbenefitasyouidentifytargetcompaniesforyourjobsearch.

    An informational interview is a powerful way to get information about a career that interests you. It can also help you build self-confidence and get more interviewing experience.

    11

  • It is important to recognize that the person you interviewed gave you their time, a precious commodity. Acknowledge this with a written thank you note.

    12

    The Follow UpKeepnotesaboutthethingsyoulearnfromyourinformationalinterviews.TheTalktoPeoplesectionofmyIDPprovidesaconvenientwayforyoutokeeptrackoftheimportantthingsyougleanedfromeachinformationalinter-view.Thesenoteswillbehelpfulwhenyoufollowuplatertosharenewsaboutyourprogress.

    Itisimportanttorecognizethatthepersonyouinterviewedgaveyoutheirtime,apreciouscommodity.Acknowl-edgethiswithawrittenthankyounote.Whetheraccomplishedwithe-mailorwithanoldfashionedcard,yournoteneedstoshowappreciationforthepersonstime,andreportverybrieflywhatyouintendtodowithwhatyoulearned.Thisactiondemonstratesyourprofessionalismandhelpssolidifyyourconnectiontothisnewmemberofyournetwork.

    Aninformationalinterviewisapowerfulwaytogetinformationaboutacareerthatinterestsyou.Itcanalsohelpyoubuildself-confidenceandgetmoreinterviewingexperience.Andwhileaninformationalinterviewisnotadirectat-tempttofindajob,itisawayofestablishingrelationshipsthatmaysomedayleadtonewopportunities.Thisisoneofthemostvaluabletoolsinyourcareertoolbox.Useit.

    General questions you might ask in an informational interview:

    1. Wouldyoutellmealittlebitaboutyourcurrentresponsibilities?

    2. Wouldyoudescribeatypicalday?

    3. Howdidyougetintothisfield?Whatkindsofadditionalexperienceortrainingdidyouneed tohaveinordertogetajobinthisfield?

    4. Whatarepotentialfuturecareeropportunitiesforsomeoneinyourposition?

    5. Whattypesofskillsandexperiencesareessentialforsucceedinginyourposition?

    6. Howwouldyoudescribetheculture,managementstyle,andorganizationofyourcompany?

    7. Wouldyoutalkabouttypicalcompensationpackageswithinthiscareerfield,includingsalary rangeandotherbenefits,aswellaswork-lifebalance?

    8. Whatadvicewouldyougivesomeoneinmypositionwhowantstobesuccessfulinthefield?

    9. Wouldyoutellmeanythingaboutotherfirmsinvolvedinthisactivityorsector?Doyouknow ofanycompaniesthatmightbeexpandingorhiringinthenextyear?

    10. ArethereprofessionalorganizationsthatIshouldconsiderjoiningorWebsitesthatIshould belookingattogetadditionalinformation?

    11. Wouldyourecommendanyoneelsetospeakwithinthisfield?MayIhavepermissiontouse yournamewhenIcontactthem?

  • ByJennifer.A.Hobin,Cynthia.N.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.CliffordSeptember7, 2012

    ScientificcareersarenotliketheboardgameMonopoly.InMonopoly,therulesareclearanditsrelativelyeasytosucceed;infactyouget$200justforhangingintherelongenoughtopassGoonyourwaytothenextround.Butinscience,itoftenseemstherearenodefiniterulesandtheresnoguaranteedpayoffforadvancingtothenexttrain-inground:Ph.D.,postdoc,secondpostdocthenwhat?Tosucceedinscience,youneedtohaveagameplan.Thisisespeciallytrueinthecurrentresearchenvironment.

