2014 Career Handbook 2014

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Advice and Opportunities for Scientists

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2014CareerHandbookAdviceandOpportunitiesforScientistsProducedbytheScience/AAASCustomPublishingOfficeSearchthousandsofjoblistingsCreatejobalertsbasedonyourcriteriaGetcareeradvicefromexpertsonourcareerforumViewwebinarsandbookletsPostyourresume/CVinoursearchabledatabaseAccesshelpfulhowtoguides.For your career in science, theres only oneScienceCareers.orgVisit ScienceCareers.org todaytoadvanceyourcareer.AccessthelatestjobsandthemostrelevantcareerinformationacrosstheglobeonScienceCareers.org.Allservicesarefree.CreatejobalertsbasedonyourcriteriaGetcareeradvicefromexpertsonourcareerforumViewwebinarsandbookletsPostyourresume/CVinoursearchabledatabaseAccesshelpfulhowtoguides.VisitThanksforpickingupacopyofthe2014CareerHandbook.OurgoalwiththisbookletandwithallthecareerresourcesfromScienceistobringyouuseful,relevantinformationtohelpyounavigatethejobsearchprocessandmanageyourdevelopmentinawaythatleadsyoutoatrulyrewardingcareer.Tothatend,wehaveteamedupwithsomegreatorganizationstobringyouinformationaboutthelatestcareeropportunitiesinmanydifferentfields.Theprofilesshownherewillgiveyouasenseofthetypesoforganizationsthatareacceptingresumesandthekindsofpositionstheyoffer.Wevealsoincludedsomearticlestohelpyouimproveyourresumeaswellassomegeneraltipsandadviceonjobsearching.Inadditiontothecompaniesfeaturedinthisbook,youcansearchhundredsofadditionaljobpostingsonourwebsiteScienceCareers.orgallforfree.TheCoverLetter:RelicorStillRelevant?DavidG.Jensen ................................................................................................... 4 OpeningIndustry-AcademicPartnershipsChrisTachibana ................................................................................................... 6 GettingtheInsideScooponScienceCareersPhilipS.Clifford,JenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt ............................................ 10YouNeedaGamePlan JenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.Clifford....................................................... 13 SoYouThinkYouHaveSkillsJenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.Clifford ...............................................................15EmployerProfilesFAPESP ................................................................................................................18HarvardDepartmentofMolecularandCellularBiology ..........................................................20St.JudeChildrensResearchHospital ...........................................22INTRODUCTIONPhoto credits:Coverclockwisefromtopleft:iStockphoto.com/anyaivanovaiStockphoto.com/vkovalcikiStockphoto.com/KalawiniStockphoto.com/nic0las_p.3 iStockphoto.com/anyaivanovap.3 iStockphoto.com/Kalawinp.4 iStockphoto.com/berpinp.6 iStockphoto.com/nic0las_p.7 iStockphoto.com/nic0las_Editor:AllisonPritchardCopyEditor:YuseLajiminmuhipDesign:MaryEllenCrowleyTitlesandaffiliationsforauthorsandforsourcesquotedwerecorrectatthetimeoforiginalpublication.2014 byTheAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience.Allrightsreserved.1February2014CONTENTSp.8 Pixtal/agefotostockp.10 iStockphoto.com/laflorp.13 iStockphoto.com/KeithBishopp.15 iStockphoto.com/exdez4Whenitcomestothetopicofcoverletters,todaytheresnosuchthingasconventionalwisdom.AquickInternetsearchturnsupmanycommentsfromjobseekerswhoaregladtoseeitgoandcareerexpertswhosay,Tossit.Butsomepeoplestilladvise,Betterwriteagoodone;theyreimportant.IfallintothelattercampbutIdorecognizethattheroleofthecoverletterhaschanged.NolongerdoyouintroduceyourresumeorindustryCVwithaletteronthefinestlinenstationary;theletterwillbeprintedout,ifatall,onwhateverpaperthehu-manresources(HR)departmenthappenstohaveintheprinter.Anditstruethatalotofpeopledontevenreadcoverletters.Yet,thecoverletterstillservesapurposethatnootherpartofyourapplicationpackagecanserve:Itmakesastrong,upfront,specificcaseforyourcandidacyfortheposition.Theresnobetteropportunityatleastuntiltheinterviewtopointoutaparticu-larstrengthorhammerhomethereasonsyoudbeanespeciallygoodfitfortheposition.Why Bother?Youmightwellask,Whyarecoverlettersnecessary?Ijustfilledoutsixonlineapplicationsandnotonecompanyrequiredit.Ifyoureapplyingonline,acoverlettermaynotbenecessary,butitsstillagoodidea.Itsanopportunitytopersonalizeyourapplication.WillyourletterbetoanHRperson?Ahiringmanager?IfyouareapplyingviaaWebsite,youprobablywontknowwhotowriteto;youllbestuckwritingaToWhomitMayConcernletterifyougettoincludeoneatall.But,whenworkingyournetwork,asweadvisesooftenatScienceCareers,youllbeabletoe-mailpeopledirectlyandincludeanicelyformattedMicrosoftWordorPDFdocumentaddressedtothempersonally.Thatsthebestapproach.Writingaletteralsoforcesyoutoconsidertheuniquenessoftheopportunityinfrontofyou.Youstarttodifferenti-ateyourself,tofocusonwhatyoucandoforthem,andtosellthattothecompany.Youshouldneveruseagenericcoverletterthatfailstomakespecificreferencetoaparticularjoborreader.Anotherreasonwhyacoverletterisgoodisthatitallowsyoutopresentyourstrengthsandaccomplishmentsinbite-sizednuggets.Thatsbothgoodpracticeandaneffectivejob-searchstrategy.Iwroteabouttheimportanceofsuccinctwritinginpartoneofthisseries;thecoverlettershouldcarrythatforward.Youwill,infact,utilizeoneofthoseChallenge-Approach-Results(C-A-R)paragraphsfrompartonelaterinthiscolumn.Butbeforewegettothat,Illtalkabouthowcoverletterscanbeanadvantagetoemployersevenif,asyoumayhavediscovered,theydontaskforthemveryoften.How is the Cover Letter Received?Justbecauseyouvewrittenagreatcoverletterdoesntmeanthateveryoneisgoingtoreadit.IdidanimpromptusurveyofmyHRfriends;just40%toldmetheyregularlyreadthecoverletter.Theother60%,though,saidthattheyreadcoverlettersonoccasion,andthatincertainsituationsacoverlettercouldbeveryuseful.AndreaPiccarelli,managerofhumanresourcesatTheSmithersGroupinAkron,Ohio,tellsmethatwhileshedoesntconsistentlyreadthem,coverlettersareimportantinseveralsituations.Forexample,ifIlookattheCVbutnoticeTheCoverLetter:RelicorStillRelevant?ByDavidG.JensenSeptember 18, 2013thehomeaddressisntinthegeographicalareaofourbusiness,Iwillgotothecoverlettertoseewhattheapplicanthadtosayaboutthepotentialofactuallymakingamove,Piccarellisaysinaninterview.Inanotherinstance,theremaybeaverystrongemphasisoncommunicationskillsforaparticularjob,andtheresnobetterwaytogetagrasponthatthantoseehowtheywritetheircoverletter.Lastly,iftheresasignificantgapinemploymentorperhapsaseriesofshortstaysinjobsIwanttoseeanexplanationthereinthecoverletter.The Mechanics of Writing the Cover LetterThepassageoftimeismostobviousinthecoverletterschangingformatandappearance.Nooneopensaphysicalenvelopeanymore,andeventhefaxhasmostlyvanished.Yourchoice,then,iswhethertoworkupanicelyformat-tedMicrosoftWordorPDFversionandincorporateitaspageoneoftheCVor,asmostpeopledo,separatethemintotwoseparatedocuments.Ifyoureapplyingonline,youllprobablyjustpasteyourcover-lettertextintoabox.Piccarellioffersanotheroption:Shesaysthat,ifyouresendingyourpackagebye-mail,itsOKtoputyourcover-letterpointsinthee-mailthatenclosestheCV,andmanypeoplewouldagreewithher.Unfortunately,noteveryoneprintsouttheemailwhentheycirculateanenclosure.Takeme:IfIwanttohandmyclientabinderofourcandidatesforasearch,IllroutinelyprintcoverlettersandCVs,butIneverprintane-mail.Ifyouwanttoensurethateveryonereadsyourcoveringstatements,youstandabetterchancewithaseparate,stand-alonedocument.Considerthecoverletteryourfirstpieceofeloquentbusinesswriting.Itsasalestool.Itisnotmeanttobearestate-mentofwhatisinyourCV,oramultipagerambleonwhatyouvedoneatworkandwhatyouwantoutoflife.Thecoverlettershouldbeaclearlywritten,succinct,three-paragraphsummarythatteasesthereaderintowantingtoknowmoreaboutyou.Itsformulaic,orshouldbe.Paragraph One Thisiswhereyouexplainhowyouandthereaderareconnected.YoullrecallthatwemetatthePAG2013meetinginSanDiegowherewehadacupofcoffeewithourmutualfriendDan.Or,Isawtheadvertise-mentforaseniorscientistinyourprocessdevelopmentteamandwantedtodrawyourattentiontomyCV.IdontthinkyoushouldeverwriteaToWhomitMayConcernletter,butyoumaynotbeabletoavoiditifyouareapply-ingviatheironlineapplicationprocess.Paragraph Two Thisisthecriticalparagraph,whereyoubringoutthebiggunyourmostrelevantaccomplish-mentandenticethereadertolookatyourCV.InpartoneofthisarticleItoldyouhowtowriteasuccinctstatementaboutyouraccomplishments,viatheC-A-Rexercise.Hereswhereyouputthattouse.Imsurethatthescientistyouhireforprocessdevelopmentwillneedtohavegreatcritical-thinkingskillstoaidthecompanysprograminmicrobialprocessdevelopment.Idemonstratedsuchskills,tociteoneexample,aftermybossaskedmetoresolveaproblemwhereabench-scaleE.colifermentationhaddropped20%inyield,suddenlyandwithoutapparentcause.Myapproachwastotakeitbacktoshakeflasksanddoabioanalyticalstudy.Ifoundawaytoimprovethemediaandwewereabletogettheprocessupandrunningagain,witha7%increaseinthroughputforthesecondaryme-taboliteofinterest.Paragraph Three Inmarketingcircles,thisisknownasthecalltoaction.WhetheryouarewritingaWebpageforaproductoracoverletterforanemploymentpackage,thecalltoactionprovidescriticalclosureforyourmes-sage.Marketingexpertswilltellyouthatthekeytoacalltoactionliesinitssimplicity,sodontoverdoit.Thegoalistosuggestwhatshouldhappennext:IwouldlovetohaveanopportunitytomeetwithyouoryourHRbusinesspartner,inpersonorbyphone,todiscussyourcompanysneedsandmyfitwiththoseneeds.Alternatively,IllbeinBostonnextmonthfortheAmericanSocietyforMicrobiologymeeting;Illcheckinwithyoubeforehandtoseeifwecanmeet.IfthereareanyissueswithyourCValonggapduetoillness,parenting,orunemployment,forexamplethisistheparagraphwherethoseshouldbedefused.Thats all you need:threesimpleparagraphs,fine-tunedtomakethebestpossibleimpressionandillustratethatyoumatchtheemployersrequirements.Whetheritisane-mailor,better,anicelyformattedMicrosoftWorddocu-mentorPDF,dontmissthisopportunitytoreinforceyourfittothejob,ortoclarifysomeissuethatotherwisemightscarepeopleoff.Whileitmaynotbeasimportant,oraswidelyread,asitoncewas,thecoverletterremainsanimportanttoolinfindingajob.56Alinebetweenindustryandacademicresearchbeganblurringinthelate 20thcentury.BiotechnologycompaniessuchasGenentechinSouthSanFranciscoencouragedtheirscientiststopursuesideprojectsandpublishresults.Universitiesstartedpushingtechnologytransferandtranslatingresearchintoproducts.Today,partnershipsbe-tweencorporationsandacademiaarecommon,althoughsuccessrequirescarefuladvanceplanning.Industry-academiccollaborationsarelikepartnersskilledindifferentdancestryingtoreachacompromisebetweenwaltzandsalsa.Rhythms,pace,andexpectedoutcomescanbefrustratinglyatodds,asuniversityresearchersprioritizeeducationandbasicresearchandcorporatescientistspursueproductsandprofits.Successdependsonfindingcommongoalsandnegotiatingplansthatpayofffinanciallyandintellectuallyforallparties.Lets Start at the Very BeginningAnentry-leveloptionforacademicandindustryinvestigatorswhowanttocollaborateisco-advisingaPh.D.student.TheDanishMinistryofScience,InnovationandHigherEducationsponsorsanIndustrialPh.D.programthat,initscurrentform,hasfundedmorethanathousandprojectssince2002,mostinhealth,naturalsciences,andtechnol-ogy.TheEuropeanCommissionMarieCurieActionshasasimilarinitiativebasedontheDanishprogram.IndustrialPh.D.projectshighlightthedifficultiesofsatisfyingbothacademicandbusinessinterests.Someprofes-sorssaytheyappreciatethefundingandcreditforgraduatingaPh.D.student,butarechallengedtofindprojectsthatadvancetheirresearchwhilemeetinganindustryneed.Forstudents,however,workinginindustrywhilegettingauniversitydegreeisachancetoexperiencebothworlds.JulieChristinaGrewhasaMastersdegreeinpublichealthandisearninganindustrialPh.D.withtheUniversityofCopenhagenandthemedicaldevicecompanyMedtronic,whoseworldheadquartersisinMinneapolis,Min-nesota.Grewsprojectisananthropologicalanalysisofpatientswithdevicessimilartopacemakersthatmonitorheartrhythm.Shehopesherresearchwilllaunchacareerinpatient-orientedworkforapharmaceuticalormedicaldevicecompany.Grewappreciatesthenetworkingopportunitiesthatcomewithhertraining.Itsachancetogetintoindustryandseewhatitisliketotakesomethingfromanideatoreallife,tomakethingsbetterforpatientswithchronicdiseases,shesays.AtMedtronicDenmark,ElisabethReimerRasmussensexpertiseinhealtheconomics,policy,andpublicaffairsmadeheranaturalfittobeGrewsindustrycontact.AlthoughthecompanywasnotseekingtohostaPh.D.studentwithananthropologistsoutlook,RasmussensaysGrewsfreshperspectivehasalreadychangedthinkingaboutpatientsatisfaction.Andcorporationsknow,saysRasmussen,Ifyouwanttostayahead,youhavetoseethingsindifferentways.Make ConnectionsIndustryandacademicscientistswhosecareersarealreadyunderwaycanconnectthroughinitiativesfromcom-panies,governments,andprivateorganizations.IndustryFellowshipsfromtheRoyalSociety,theUnitedKingdomsnationalacademyofscience,supportopen-endedindustry-academiccollaborations.Theguidingprinciplesofthefellowshiparepure,excellentscience,saysJoeSweeney,professorofcatalysisandchemicalbiology,UniversityofHuddersfield,WestYorkshire,England.SweeneyhasafellowshiptoworkwithAstraZeneca,whichhasitscorporateheadquartersinLondonanditsresearchheadquartersinSdertlje,Sweden,andheishelpingtoincreasenetwork-OpeningIndustry-AcademicPartnershipsByChrisTachibanaApril12, 