    Challenges Facing Todays Doctoral TraineesForscientists,finishingaPh.D.orpostdocandautomaticallymovingontoaresearch-facultypositionisnolongerthenorm.Infact,theshareofallU.S.scienceandengineeringdoctoraterecipientsworkinginacademedroppedfrom55%to44%between1973and2008;1thatpercentageincludespostdocs,staffscientists,researchandteach-ingfaculty,andadministrators.Withinacademe,theproportionofscientistsemployedintenuredortenure-trackpositionshasalsodeclined(seetableonage14),likelyreflectingagrowthinpostdoctoral,staffscientist,andothernontenure-trackslots.Andwithagrowingpopulationoftalentedtraineespoisedtoenterthejobmarket,thecom-petitionforsought-afteracademicjobsistough.Thegoodnewsisthat,justlikeinMonopoly,thereareamultitudeofoptionsfromwhichscientistscanchoosewhendecidingonacareer,anditisnotuncommonforPh.D.-leveltrain-eestopursuenontraditionalpaths.2

    Butidentifyingthejobthatisrightforyouwhetherinacademeorbeyondtakeswork,andcompetingsuccess-fullyforthatjobwarrantsanewapproachtocareerplanning.Therecentfocusoninnovative,interdisciplinary,translational,andcollaborativesciencecoupledwithanarrayofnewscientifictoolsandtechniquesmeansthatgraduatestudentsandpostdocsneedtomasternewskillsetstocompetesuccessfullyforresearchpositionsbothwithinandoutsideacademe.

    Thechallengesarenolessforindividualspursuingcareersawayfromthebench,whereemployersmayplaceagreateremphasisonanapplicantstransferableskillssuchasleadership,management,andcommunicationthanontheirscientificandtechnicalexpertise.Suchskillsaredifficulttoacquire,andtodocument,duringacademictraining.

    Planning for SuccessNavigatingthisnewsciencecareersgameboardcanbedifficult;asinglestrategywillnotworkforeveryone.AlthougheachPh.D.scientistbringsdifferentcharacteristicstothecareergame,toorarelydowetaketimetoanalyzethoseindividualcharacteristicstohelpformulateaplanforourcareers.

    Weshoulddoitmoreoften.Thereisabodyofliteraturethatunderscoresthevalueofdeliberatecareerplanning.Thisresearchfindsthatpeoplewhodevelopandimplementstrategiestopursuecareer-specificgoalsachievegreatercareersuccessasmeasuredbysalary,promotions,andlevelofresponsibility.3Theyalsoreportgreaterca-reersatisfactionandratethemselvesasmoresuccessfulthantheirpeerscomparedtothosewithoutcareerplans.4Anationwidestudyof7,600postdoctoralresearchersfoundthatpostdocswhodevelopedtrainingplanswiththeiradvisersatthestartoftheirappointmentsreportedgreatersatisfaction,publishedmorepapers,andexperiencedfewerconflictswiththoseadvisers.5

    Introducing myIDPTohelpyoudevelopyourplan,wehavecreatedmyIDP,aninteractive,Web-basedcareer-planningtoolbasedontheFederationofAmericanSocietiesforExperimentalBiologys(FASEBs)IndividualDevelopment Plan for Postdoctoral

    YouNeedaGamePlan

    13

  • Fellows.6, 7Supplementedbythearticlesinthisseries,myIDPwillhelpyouidentifythecareergoalsthatarerightforyouanddevelopastep-by-stepplantoreachthosegoals.

    AnonymousunpublishedpollsconductedbyFASEBin2009revealthatpostdocsandmentorsfindIDPsbeneficial.ThemajorityofpostdocswhodevelopedanIDPreportedthatithelpedthemassesstheirskillsandabilitiesandidentifytheskillstheywouldneedtoadvancetheircareers.Onerespondentnotedthatithelpednotjusttodecideonagoal,buttohavethatgoalinmindallthetime.

    Mentorsreportedsimilarbenefitsfortheirpostdocs,andbothgroupsfoundtheIDPtobehelpfulforfacilitatingcommunicationaboutpostdocscareergoals.Accordingtooneinvestigator:TheIDPhelpedmeguidemypostdocstowardexperiencesthatwouldbenefittheirowncareerobjectives.Itallowedthemtobettertailortheirexperiencestowardtheircareerpaths.GraduatestudentsattheUniversityofCalifornia,SanFrancisco,reportedsimilarbenefi-cialeffects.

    Getting StartedConstructinganIDPisafour-stepprocesswithmyIDP.Thefirststepistoevaluateyourownskills,values,andinter-ests.Thesecondstepistousethisself-assessmentasaguideforexploringandevaluatingcareeropportunitiesinyourfieldand,ultimately,identifyingyourpreferredcareer,aswellasanalternativeoptionthatyouthinkyoudbehappywith.Stepthreeistosetsomespecificgoalstoprepareyouforthecareerpathstowhichyouaspire.Afterdiscussingthesegoalsandoutliningstrategieswithyourprimarymentor,itstimetoputtheplanintoplace.Youdothisinstepfour.

    myIDPisdesignedtohelpyouwitheachofthesesteps.Itincludesexercisestoguideyouthroughtheself-assess-mentprocess,anditwillhelpyoudeterminewhichof20scientificcareerpathsbestfitsyourskillsandinterests.Foreachcareerpath,thereisanextensivelistofresourcesintheformofarticles,books,andprofessionalorganizations,whichyoucanscrutinizetogainabetterunderstandingaboutcareersyouareunfamiliarwith.Finally,thereisatooltoassistyouinsettingandachievingyourgoals.Throughouttheprocess,youwillbeabletostoreyourprogressonthemyIDPWebportalyourinformationwillbekeptprivate,viewablebyonlyyouandthoseyouwishtoshareitwithandyoucanrequestautomatedreminderstohelpyoukeepontopofyourdeadlines.Ourgoalistohelpyougainstrongerself-awareness,identifyresourcesandstrategies,andcreateyourowngameplanforidentifying,attaining,andsucceedinginthecareerthatisrightforyou.

    1 NationalScienceFoundation,ScienceandEngineeringIndicators2012,Chapter5.2 FurhmannC.N.,HalmeD.G.,OSullivanP.S.,andLindstaedtB.(2011).Improvinggraduate educationtosupportabranchingcareerpipeline:recommendationsbasedonasurveyof doctoralstudentsinthebasicbiomedicalsciences.CBE Life Sciences Education,10 (3): 239-49.3 NgT.W.H,EbyL.T.,SorensenK.L.,andFeldmanD.C.(2005).Predictorsofobjectiveand subjectivecareersuccess:Ameta-analysis.Personnel Psychology,58, 367408.

    4 AbeleA.E.andWieseB.S.(2008).Thenomologicalnetworkofself-managementstrategies andcareersuccess.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,81, 733-749.5 DavisG.(2005).DoctorsWithoutOrders.American Scientist,93 (3),supplement1-13.6 IndividualDevelopmentPlanforPostdoctoralFellows.FederationofAmericanSocieties forExperimentalBiology.(2012).http://www.faseb.org/portals/0/pdfs/opa/idp.pdf.7 CliffordP.S.(2002).Qualitytimewithyourmentor.The Scientist16 (19): 59.

    1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2008

    AllSEHfields 27.0 24.6 24.2 21.0 18.5 23.8 25.9 22.9

    Biological,agricultural,and17.3 17.0 18.1 16.4 14.3 15.5 13.7 14.3environmentallifesciences

    Computer/informationsciences 55.7 37.4 40.7 25.9 17.3 32.2 45.7 37.8

    Mathematicsandstatistics 54.9 45.5 48.1 41.0 28.9 45.5 50.6 40.7

    Physicalsciences 18.8 15.5 14.5 11.9 15.8 18.3 19.7 16.5

    Psychology 17.0 20.7 16.8 17.6 17.5 19.9 23.8 18.3

    Socialsciences 54.3 52.4 50.4 46.5 38.8 46.0 50.4 48.9

    Engineering 22.7 19.3 19.4 12.6 10.8 15.9 16.3 15.5

    Health 47.4 40.2 41.1 39.5 25.1 40.8 43.1 34.4

    Percent of doctorate recipients holding tenure and tenure-track appointments at academic institutions 35years since degree

    AdaptedfromScience and Engineering Indicators 2012,Table320

    References:

  • WhenKerenstartedherPh.D.programnearly5yearsago,theprospectofcompletingherthesisandsettingadateforherdefenseseemedfaroff.Butnowthedatewasapproachingandthethesisandthedefensewerenttheonlythingsweighingonhermind.Shewasalsothinking,Whatnext?