2013ingandknowledge-sharingamongtheprogramsparticipants.Thebusinessexposureisabenefit,hesays:MyownuniversityresearchhasimprovedthroughwhatIvelearnedfromindustrypracticesaboutmanagement,engage-mentwithfundingagencies,andidentifyingtranslationalopportunities.Ontheindustryside,Lilly,headquarteredinIndianapolis,Indiana,hasaprogramthatencouragesscientistsatthepharmaceuticalcompanytocollaboratewithuniversityresearchers.TheLillyResearchAwardsProgram(LRAP)fundsprecompetitiveresearchproposalsdevelopedjointlybyLillyanduniversityscientists.JamesStevens,aLillydistinguishedresearchfellow,saysthegoalsarefosteringinnovationandcultivatingprofessionalrelationships.LRAPallowsourscientiststopursuelifelonglearning,hesays.Butwealsoexpectreturnsoninvestmentinin-novationandinthedevelopmentofourscientists.LRAPallowsLillyscientiststoworkwithacademicresearchersonhigh-riskprojects.Experimentsareconductedattheacademiclaboratory,andLillyscientistscontributedataanalysis,projectplanning,andothervirtualactivities.Open WideAlsovirtual,butmoredirectlytargetedtoLillyinterestsistheOpenInnovationDrugDiscoveryinitiatives.AlanPalkowitz,Lillyvicepresidentofdiscoverychemistryandtechnologies,saysopeninnovationprogramsarebornoftherealization,especiallybypharmaceuticalcompanies,thatwecantdoitalone;ourcurrentchallengesaretoobigandcomplex.Theprogramisaglobal,crowdsourceddrugcandidatesearch.Scientistsworkingonmoleculeswiththerapeuticpotentialinspecificareassuchasanti-angiogenesissendthemtoLilly.Companyscientistsperformhighthrough-putassaysandscreensandsenddatatothescientists.Accesstoexternalcompoundsinexchangeforbiologicaldatathatsthecurrencywehavedeveloped,saysPalkowitz.Weevaluatethecommercialpotentialofcom-poundstobeoptimizedintodrugcandidates.Inexchangeforthedata,Lillygetsfirstrightofaccessforpromisingcompounds.Cultivatinglong-termrelationshipsisagoal.PalkowitzdescribestheacademicpartnersascustomersaswellascollaboratorsandsaysLillywantsthescientiststoreturntotheprogramastheyfindnewdrugcandidates.Lillycraftsagreementsthatensureconfidentialityaboutthescientistscompounds,offermutuallybeneficialintellectualpropertyrights,andallowpublicationofthedata.SaysPalkowitz,Thisprogramwillliveanddiebasedontheexpe-riencesthescientistshave,soweputeffortintoservingtheirinterests,firstandforemost.WhiletheLillymodelisvirtual,Pfizerisinvestinginanopeninnovationmodelbasedonface-to-face,side-by-sidecollaborations.Thecompany,whichhascorporateheadquartersinNewYork,deployed90oftheirownscientiststoCentersforTherapeuticInnovations(CTIs)atthreeU.S.locationssofar:SanFrancisco/SanDiego,NewYork,andBoston.TheCTIshavePfizerlaboratoryspacenearacademicmedicalresearchcentersandfive-yearcollaborationagreementswithuniversities.CTIprojectscurrently,about20areinprogressbeginwithacademicscientistsproposingresearchonprotein-baseddrugs,suchastherapeuticantibodies.Acceptedproposals,evaluatedbyajointindustry-academiccommit-tee,receivestafffunding,supplies,andaccesstocompanyresourcessuchasantibodylibrariesandinstruments.Pfizerandacademicscientistsdotheresearch,directedbyPfizerprojectmanagers.Theendpointisaproof-of-mechanismclinicaltrial,afterwhichPfizerhasthefirstoptiontodevelopthepotentialtherapy.Collaborationbar-rierssuchasmaterialtransferagreementsareremovedinadvance.Intellectualpropertyarrangementsrecognizeacademicinterests:atprojectcompletion,ifPfizerisnotinterested,rightstothecandidatetherapyreverttotheuniversityforfurtherstudyordevelopment. 7Industry-academic collaborations are like partners skilled in different dances trying to reach a compromise between waltz and salsa.StuartA.Aaronson,chairofoncologicalsciences,IcahnSchoolofMedi-cineatMountSinaiinNewYorkCity,andGadiBornstein,Pfizerassociateresearchfellow,arecollaboratorsattheNewYork-basedCTI.Theirprojectisdevelopingtherapeuticantibodiesagainstanoncogenictarget.Itsbeenagoodexperience,saysAaronson.Wefeellikeweremovingtogethertoacommongoal,andwevehadconsensussofaronwhatsimportanttopursue.Althoughtheyhavecleardeadlinesanddeliverables,theaca-demicscientistshavenotfeltlimited,saysAaronson.Everyoneappreciatesthatlearningmoreaboutthetargetishelpfultothewholeproject.Suc-cessdependsonthismutualvisionandcontribution,saysBornstein.Theacademicscientistshavethebiologicalexperiencewiththetargetsystem,andPfizerhasthedrugdiscoveryexpertise.CTIprojectshaveharddeadlines,andtheyarenotbasicresearchproj-ects.ThemechanismdoesntworkforeverybodyinacademiaandisnotareplacementforNIHgrants,saysAnthonyCoyle,Pfizerchiefscientificofficer,addingthattotaltransparencyiscrucial.Upfront,everyonemustappreciatethatfundingstrictlydependsonmeetingtimelines,sogoalsandexpectationsmustbealigned,witheveryoneonthesamepageaboutpriorities,specificaims,andgo/no-godecisions.Butweworkasateamtoachievepre-agreedsteps.Inthenextyearorso,CoyleexpectsthefirstclinicaltrialsfromCTIstostart,withthreetofivecandidateproteinsidenti-fiedfortrialseachyear,startingin2013.Get Everyone Into the ActOpeninnovationisnowamegamodel,underlyingpartnershipsofcompanies,universities,governmentagencies,andphilanthropicorganizations.TheInnovativeMedicinesInitiative(IMI)isapublic-privateendeavorbasedinBelgiumwitha 2billion(approximatelyUS$2.6billion)budget.FundingcomesfromtheEuropeanCommission(EC)andin-kindcontributionssuchasresearchactivitiesfrommembersoftheEuropeanFederationofPharmaceuti-calIndustriesandAssociations(EFPIA).GovernedbyEFPIAandECrepresentativesandguidedbyscientificadvisorsandEuropeanUnionmemberstaterepresentatives,theIMIisacceleratingnewmedicinedevelopment.MichelGold-man,executivedirector,saysthattheIMIwasfoundedin2008becauseEuropeaninvestmentindrugdevelopmentwasdeclining,withsevereeconomiceffects:TotheECandEFPIA,itwasclearthattheonlywaytorestoreEuropeancompetitivenessindrugdevelopmentwasthroughcollaboration.TheIMIfundsmultinationalconsortiaofcompanies,universities,hospitals,smallbusinesses,regulatoryagencies,andpatientorganizations.Projectsaddressareasrangingfromdiabetestoschizophrenia.Fromtheperspectiveofmanagingoneoftheworldslargestprivate-publicpartnerships,Goldmansaysthatteamworkamongdiverseenti-tiescanhappenifallpartiesagreetoworktowardcommonobjectives,andifeachpartnerisgivenaclearmissionandiscarefullyevaluatedtomakesuretheyareaddingvalue.TheIMIactsasatrustedneutralpartythatbringsbusinesses,universities,andgovernmentagenciestogether.Bycooperating,thesediverseentitiescantakeonchallengesthatareimportanttoallpartners,butneglectedbecausetheyarehighriskorhavelowprofitpotential,suchasdevelopingnewantibiotics.GoldmansaystheIMIalsopro-videsaplatformforagenciessuchastheU.S.FoodandDrugAdministrationandtheEuropeanMedicinesAgencytodiscussnovelregulatoryapproachestogettingdrugstopatientsquicklywhileensuringsafetyandefficacy.As8partoftheIMIseducationalmission,ithasfiveprogramsfortraininginregulatoryscience,includingprogramsinpharmacovigilanceandnewapproachestotoxicology.GlaxoSmithKline,headquarteredinLondon,isparticipatinginIMIantibioticinitiatives.AndreasHeddiniisamedicaladvisorwiththecompany,andconfirmstheimportanceoftheIMIinbringingtogetherpartieswhoseinterestsdontalwaysalign.TheIMIiscrucialforadvancingantibioticdevelopment,saysHeddini.Thisisacriticalareaforinfec-tiousdisease,butithasbeenneglectedfordecades.Theinitiativeisgreatbecauseithasthreecomponents:itleadstoanincreasedunderstandingofresistancemechanisms,bringsnewcandidatedrugsforward,andprovidesawaytosharedata,includingaboutwhatdoesnotwork.Dataandknowledge-sharingarealsoessentialtotheTBDrugAcceleratorprogram.ThistuberculosisinitiativeisjustoneofmanyprogramssupportedbytheBill&MelindaGatesFoundation,aphilanthropicorganizationbasedinSeattlethatinvestsinglobalhealth.TheTBDrugAcceleratorpartnersincludetheU.S.NationalInstitutesofHealth,sixresearchinstitutions,andsevenpharmaceuticalcompanies.TheWellcomeTrust,acharitableorganizationbasedinLondon,isalsoacontributor.Amajorchallengetofightingtuberculosisisthesix-monthtreatmentregimen,saysKenDuncan,GatesFoundationdeputydirectorofGlobalHealthDiscovery.TheTBDrugAcceleratorprogramisseekingmedicinesthatshortenthetherapytoamonthorless.Companiesinthepartnershipsupplycompoundlibrariesanddrugdiscoveryexpertisetotheeffort,whileacademicpartnerscontributeknowledgeaboutthediseaseandfacilitiesforscreensandassays.TheFoundation,saysDuncan,providesfinancialsupportandprojectcoordination,settingtimelinesandmilestonesandmonitoringprogress.Ourmostimportantfunction,hesays,isintegrationbringingeverybodytogether.Duncan,whospent16yearsatGlaxoSmithKlineworkingondiseasesofthedevelopingworld,sayscompaniesintheTBDrugAcceleratorprogramhaveanunusuallyopenagreement.Thisincludessharingdrugcandidatestruc-turesandpositiveandnegativeresults.Theconsortiumwillputdatainthepublicdomainasquicklyaspossible,tohelppreventresearchredundancy.Whilethecommercialpotentialmightnotbeimmediate,Duncansaysthecollaborationcouldyieldconcreterewardsforthecompanies,suchasnewR&Davenuesfromidentificationofnoveldrugtargets.Inaddition,hesays,thescientistsgettoapplytheirenergyandexpertisetohelpsolveamedicalproblemandhaveanimpactonglobalhealth.Where We Go From HerePatientsandpatientadvocacygroupsarenowjoiningprivate-publicpartnershipsasadvisors,connectionstotrialparticipants,andconduitsforresults.Potentialusersofnewtherapiescanprovidevaluableinsightsduringdevelop-ment.Patientscanalsohelpcompaniesandregulatoryagenciesexplaintheirproductsandpoliciestothegeneralpublic.Collaborationsamongindustry,academia,foundations,governments,andendusersarebecomingmorecommon.TheresultisadynamicR&Denvironmentthatfitsthenetworked,integrated,andinterdisciplinarywaypeopleliveandworktoday.Drivingopeninnovationistightbudgetsallaround.Everybodyisunderpressureacademia,phar-maceuticalcompaniesitencouragescollaboratingeffectively,saysMt.SinaisAaronson.Regardlessofpartners,collaborativesuccessrestsonthreeprinciples:amutualinterestinacommon,achievablegoal;constantcommunicationaboutexpectations,timelines,andrewards;andtransparencythroughouttheproj-ect.JoeSweeneysays,Inmyexperience,almostallroadblockstocollaborationhavenotbeentheprojectbutprob-lemswithhumaninteractionsalackofunderstandingaboutrequirements.Itsimportanttohaveconversationsinwhichallpartnersexplainwhattheyneedfromthecollaboration:funding,deliverables,publications,patents.Agoodindustry-academicpartnershipissetupfromthestartasawin-winforallsides.Everybody is under pressureacademia, pharmaceutical companies it encourages collaborating effectively. Stuart A. Aaronson 9TheconceptofinformationalinterviewingwasintroducedbyRichardBollesinhisbest-sellingbook,What Color is Your Parachute.1Itistheprocessofgatheringfirsthandinformationfrompeoplewhoarealreadysuccessfulinacareerthatinterestsyou.Aninformationalinterviewprovidesaninsidersviewofacareerpathincluding,ifyouasktherightquestions,theskillsthataredesiredbyemployers,theday-to-daychallenges,andthefutureofthefield.Youmayalsoreceivevaluabletipsformakingasuccessfultransition.Aninformationalinterviewisthemosteffectivewaytogetaccurateandpersonallyrelevantinformationaboutacareerpath.Interview Whom?Convinced?Thenyourfirststepistofindpeopletointerview.Anyonewhoyoubelievecouldprovideinformationaboutthefieldyouareinterestedinisacandidate.Themorepeopleyoutalkto,themorecompleteyourpicturewillbe.Thisiswhereyoureffortstodeveloparobustanddiversifiednetworkwillpayoff.Potentialcandidatesforinformationalinterviewsincludesomeoneyoumetataconference,anexpertwhogaveaseminaronyourcampus,afriendfromarecreationalteamorsocialclub,arelative,oranalumnuswhowentthroughyourprogram.Youmightbeabletofindcontactsthroughthemembershiplistsforprofessionalorganiza-tionstowhichyoubelong.LinkedInisausefultoolforidentifyingpotentialcontacts.UsingLinkedIn,youcanjoingroupsrelatedtoyourcareerinterest,searchspecificcompanies,andaskforanintroductiontopeoplewhoarelinkedtoyourprimaryconnections.Aswithallaspectsofnetworking,youshouldbeinitforthelonghaul.Thisisnotaone-timeexercise,butalong-termprojectofbuildinganetworkofconnectionsthatwillallowyoutomakethecontributionsyouwanttomakeinyourchosenprofession.10GettingtheInsideScooponScienceCareersByPhilipS.Clifford,JenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedtAugust14, 20131 R.N.Bolles,WhatColorisYourParachute?(TenSpeedPress,NewYork,2013).Arranging an Informational InterviewOnceyouhaveidentifiedsomeonewhoworksinacareerpathyouhavedecidedtoexplore,sendaformalletter,ane-mail,oraLinkedInprivatemessageinwhichyouintroduceyourselfandtellyourcontacthowyoulearnedabouthimorher.Mentionanycommonconnectionsfriend,alumnusofsameschoolsincethathelpstocreatesomerapport.Requestatimetotalkeitherinpersonoronthephone.Letyourcontactknowthatyouareseekinginforma-tionnotajob.Dontbeafraidofbeingturneddown:Peopleareremarkablywillingtoshareinformationabouttheircareers,butnoteveryonefeelstheyhavetime.Preparing for the InterviewInformationalinterviewstypicallylast30minutestoanhour.Thisisnotalotoftimesoyoushouldpreparecarefullytotakeadvantageofthetimeyouhave.Askquestionsaboutthepersonscareerpathandhowtheypreparedfortheirposition.Askaboutspecialskillsorcertificationsthatmightbenecessaryorrecommended.Dontbeafraidtoaskaboutpotentiallysensitiveissuessuchastypicalsalaries,workhours,andsoon.Theboxonpage12providesalistofstarterquestions.Asyouprepareforthemeeting,personalizethislisttoaddresstheissuesthataremostimportanttoyou.Thisshouldincludequestionsdirectlyrelatedtoyourpersonalvalues.Forexample,ifafamily-friendlycareerisveryimportanttoyou,youmaywanttoaskaboutflexibleworkhours,on-sitedaycare,andsoon.The InterviewThemostimportantthingtorememberabouttheactualinterviewistoberespectful.Firstofall,alwaysbeontime.Duringtheinterview,bepersonablebutalsoprofessional.Makeitclearthatyoudonotintendtowasteanyonestime.Startwithyourelevatorpitch:Yourbackground,whatyourecurrentlydoing,andwhatyouhopetodonext.(IfinishedmyPh.D.lastyearinthelaboratoryofDr.V,workingonW,andcurrentlyImapostdocinDr.XslabattheuniversityofYworkingonZ.Havingdonesomecareer-relatedresearch,ImthinkingImightliketoworkinregula-toryaffairs.Imseekinginformationaboutwhatitsliketoworkinthatfield.)Godownyourpreparedlistofquestions,followingupasneededtolearnwhatyouneedtoknow.Remember:thisisaninformationalinterview,notajobinterview,soitisnotappropriatetoaskaboutjobopeningsinthecompany.