    Untilrecently,Kerenhadassumedshedpursueapostdoctoralposition,workhard,andeventuallylandatenure-trackpositionataresearchuniver-sity.Butnow,withacademicjobprospectslookinggrim,sherealizedthatsheshouldinvestigatesomealternativesincasetheacademicresearchtrackdidntworkout.

    IfyourelikeKeren,youvespentyearsbuildingtheresearchandtechnicalskillsneededtocompleteyourtrainingandmoveintoaresearchcareer.Butyoumaynothavegivenmuchthoughttotheotherskillsyouvepickedupalongtheway,howyoumightapplythemtocareersinsideandoutsideofacademe,andwhatad-ditionalexpertiseyourelikelytoneedinordertoestablishyourcareer,whateveritendsupbeing.

    Taking Stock of Your SkillsThefirststepinhoningyourskillsetisfiguringoutwhatyouregoodatandwhatneedstobeimproved.ThemyIDPskillsassessmentwasdesignedtohelpyoudojustthat.Createdspecificallyforscientists,thisassessmentincludestheknowledge,skills,andabilitiesemphasizedingraduateandpostdoctoraltrain-ingandneededtosucceedinaresearchcareer.Italsoencompassesskillsthatarentaformalpartofmostdoctoralsciencetrainingbutarefundamentaltoobtainingandkeepingawiderangeofscience-relatedjobs.DerivedfromtheNationalPostdoctoralAssociationslistofpostdoctoralcorecompetencies,themyIDPskillsassessmenthassevencategories:scientificknowledge,researchskills,communication,leadershipandmanagement,professionalism,responsibleconductofresearch,andcareerdevelopment.Theseskillareasandthespecificskillsineachareaaredescribedbelow.(Theboldfacephrasescorrespondtoskillslistedforself-evaluationatmyIDP.)

    Scientific KnowledgeTosucceedinanydiscipline,youneedtoknowthecontent.Forscientists,thismeansbotha broad-based knowledge of scienceandadeep knowledge of a specific research area.Butthatsnotsufficientbecausescienceisdynamic;thatknowledgebasechangesasresearcherslearnnewthings.So,tobecompetitive,youneedtobeabletocritically evaluate the scientific literature,integratenewinformationaboutyourfieldintoyourexistingknowledgebase,andidentifygapsthatareripefornewinvestigation.

    Research SkillsWhetheryouworkatthebenchorinthefield,youmusthavetheresearch and technical skillsrequiredtoexecuteyourstudies.Overthecourseofyourdoctoraltraining,youneedtobecomeproficientinstudy design,theappropriatestatistical analysis of your data,andinterpreting the results.Throughoutyourscientificcareer,youllfaceintellectualandtechnicalchallengesthatwillcalluponyourabilitytothink creativelyandproposeinnovativesolutionstoscientificproblems.Andlikeitornot,publicationsarethecoinoftherealminscience,soonceyouvedonegreatwork,youhavetopublishit.Youshouldbecomefamiliar with the publishing standardsinyourdiscipline,acquirepracticewritingandsubmittingpapers

    SoYouThinkYouHaveSkillsByJenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.CliffordSeptember21, 2012

    15

  • forpublicationanddealingwithreviews,andtakeadvantageofopportunitiestoserveasareviewer.