(Sometimesanintervieweemayvolunteerthisinformation;ifthathappens,feelfreetopursue.)Itisagoodideatoaskforcontactinformationorbetterstill,anintroductiontootherpotentialcontacts.Letssayyoureinterviewingsomeonewhoworksintheresearchanddevelopmentdivisionofacompany,butyoubelieveyourskillsandinterestsleanmoretowardacareerinregulatoryaffairs.Thisisanopportunityforyoutoobtaincontactinformationforsomeonewhoworksintheregulatoryaffairsdivisionofthesamecompany.Youcanalsousethisasanopportunitytofindoutaboutothercompaniesinthefield.Thiscouldbeofgreatbenefitasyouidentifytargetcompaniesforyourjobsearch.An informational interview is a powerful way to get information about a career that interests you. It can also help you build self-confidence and get more interviewing experience.11It is important to recognize that the person you interviewed gave you their time, a precious commodity. Acknowledge this with a written thank you note. 12The Follow UpKeepnotesaboutthethingsyoulearnfromyourinformationalinterviews.TheTalktoPeoplesectionofmyIDPprovidesaconvenientwayforyoutokeeptrackoftheimportantthingsyougleanedfromeachinformationalinter-view.Thesenoteswillbehelpfulwhenyoufollowuplatertosharenewsaboutyourprogress.Itisimportanttorecognizethatthepersonyouinterviewedgaveyoutheirtime,apreciouscommodity.Acknowl-edgethiswithawrittenthankyounote.Whetheraccomplishedwithe-mailorwithanoldfashionedcard,yournoteneedstoshowappreciationforthepersonstime,andreportverybrieflywhatyouintendtodowithwhatyoulearned.Thisactiondemonstratesyourprofessionalismandhelpssolidifyyourconnectiontothisnewmemberofyournetwork.Aninformationalinterviewisapowerfulwaytogetinformationaboutacareerthatinterestsyou.Itcanalsohelpyoubuildself-confidenceandgetmoreinterviewingexperience.Andwhileaninformationalinterviewisnotadirectat-tempttofindajob,itisawayofestablishingrelationshipsthatmaysomedayleadtonewopportunities.Thisisoneofthemostvaluabletoolsinyourcareertoolbox.Useit.General questions you might ask in an informational interview: 1. Wouldyoutellmealittlebitaboutyourcurrentresponsibilities? 2. Wouldyoudescribeatypicalday? 3. Howdidyougetintothisfield?Whatkindsofadditionalexperienceortrainingdidyouneed tohaveinordertogetajobinthisfield? 4. Whatarepotentialfuturecareeropportunitiesforsomeoneinyourposition? 5. Whattypesofskillsandexperiencesareessentialforsucceedinginyourposition? 6. Howwouldyoudescribetheculture,managementstyle,andorganizationofyourcompany? 7. Wouldyoutalkabouttypicalcompensationpackageswithinthiscareerfield,includingsalary rangeandotherbenefits,aswellaswork-lifebalance? 8. Whatadvicewouldyougivesomeoneinmypositionwhowantstobesuccessfulinthefield? 9. Wouldyoutellmeanythingaboutotherfirmsinvolvedinthisactivityorsector?Doyouknow ofanycompaniesthatmightbeexpandingorhiringinthenextyear?10. ArethereprofessionalorganizationsthatIshouldconsiderjoiningorWebsitesthatIshould belookingattogetadditionalinformation?11. Wouldyourecommendanyoneelsetospeakwithinthisfield?MayIhavepermissiontouse yournamewhenIcontactthem?ByJennifer.A.Hobin,Cynthia.N.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.CliffordSeptember7, 2012ScientificcareersarenotliketheboardgameMonopoly.InMonopoly,therulesareclearanditsrelativelyeasytosucceed;infactyouget$200justforhangingintherelongenoughtopassGoonyourwaytothenextround.Butinscience,itoftenseemstherearenodefiniterulesandtheresnoguaranteedpayoffforadvancingtothenexttrain-inground:Ph.D.,postdoc,secondpostdocthenwhat?Tosucceedinscience,youneedtohaveagameplan.Thisisespeciallytrueinthecurrentresearchenvironment.Challenges Facing Todays Doctoral TraineesForscientists,finishingaPh.D.orpostdocandautomaticallymovingontoaresearch-facultypositionisnolongerthenorm.Infact,theshareofallU.S.scienceandengineeringdoctoraterecipientsworkinginacademedroppedfrom55%to44%between1973and2008;1thatpercentageincludespostdocs,staffscientists,researchandteach-ingfaculty,andadministrators.Withinacademe,theproportionofscientistsemployedintenuredortenure-trackpositionshasalsodeclined(seetableonage14),likelyreflectingagrowthinpostdoctoral,staffscientist,andothernontenure-trackslots.Andwithagrowingpopulationoftalentedtraineespoisedtoenterthejobmarket,thecom-petitionforsought-afteracademicjobsistough.Thegoodnewsisthat,justlikeinMonopoly,thereareamultitudeofoptionsfromwhichscientistscanchoosewhendecidingonacareer,anditisnotuncommonforPh.D.-leveltrain-eestopursuenontraditionalpaths.2Butidentifyingthejobthatisrightforyouwhetherinacademeorbeyondtakeswork,andcompetingsuccess-fullyforthatjobwarrantsanewapproachtocareerplanning.Therecentfocusoninnovative,interdisciplinary,translational,andcollaborativesciencecoupledwithanarrayofnewscientifictoolsandtechniquesmeansthatgraduatestudentsandpostdocsneedtomasternewskillsetstocompetesuccessfullyforresearchpositionsbothwithinandoutsideacademe.Thechallengesarenolessforindividualspursuingcareersawayfromthebench,whereemployersmayplaceagreateremphasisonanapplicantstransferableskillssuchasleadership,management,andcommunicationthanontheirscientificandtechnicalexpertise.Suchskillsaredifficulttoacquire,andtodocument,duringacademictraining.Planning for SuccessNavigatingthisnewsciencecareersgameboardcanbedifficult;asinglestrategywillnotworkforeveryone.AlthougheachPh.D.scientistbringsdifferentcharacteristicstothecareergame,toorarelydowetaketimetoanalyzethoseindividualcharacteristicstohelpformulateaplanforourcareers.Weshoulddoitmoreoften.Thereisabodyofliteraturethatunderscoresthevalueofdeliberatecareerplanning.Thisresearchfindsthatpeoplewhodevelopandimplementstrategiestopursuecareer-specificgoalsachievegreatercareersuccessasmeasuredbysalary,promotions,andlevelofresponsibility.3Theyalsoreportgreaterca-reersatisfactionandratethemselvesasmoresuccessfulthantheirpeerscomparedtothosewithoutcareerplans.4Anationwidestudyof7,600postdoctoralresearchersfoundthatpostdocswhodevelopedtrainingplanswiththeiradvisersatthestartoftheirappointmentsreportedgreatersatisfaction,publishedmorepapers,andexperiencedfewerconflictswiththoseadvisers.5Introducing myIDPTohelpyoudevelopyourplan,wehavecreatedmyIDP,aninteractive,Web-basedcareer-planningtoolbasedontheFederationofAmericanSocietiesforExperimentalBiologys(FASEBs)IndividualDevelopment Plan for Postdoctoral YouNeedaGamePlan13Fellows.6, 7Supplementedbythearticlesinthisseries,myIDPwillhelpyouidentifythecareergoalsthatarerightforyouanddevelopastep-by-stepplantoreachthosegoals.AnonymousunpublishedpollsconductedbyFASEBin2009revealthatpostdocsandmentorsfindIDPsbeneficial.ThemajorityofpostdocswhodevelopedanIDPreportedthatithelpedthemassesstheirskillsandabilitiesandidentifytheskillstheywouldneedtoadvancetheircareers.Onerespondentnotedthatithelpednotjusttodecideonagoal,buttohavethatgoalinmindallthetime.Mentorsreportedsimilarbenefitsfortheirpostdocs,andbothgroupsfoundtheIDPtobehelpfulforfacilitatingcommunicationaboutpostdocscareergoals.Accordingtooneinvestigator:TheIDPhelpedmeguidemypostdocstowardexperiencesthatwouldbenefittheirowncareerobjectives.Itallowedthemtobettertailortheirexperiencestowardtheircareerpaths.GraduatestudentsattheUniversityofCalifornia,SanFrancisco,reportedsimilarbenefi-cialeffects.Getting