    CommunicationBythetimeyougettograduateschool,youshouldhavemasteredbasic writing, editing, speaking, and presentation skills;ifyouhavent,thisshouldbeamajorandimmediatefocusofyourskillsdevelopment,becausecommunicationskillsarehighlyvaluedinallcareers.Ifyourepursuingaresearchcareer,aimforexpertiseinwritingscientific publicationsandgrant proposalsandgivingtechnical talksandposter presentations.Youllneedtobeatleastmoderatelyproficientintheseareastocompletegraduateandpostdoctoralworkandtocompeteforfacultypositionsandsomeresearchadministrationroles.

    Communicating science to lay audiencesisanimportantskillforallscientistsbecause,ifcalledupon,weallneedtobereadytoexplainourworkordemonstratethevalueofpublicinvestmentinresearch.Butthissetofskillsisespeciallyimportantforscientistswhoworkwithstudents,patients,policymakers,andthepublic.Publiccommunicationisaworldapartfromwritingmanuscriptsandconferenceposters,andittakesalotofpractice.Expecttotradeyourtechnicaljargonforlanguagethatsdirectandconcrete,tofocusonthemostessentialandinterestingelementsofyourwork,andtotailoryourmessagetoyouraudience.

    Ifyoureplanningforateaching-focusedpositionata4-yearcollege,highschool,ormuseum(forexample),acquiringexpertiseinthisareashouldbeapointofemphasis.Butyouwillbenefitfromteachingexperienceandtrainingevenifyouintendtopursueacareerthatsmorefocusedonresearch.

    Mentoringisanotherkeyskilltocultivate.Itsespeciallyimportantforscientistsinteachingandadvisorypositions,anditsessentialforanyoneseekingaleadershipormanagementrole.Butmentoringothersisnttheonlyaspectofmentoringthatmatters;learninghowtobementoredisimportant,too.Thesupportandguidanceofmoreestablishedscientistsandalsopeerswillgreatlyfacilitateyourcareerprogress.Soifyourenotalreadycomfortablereaching out to others for assistance and advice,youshouldlookforoppor-tunitiestodothisandbeginforgingrelationshipswithpotentialmentors.

    Nomatterwhatpathyoutake,atsomepointyoullhavetonavigate a difficult conversation.Thismightincludeaskingforapromotionorraise,negotiatingyourstart-uppackage,orresolvingadisputewithaco-worker.Skilledcommunicatorshandletheseconversationswithconfidence,grace,anddiplomacy.

    Management and leadershipInanypositionthatinvolvesmanagingpeople,youneedtoknowhowtofacilitate effective teamworkandmanage operations.Thenecessarycompetenciesincludeplanning and organizing projects; delegating responsibilities; providing instruction, guidance,andfeedbacktoyourteam;andhandling conflictsthatarisebetweenstudentsoremployees.Timemanagementisanimportantskillforeveryone,butitsespeciallyimportantformanagersbalancingseveralprojectswhileoverseeingastaffthatreliesonthemfortimelyassistanceandfeedback.Moreover,goodleadersdontjustsupervisetheiremployees;theycreate a vision and goalsfortheirteams,motivate and inspireprogresstowardthosegoals,andserve as role modelsbydemonstratingthebehaviorstheywantotherstodisplay,learnfrom,andpasson.

    ProfessionalismProfessionalismmeansadheringtotherulesandregulationsofyourworkplaceanddemonstrating work-place etiquette.Italsomeansbeingagoodcolleaguebyfulfilling your commitments, meeting deadlines, and fostering good workplace relationships.Professionalismextendsbeyondyourlaboratoryorofficeandintoyourinstitution and scientific discipline.Youmaybeexpectedtoserveoninstitutionalorprofessionalsocietycommittees,participateinextracurriculardepartmentalfunctions,orserveoneditorialandadvisoryboards.Theseactivitiesareagreatwaytonetwork,gainexperience,anddemonstrateyourcommitmenttoyourfield,andtheycanbeveryimportanttoyourprofessionaladvancement.Andalltheseactivities

    LEADERSHIPMANAGEMENT/

    PROFESSIONALISM

    SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    16

  • requireoratleastgreatlybenefitfromprofessionalism.