StartedConstructinganIDPisafour-stepprocesswithmyIDP.Thefirststepistoevaluateyourownskills,values,andinter-ests.Thesecondstepistousethisself-assessmentasaguideforexploringandevaluatingcareeropportunitiesinyourfieldand,ultimately,identifyingyourpreferredcareer,aswellasanalternativeoptionthatyouthinkyoudbehappywith.Stepthreeistosetsomespecificgoalstoprepareyouforthecareerpathstowhichyouaspire.Afterdiscussingthesegoalsandoutliningstrategieswithyourprimarymentor,itstimetoputtheplanintoplace.Youdothisinstepfour.myIDPisdesignedtohelpyouwitheachofthesesteps.Itincludesexercisestoguideyouthroughtheself-assess-mentprocess,anditwillhelpyoudeterminewhichof20scientificcareerpathsbestfitsyourskillsandinterests.Foreachcareerpath,thereisanextensivelistofresourcesintheformofarticles,books,andprofessionalorganizations,whichyoucanscrutinizetogainabetterunderstandingaboutcareersyouareunfamiliarwith.Finally,thereisatooltoassistyouinsettingandachievingyourgoals.Throughouttheprocess,youwillbeabletostoreyourprogressonthemyIDPWebportalyourinformationwillbekeptprivate,viewablebyonlyyouandthoseyouwishtoshareitwithandyoucanrequestautomatedreminderstohelpyoukeepontopofyourdeadlines.Ourgoalistohelpyougainstrongerself-awareness,identifyresourcesandstrategies,andcreateyourowngameplanforidentifying,attaining,andsucceedinginthecareerthatisrightforyou.1 NationalScienceFoundation,ScienceandEngineeringIndicators2012,Chapter5.2 FurhmannC.N.,HalmeD.G.,OSullivanP.S.,andLindstaedtB.(2011).Improvinggraduate educationtosupportabranchingcareerpipeline:recommendationsbasedonasurveyof doctoralstudentsinthebasicbiomedicalsciences.CBE Life Sciences Education,10 (3): 239-49.3 NgT.W.H,EbyL.T.,SorensenK.L.,andFeldmanD.C.(2005).Predictorsofobjectiveand subjectivecareersuccess:Ameta-analysis.Personnel Psychology,58, 367408.4 AbeleA.E.andWieseB.S.(2008).Thenomologicalnetworkofself-managementstrategies andcareersuccess.Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,81, 733-749.5 DavisG.(2005).DoctorsWithoutOrders.American Scientist,93 (3),supplement1-13.6 IndividualDevelopmentPlanforPostdoctoralFellows.FederationofAmericanSocieties forExperimentalBiology.(2012).http://www.faseb.org/portals/0/pdfs/opa/idp.pdf.7 CliffordP.S.(2002).Qualitytimewithyourmentor.The Scientist16 (19): 59. 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2008AllSEHfields 27.0 24.6 24.2 21.0 18.5 23.8 25.9 22.9Biological,agricultural,and17.3 17.0 18.1 16.4 14.3 15.5 13.7 14.3environmentallifesciencesComputer/informationsciences 55.7 37.4 40.7 25.9 17.3 32.2 45.7 37.8Mathematicsandstatistics 54.9 45.5 48.1 41.0 28.9 45.5 50.6 40.7Physicalsciences 18.8 15.5 14.5 11.9 15.8 18.3 19.7 16.5Psychology 17.0 20.7 16.8 17.6 17.5 19.9 23.8 18.3Socialsciences 54.3 52.4 50.4 46.5 38.8 46.0 50.4 48.9Engineering 22.7 19.3 19.4 12.6 10.8 15.9 16.3 15.5Health 47.4 40.2 41.1 39.5 25.1 40.8 43.1 34.4Percent of doctorate recipients holding tenure and tenure-track appointments at academic institutions 35years since degreeAdaptedfromScience and Engineering Indicators 2012,Table320References:WhenKerenstartedherPh.D.programnearly5yearsago,theprospectofcompletingherthesisandsettingadateforherdefenseseemedfaroff.Butnowthedatewasapproachingandthethesisandthedefensewerenttheonlythingsweighingonhermind.Shewasalsothinking,Whatnext?Untilrecently,Kerenhadassumedshedpursueapostdoctoralposition,workhard,andeventuallylandatenure-trackpositionataresearchuniver-sity.Butnow,withacademicjobprospectslookinggrim,sherealizedthatsheshouldinvestigatesomealternativesincasetheacademicresearchtrackdidntworkout.IfyourelikeKeren,youvespentyearsbuildingtheresearchandtechnicalskillsneededtocompleteyourtrainingandmoveintoaresearchcareer.Butyoumaynothavegivenmuchthoughttotheotherskillsyouvepickedupalongtheway,howyoumightapplythemtocareersinsideandoutsideofacademe,andwhatad-ditionalexpertiseyourelikelytoneedinordertoestablishyourcareer,whateveritendsupbeing.Taking Stock of Your SkillsThefirststepinhoningyourskillsetisfiguringoutwhatyouregoodatandwhatneedstobeimproved.ThemyIDPskillsassessmentwasdesignedtohelpyoudojustthat.Createdspecificallyforscientists,thisassessmentincludestheknowledge,skills,andabilitiesemphasizedingraduateandpostdoctoraltrain-ingandneededtosucceedinaresearchcareer.Italsoencompassesskillsthatarentaformalpartofmostdoctoralsciencetrainingbutarefundamentaltoobtainingandkeepingawiderangeofscience-relatedjobs.DerivedfromtheNationalPostdoctoralAssociationslistofpostdoctoralcorecompetencies,themyIDPskillsassessmenthassevencategories:scientificknowledge,researchskills,communication,leadershipandmanagement,professionalism,responsibleconductofresearch,andcareerdevelopment.Theseskillareasandthespecificskillsineachareaaredescribedbelow.(Theboldfacephrasescorrespondtoskillslistedforself-evaluationatmyIDP.)Scientific KnowledgeTosucceedinanydiscipline,youneedtoknowthecontent.Forscientists,thismeansbotha broad-based knowledge of scienceandadeep knowledge of a specific research area.Butthatsnotsufficientbecausescienceisdynamic;thatknowledgebasechangesasresearcherslearnnewthings.So,tobecompetitive,youneedtobeabletocritically evaluate the scientific literature,integratenewinformationaboutyourfieldintoyourexistingknowledgebase,andidentifygapsthatareripefornewinvestigation.Research SkillsWhetheryouworkatthebenchorinthefield,youmusthavetheresearch and technical skillsrequiredtoexecuteyourstudies.Overthecourseofyourdoctoraltraining,youneedtobecomeproficientinstudy design,theappropriatestatistical analysis of your data,andinterpreting the results.Throughoutyourscientificcareer,youllfaceintellectualandtechnicalchallengesthatwillcalluponyourabilitytothink creativelyandproposeinnovativesolutionstoscientificproblems.Andlikeitornot,publicationsarethecoinoftherealminscience,soonceyouvedonegreatwork,youhavetopublishit.Youshouldbecomefamiliar with the publishing standardsinyourdiscipline,acquirepracticewritingandsubmittingpapersSoYouThinkYouHaveSkillsByJenniferA.Hobin,CynthiaN.Fuhrmann,BillLindstaedt,PhilipS.CliffordSeptember21, 201215forpublicationanddealingwithreviews,andtakeadvantageofopportunitiestoserveasareviewer.CommunicationBythetimeyougettograduateschool,youshouldhavemasteredbasic writing, editing, speaking, and presentation skills;ifyouhavent,thisshouldbeamajorandimmediatefocusofyourskillsdevelopment,becausecommunicationskillsarehighlyvaluedinallcareers.Ifyourepursuingaresearchcareer,aimforexpertiseinwritingscientific publicationsandgrant proposalsandgivingtechnical talksandposter presentations.Youllneedtobeatleastmoderatelyproficientintheseareastocompletegraduateandpostdoctoralworkandtocompeteforfacultypositionsandsomeresearchadministrationroles.Communicating science to lay audiencesisanimportantskillforallscientistsbecause,ifcalledupon,weallneedtobereadytoexplainourworkordemonstratethevalueofpublicinvestmentinresearch.Butthissetofskillsisespeciallyimportantforscientistswhoworkwithstudents,patients,policymakers,andthepublic.Publiccommunicationisaworldapartfromwritingmanuscriptsandconferenceposters,andittakesalotofpractice.Expecttotradeyourtechnicaljargonforlanguagethatsdirectandconcrete,tofocusonthemostessentialandinterestingelementsofyourwork,andtotailoryourmessagetoyouraudience.Ifyoureplanningforateaching-focusedpositionata4-yearcollege,highschool,ormuseum(forexample),acquiringexpertiseinthisareashouldbeapointofemphasis.Butyouwillbenefitfromteachingexperienceandtrainingevenifyouintendtopursueacareerthatsmorefocusedonresearch.Mentoringisanotherkeyskilltocultivate.Itsespeciallyimportantforscientistsinteachingandadvisorypositions,anditsessentialforanyoneseekingaleadershipormanagementrole.Butmentoringothersisnttheonlyaspectofmentoringthatmatters;learninghowtobementoredisimportant,too.Thesupportandguidanceofmoreestablishedscientistsandalsopeerswillgreatlyfacilitateyourcareerprogress.Soifyourenotalreadycomfortablereaching out to others for assistance and advice,youshouldlookforoppor-tunitiestodothisandbeginforgingrelationshipswithpotentialmentors.Nomatterwhatpathyoutake,atsomepointyoullhavetonavigate a difficult conversation.Thismightincludeaskingforapromotionorraise,negotiatingyourstart-uppackage,orresolvingadisputewithaco-worker.Skilledcommunicatorshandletheseconversationswithconfidence,grace,anddiplomacy.Management and leadershipInanypositionthatinvolvesmanagingpeople,youneedtoknowhowtofacilitate effective teamworkandmanage operations.Thenecessarycompetenciesincludeplanning and organizing projects; delegating responsibilities; providing instruction, guidance,andfeedbacktoyourteam;andhandling conflictsthatarisebetweenstudentsoremployees.Timemanagementisanimportantskillforeveryone,butitsespeciallyimportantformanagersbalancingseveralprojectswhileoverseeingastaffthatreliesonthemfortimelyassistanceandfeedback.Moreover,goodleadersdontjustsupervisetheiremployees;theycreate a vision and goalsfortheirteams,motivate and inspireprogresstowardthosegoals,andserve as role modelsbydemonstratingthebehaviorstheywantotherstodisplay,learnfrom,andpasson.ProfessionalismProfessionalismmeansadheringtotherulesandregulationsofyourworkplaceanddemonstrating work-place etiquette.Italsomeansbeingagoodcolleaguebyfulfilling your commitments, meeting deadlines, and fostering good workplace relationships.Professionalismextendsbeyondyourlaboratoryorofficeandintoyourinstitution and scientific discipline.Youmaybeexpectedtoserveoninstitutionalorprofessionalsocietycommittees,participateinextracurriculardepartmentalfunctions,orserveoneditorialandadvisoryboards.Theseactivitiesareagreatwaytonetwork,gainexperience,anddemonstrateyourcommitmenttoyourfield,andtheycanbeveryimportanttoyourprofessionaladvancement.AndalltheseactivitiesLEADERSHIPMANAGEMENT/PROFESSIONALISMSCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE16requireoratleastgreatlybenefitfromprofessionalism.Responsible Conduct of ResearchThescientificresearchenterpriseisbuiltonafoundationoftrust,andeachofusmustbecommittedtomaintainingitsintegrity.Careful record-keepingisparamount:Scientificrecordsshouldprovidesufficientinformationtoallowotherstoreplicateyourwork.Researchersneedtobewell-versedindata ownership and sharing standards,sothattheyknowwhenitisandisnotappropriatetoaccess,modify,andsharedata,andwhatrulestheyshouldfollowwhendoingso.Theymustalsoadheretotherules regulating research with humans and animals.Theymustunderstandandadheretostandardsforauthorship:Whatcontributionsmustonemaketoaprojecttobelistedasanauthor?Whatdeterminesauthorshiporder?Howshouldworkbyotherscientistsbecitedtoavoidplagiarism?Youshouldbeabletoidentifyandmanageresearchmiscon-ductandrealorperceivedconflictsofinterestwhenyouencounterthem.Failuretomanagetheseissueswellcoulddamageyourreputationandleadtopoorperformanceevaluationsandeventermination.Career DevelopmentThelastgroupofskillsinthemyIDPskillsassessmentisnotspecifictoscience.Rather,theseareskillsthathelpyouimproveyourabilitytoexploreavailablecareeroptions,makeapositiveimpressiononpotentialemployers,andlandthejobyouwant.Perhapsthemostimportantofsuchskillsisnetworking;youshouldtakeadvantageofthemanyopportunitiesyourtrainingofferstoconnectwithotherpeople,whetheratde-partmentseminars,happyhours,orconferences.Professionalnetworksoftensparkcollaborationsandleadtojobopportunities.Theycanalsomakeyouabetterscientist.Whilestillagraduatestudent,youshouldstarttobecome familiar with the career exploration resources available to you.Theseincludethecareercounseloratyouruniversity,yourpostdocoffice,onlineresourcessuchasScienceCareers,andthelibrary.myIDPlistsanextensivecollectionofcareerresources(free,privateregistrationrequiredforaccess).Althoughyoumaynotbereadytostartapplyingforjobs,youshouldlearnwhatyoullneedtodotocreateacompetitiveapplicationandbeginaddingrelevantexperiencestoyourCVorresume.Ifyouhaventhadpracticeinterviewing or negotiating,youmaywanttoreaduponeffectivetechniquesortakeaworkshoporseminar.Using the myIDP Self-Assessment ScaleWhenusingmyIDPtoconductyourself-assessment,youllbeaskedtorateyourproficiencyineachskillandknowledgeareaonascaleof1to5,where1ishighlydeficientand5ishighlyproficient.Theassessmentwillbemosthelpfulifyouusethefullrangeofscoresthatis,donthesitatetoassignyourselfa1ora5.Ratingjustafewitemsasa1willhelpdistinguishtheskillsthatneedthemostimprovement,andratingjustafewitemsasa5willhelpdiscerntheskillsyouarebestat.Althoughyoumightfindithelpfultoso-licitinputfromyourmentor,colleagues,orevenfamilyandfriends,thisscaleisintendedtobeyourpersonalsubjectiveassessmentofwhetheryourskillsareappropriateforyourleveloftraining.Next StepsAftercompletingthemyIDPskillsassessment,youllbeabletocompareyourskillstothoseneededinvariousscientificcareers.Someoftheseskillscanbehonedinthecontextofyourlabworkorteachingresponsibilities,whileothersmayrequireyoutoexplorelearningandprofessionalopportunitiesoutsidethelab.The NPA Post-doctoral Core Competenciesincludesalistofresourcestohelpdevelopmanyoftheskillsdescribedabove.Asyouapproachtheendofyourtraining,itsimportantnottolosefocus.Butitsequallyimportanttosetasidesometimetoprepareforthenextphaseofyourcareer.COMMUNICATIONRESEARCH SKILLSRESPONSIBLE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH17Postdoc and research in BrazilopportunitiesAnuncio Fapesp_Science_2014_left.indd 1 1/6/14 6:02 PMAbout UsFiftypercentofallsciencecreatedinBrazilisproducedintheStateofSoPaulo.ThestatehoststhreeofthemostimportantLatinAmericanuniversities:USP,UNICAMPandUNESP.Otheruniver-sitiesand19researchinstitutesarealsolocatedinSoPaulo,amongthemtherenownedInstitutoTecnolgicodeAeronutica(ITA),InstitutoNacionaldePesquisasEspaciais(INPE)andLaboratrioNacionaldeLuzSncrotron,besidesmostofBrazilianIndustrialP&D.TheSoPauloResearchFoundation(FAPESP),oneoftheleadingBrazilianagenciesdedicatedtothesupportofresearch,hasongoingprogramsandsupportmechanismstobringresearchersfromabroadtoexcellencecentersinSoPaulo.TheYoung