    Responsible Conduct of ResearchThescientificresearchenterpriseisbuiltonafoundationoftrust,andeachofusmustbecommittedtomaintainingitsintegrity.Careful record-keepingisparamount:Scientificrecordsshouldprovidesufficientinformationtoallowotherstoreplicateyourwork.Researchersneedtobewell-versedindata ownership and sharing standards,sothattheyknowwhenitisandisnotappropriatetoaccess,modify,andsharedata,andwhatrulestheyshouldfollowwhendoingso.Theymustalsoadheretotherules regulating research with humans and animals.Theymustunderstandandadheretostandardsforauthorship:Whatcontributionsmustonemaketoaprojecttobelistedasanauthor?Whatdeterminesauthorshiporder?Howshouldworkbyotherscientistsbecitedtoavoidplagiarism?Youshouldbeabletoidentifyandmanageresearchmiscon-ductandrealorperceivedconflictsofinterestwhenyouencounterthem.Failuretomanagetheseissueswellcoulddamageyourreputationandleadtopoorperformanceevaluationsandeventermination.

    Career DevelopmentThelastgroupofskillsinthemyIDPskillsassessmentisnotspecifictoscience.Rather,theseareskillsthathelpyouimproveyourabilitytoexploreavailablecareeroptions,makeapositiveimpressiononpotentialemployers,andlandthejobyouwant.Perhapsthemostimportantofsuchskillsisnetworking;youshouldtakeadvantageofthemanyopportunitiesyourtrainingofferstoconnectwithotherpeople,whetheratde-partmentseminars,happyhours,orconferences.Professionalnetworksoftensparkcollaborationsandleadtojobopportunities.Theycanalsomakeyouabetterscientist.

    Whilestillagraduatestudent,youshouldstarttobecome familiar with the career exploration resources available to you.Theseincludethecareercounseloratyouruniversity,yourpostdocoffice,onlineresourcessuchasScienceCareers,andthelibrary.myIDPlistsanextensivecollectionofcareerresources(free,privateregistrationrequiredforaccess).Althoughyoumaynotbereadytostartapplyingforjobs,youshouldlearnwhatyoullneedtodotocreateacompetitiveapplicationandbeginaddingrelevantexperiencestoyourCVorresume.Ifyouhaventhadpracticeinterviewing or negotiating,youmaywanttoreaduponeffectivetechniquesortakeaworkshoporseminar.

    Using the myIDP Self-Assessment ScaleWhenusingmyIDPtoconductyourself-assessment,youllbeaskedtorateyourproficiencyineachskillandknowledgeareaonascaleof1to5,where1ishighlydeficientand5ishighlyproficient.Theassessmentwillbemosthelpfulifyouusethefullrangeofscoresthatis,donthesitatetoassignyourselfa1ora5.Ratingjustafewitemsasa1willhelpdistinguishtheskillsthatneedthemostimprovement,andratingjustafewitemsasa5willhelpdiscerntheskillsyouarebestat.Althoughyoumightfindithelpfultoso-licitinputfromyourmentor,colleagues,orevenfamilyandfriends,thisscaleisintendedtobeyourpersonalsubjectiveassessmentofwhetheryourskillsareappropriateforyourleveloftraining.

    Next StepsAftercompletingthemyIDPskillsassessment,youllbeabletocompareyourskillstothoseneededinvariousscientificcareers.Someoftheseskillscanbehonedinthecontextofyourlabworkorteachingresponsibilities,whileothersmayrequireyoutoexplorelearningandprofessionalopportunitiesoutsidethelab.The NPA Post-doctoral Core Competenciesincludesalistofresourcestohelpdevelopmanyoftheskillsdescribedabove.

    Asyouapproachtheendofyourtraining,itsimportantnottolosefocus.Butitsequallyimportanttosetasidesometimetoprepareforthenextphaseofyourcareer.

    COMMUNICATION

    RESEARCH SKILLS

    RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT OF

    RESEARCH

    17

  • Postdoc and research

    in Brazilopportunities

    Anuncio Fapesp_Science_2014_left.indd 1 1/6/14 6:02 PM

  • About Us

    FiftypercentofallsciencecreatedinBrazilisproducedintheStateofSoPaulo.ThestatehoststhreeofthemostimportantLatinAmericanuniversities:USP,UNICAMPandUNESP.Otheruniver-sitiesand19researchinstitutesarealsolocatedinSoPaulo,amongthemtherenownedInstitutoTecnolgicodeAeronutica(ITA),InstitutoNacionaldePesquisasEspaciais(INPE)andLaboratrioNacionaldeLuzSncrotron,besidesmostofBrazilianIndustrialP&D.

    TheSoPauloResearchFoundation(FAPESP),oneoftheleadingBrazilianagenciesdedicatedtothesupportofresearch,hasongoingprogramsandsupportmechanismstobringresearchersfromabroadtoexcellencecentersinSoPaulo.

    TheYoung Investigators AwardsispartofFAPESPsstrategytostrengthentheStateresearchinstitutions,favoringthecreationofnewresearchgroups.Seemoreaboutitatwww.fapesp.br/yia.

    FAPESPPost-Doctoral Fellowshipisaimedatdistinguishedresearcherswitharecentdoctoratedegreeandasuccessfulresearchtrackrecord.ThefellowshipenablesthedevelopmentofresearchwithinhighereducationandresearchinstitutionsinSoPaulo.Postdocfellowshipsareavailablewhencallsforapplicationsareissuedinternationally,orasindividualfellowshipsrequestedondemand.

    Inthefirstcase,positionsareadvertisedatwww.fapesp.br/oportunidades/andcandidatesareselectedthroughinternationalcompetition.Inthesecond,theproposalmustrepresentanadditiontoapre-existentresearchgroupandshouldbedevelopedinassociationwithfacultyinhigheredu-cationandresearchinstitutionsinSoPaulo.Moreinformationatwww.fapesp.br/en/5427.n/5427.

    Location: SoPaulo,SP,Brazil

    Primary Contact Details: RuaPioXI,1500AltodaLapa05468-901SoPauloSPBrazil

    Phone:+55-11-3838-4000

    www.fapesp.br

    Key Research Areas

    EarthSciences

    Engineering

    ExactSciences

    LifeSciences

    PhysicalSciences

    SocialSciences

    EMPLO

    YERPRO

    FILE: FAPES

    P

    19

  • About Us

    GreetingsandwelcometotheDepartmentofMolecularandCellularBiology(MCB),atthemainCambridgecampusofHarvardUniversity.Weareacollegialandenergeticcommunityofresearchersdedicatedtoprovidingarichtrainingenvironmentforourpostdoctoralfellows.

    YouwillfindthatadefiningfeatureoflifeatMCBisthefocusoncreatingacollaborativeandsupportiveatmosphere.Youwillalsofindahighlevelofinteractionamongstudents,facultyandpostdoctoralfellowsonascientificlevel,aswellassocially.Thedepartmentiscomposedof30-somefaculty,115graduatestudentsand150+postdoctoralfellowsallfromawiderangeofplacesintheUnitesStatesaswellasasignificantpresenceofscientistsfromabroad,whichgivesrisetoadistinctinternationalandcosmopolitanflair.Combinedwithagenuineenthusiasmandadeep-rootedpassionforscientificdiscovery,thisspiritmakesMCBanexcitingplacetodoresearchandtoexplorethemanyunsolvedquestionsinbiology.

    Althoughourfacultysresearchrepresentstraditionalandinterdisciplinaryfieldsofbiology,thedepartmentsgrowthanddevelopmentinrecentyearsalsoreflectstherevolutionoccurringinbiologythatbenefitsfromnewgenome-wideapproaches,powerfulnewcomputerandmicroscopetools,andcross-fertilizationofdiscoveriesinbiologyandotherscienceandengineeringdisciplines.