Investigators AwardsispartofFAPESPsstrategytostrengthentheStateresearchinstitutions,favoringthecreationofnewresearchgroups.Seemoreaboutitatwww.fapesp.br/yia.FAPESPPost-Doctoral Fellowshipisaimedatdistinguishedresearcherswitharecentdoctoratedegreeandasuccessfulresearchtrackrecord.ThefellowshipenablesthedevelopmentofresearchwithinhighereducationandresearchinstitutionsinSoPaulo.Postdocfellowshipsareavailablewhencallsforapplicationsareissuedinternationally,orasindividualfellowshipsrequestedondemand.Inthefirstcase,positionsareadvertisedatwww.fapesp.br/oportunidades/andcandidatesareselectedthroughinternationalcompetition.Inthesecond,theproposalmustrepresentanadditiontoapre-existentresearchgroupandshouldbedevelopedinassociationwithfacultyinhigheredu-cationandresearchinstitutionsinSoPaulo.Moreinformationatwww.fapesp.br/en/5427.n/5427.Location: SoPaulo,SP,BrazilPrimary Contact Details: RuaPioXI,1500AltodaLapa05468-901SoPauloSPBrazilPhone:+55-11-3838-4000www.fapesp.br Key Research AreasEarthSciencesEngineeringExactSciencesLifeSciencesPhysicalSciencesSocialSciencesEMPLOYERPROFILE: FAPESP19About UsGreetingsandwelcometotheDepartmentofMolecularandCellularBiology(MCB),atthemainCambridgecampusofHarvardUniversity.Weareacollegialandenergeticcommunityofresearchersdedicatedtoprovidingarichtrainingenvironmentforourpostdoctoralfellows.YouwillfindthatadefiningfeatureoflifeatMCBisthefocusoncreatingacollaborativeandsupportiveatmosphere.Youwillalsofindahighlevelofinteractionamongstudents,facultyandpostdoctoralfellowsonascientificlevel,aswellassocially.Thedepartmentiscomposedof30-somefaculty,115graduatestudentsand150+postdoctoralfellowsallfromawiderangeofplacesintheUnitesStatesaswellasasignificantpresenceofscientistsfromabroad,whichgivesrisetoadistinctinternationalandcosmopolitanflair.Combinedwithagenuineenthusiasmandadeep-rootedpassionforscientificdiscovery,thisspiritmakesMCBanexcitingplacetodoresearchandtoexplorethemanyunsolvedquestionsinbiology.Althoughourfacultysresearchrepresentstraditionalandinterdisciplinaryfieldsofbiology,thedepartmentsgrowthanddevelopmentinrecentyearsalsoreflectstherevolutionoccurringinbiologythatbenefitsfromnewgenome-wideapproaches,powerfulnewcomputerandmicroscopetools,andcross-fertilizationofdiscoveriesinbiologyandotherscienceandengineeringdisciplines.ThemanycollaborativeprojectsbetweenlaboratoriesatMCBprovideacompellingdemonstrationthattheinteractionofscientistsindistinctlydifferentareasofexpertisecanresultingroundbreak-ingnewdiscoveriesthatwouldntbepossibleinascientificmonoculture.Awiderangeofscientificlectures,conferencesandculturaleventsbringpeoplefromdisparatefieldstogetheronalmostadailybasis.Location: Cambridge,MA,USAPrimary Contact Details: DepartmentofMolecularandCellularBiologyHarvardUniversity52OxfordStreet,Cambridge,MA02138PleaseapplydirectlytorelevantMCBFacultywww.mcb.harvard.edu/postdocsKey Recruitment AreasThescientificquestionsexploredinthedepartmentspanawiderangethatincludeasdiversetopicsasBiochemistryandBiophysics, Genetics andGenomics;DevelopmentandCell Biology, ImmunologyandMolecular EvolutionaswellasNeurobiologyandStructural Biology.EMPLOYERPROFILE: Harvard Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology21Finding cures. Saving children.Ranked in the top 10 best places to work in academia by The Scientist yearly since 2005.Named the nations No. 1 pediatric cancer care hospital by Parents magazine, 2009.Named the nations best childrens cancer hospital by U.S. News & World Report, 2010.Named to FORTUNE magazines 100 Best Companies to Work For, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014.To learn more, visit www.stjude.org.An Equal Opportunity Employer 2014 St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital-Biomedical Communications.Cures dont just happen.They Demand Collaboration. Dedication. Enthusiasm. Teamwork.Research Staff OpportunitiesAt St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital, world-renowned scientists and clinical investigators share their knowledge and work together to advance cures and means of prevention for pediatric cancer and other life-threatening diseases through research and treatment.New and exciting research positions are available in our academic departments,requiring bachelors, masters or doctoral degrees. Positions are available at alllevels, with the opportunity to grow within our hospitals research career ladder.For information on all current opportunities and to apply, please visit our website,www.stjude.org/jobs.Cures dont just happen.About UsInternationallyrecognizedforitspioneeringresearchandtreatmentofchildrenwithcancerandotherlife-threateningdiseases,St.JudeChildrensResearchHospitalisrankedamongthebestpediatriccancerhospitalsinthenation.ItisthefirstandonlyNationalCancerInstitute-designatedComprehensiveCancerCenterdevotedsolelytochildren.FoundedinMemphis,TennesseebythelateentertainerDannyThomas,St.Judeopeneditsdoorsin1962,andhastreatedchildrenfromall50statesandthroughouttheworld.St.Judehasdevelopedclinicaltrialsthathavehelpedpushoverallsurvivalratesforchildhoodcancersfrom20%atthetimeofourfoundingtothecurrent80%.Key AttractionsYoumaybewondering:WhatisitliketobepartofSt.JudeChildrensResearchHospital?Wethinkitsthemostinspiringplaceimaginabletocollaboratewithothertalented,committedindividualswhowanttohelpchildrenfacinglife-threateningillnesseslivelonger,betterlives.RecognizedbyFORTUNEmagazinein2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014asoneofthe100BestCompaniestoWorkFor,weofferanopen,friendlyworkenvironmentwhereyoucanbecomeanactivepartnerinacausethatissomuchgreaterthananythingyoumightaccomplishwithinamoretraditionalmedicalsetting.Location: Memphis,TN,USANumber employed: 3,700www.stjude.org/jobs Key Recruitment AreasBiochemistryChemicalBiologyandTherapeuticsDevelopmentalNeurobiologyGeneticsImmunologyOncologyRadiologicalSciencesStructuralBiologyTumorCellBiologyHematologyInfectiousDiseasesPathologyPharmaceuticalSciencesEMPLOYERPROFILE: St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital23Science Headquarters 1200NewYorkAvenue,NWWashington,DC20005USATo Advertise in Science or next years Career Handbook, please contact:THE AMERICASTinaBurksPhone:202-326-6577 E-mail:tburks@aaas.orgMarciGallunPhone:202-326-6582 E-mail:mgallun@aaas.orgEUROPE/INDIA/ AUSTRALIA/ NEW ZEALAND/ REST OF WORLDAxelGesatzkiPhone:+44 (0) 1223 326529 E-mail:agesatzki@science-int.co.ukSarahLelargePhone:+44 (0) 1223 326527 E-mail:slelarge@science-int.co.ukKellyGracePhone:+44 (0) 1223 326528 E-mail:kgrace@science-int.co.ukJAPANYuriKobayashiPhone: +81-(0) 90-9110-1719 E-mail:ykobayas@aaas.orgwww.sciencemag.jpCHINA/KOREA/ SINGAPORE/ TAIWAN/THAILANDRuoleiWuPhone:+86-1367-101-5294 E-mail:rwu@aaas.org