    ThemanycollaborativeprojectsbetweenlaboratoriesatMCBprovideacompellingdemonstrationthattheinteractionofscientistsindistinctlydifferentareasofexpertisecanresultingroundbreak-ingnewdiscoveriesthatwouldntbepossibleinascientificmonoculture.Awiderangeofscientificlectures,conferencesandculturaleventsbringpeoplefromdisparatefieldstogetheronalmostadailybasis.

    Location: Cambridge,MA,USA

    Primary Contact Details: DepartmentofMolecularandCellularBiologyHarvardUniversity52OxfordStreet,Cambridge,MA02138

    PleaseapplydirectlytorelevantMCBFaculty

    www.mcb.harvard.edu/postdocs

    Key Recruitment Areas

    ThescientificquestionsexploredinthedepartmentspanawiderangethatincludeasdiversetopicsasBiochemistryandBiophysics, Genetics andGenomics;DevelopmentandCell Biology, ImmunologyandMolecular EvolutionaswellasNeurobiologyandStructural Biology.

    EMPLO

    YERPRO

    FILE: Harvard D

    epartment of M

    olecular and Cellular Biology

    21

  • Finding cures. Saving children.

    Ranked in the top 10 best places to work in academia by The Scientist yearly since 2005.Named the nations No. 1 pediatric cancer care hospital by Parents magazine, 2009.Named the nations best childrens cancer hospital by U.S. News & World Report, 2010.Named to FORTUNE magazines 100 Best Companies to Work For, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014.To learn more, visit www.stjude.org.An Equal Opportunity Employer 2014 St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital-Biomedical Communications.

    Cures dont just happen.They Demand Collaboration. Dedication. Enthusiasm. Teamwork.

    Research Staff Opportunities

    At St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital, world-renowned scientists and clinical investigators share their knowledge and work together to advance cures and means of prevention for pediatric cancer and other life-threatening diseases through research and treatment.

    New and exciting research positions are available in our academic departments,requiring bachelors, masters or doctoral degrees. Positions are available at alllevels, with the opportunity to grow within our hospitals research career ladder.For information on all current opportunities and to apply, please visit our website,www.stjude.org/jobs.

    Cures dont just happen.

  • About Us

    Internationallyrecognizedforitspioneeringresearchandtreatmentofchildrenwithcancerandotherlife-threateningdiseases,St.JudeChildrensResearchHospitalisrankedamongthebestpediatriccancerhospitalsinthenation.ItisthefirstandonlyNationalCancerInstitute-designatedComprehensiveCancerCenterdevotedsolelytochildren.

    FoundedinMemphis,TennesseebythelateentertainerDannyThomas,St.Judeopeneditsdoorsin1962,andhastreatedchildrenfromall50statesandthroughouttheworld.St.Judehasdevelopedclinicaltrialsthathavehelpedpushoverallsurvivalratesforchildhoodcancersfrom20%atthetimeofourfoundingtothecurrent80%.

    Key Attractions

    Youmaybewondering:WhatisitliketobepartofSt.JudeChildrensResearchHospital?Wethinkitsthemostinspiringplaceimaginabletocollaboratewithothertalented,committedindividualswhowanttohelpchildrenfacinglife-threateningillnesseslivelonger,betterlives.

    RecognizedbyFORTUNEmagazinein2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014asoneofthe100BestCompaniestoWorkFor,weofferanopen,friendlyworkenvironmentwhereyoucanbecomeanactivepartnerinacausethatissomuchgreaterthananythingyoumightaccomplishwithinamoretraditionalmedicalsetting.

    Location: Memphis,TN,USA

    Number employed: 3,700

    www.stjude.org/jobs

    Key Recruitment Areas

    Biochemistry

    ChemicalBiologyandTherapeutics

    DevelopmentalNeurobiology

    Genetics

    Immunology

    Oncology

    RadiologicalSciences

    StructuralBiology

    TumorCellBiology

    Hematology

    InfectiousDiseases

    Pathology

    PharmaceuticalSciences

    EMPLO

    YERPRO

    FILE: St. Jude Childrens R

    esearch Hospital

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